Can Game-Based Learning Improve Learning Impact?

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During the past year, there has been much discussion about learning gamification and game- based learning. Is all of the hoopla just a passing fancy, or is there substance to games as a learning strategy?

In this session, Dr. Karl Kapp and Bryan Austin will summarize the research supporting learning games. They will differentiate between learning gamification and game-based learning, share the rationale for leveraging games to increase engagement, and provide the business rationale used by organizations to implement game-based corporate learning. Finally, this session will outline research under way to benchmark the performance impact of game-based e-learning versus other modes of training.

At the end of this session, attendees will have a clear idea of where learning games fit in their training strategy and their potential value in improving workforce performance.

Learning objectives

Evaluate training techniques, i.e. game-based learning.
Develop, select and implement employee training programs to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.
Evaluate the effectiveness of employee training programs through the use of metrics.
Develop and utilize business metrics to measure the achievement of the organization’s strategic and performance goals and objectives.
Develop qualitative and quantitative methods and tools for analysis, interpretation and decision-making purposes.

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Can Game-Based Learning Improve Learning Impact?

  1. 1. You can listen to today’s webinar using your computer’sspeakers or you may dial into the teleconference.If you would like to join the teleconference,please dial 1.650.479.3208 and enter access code: 923 279 304 #.You will be on hold until the seminar begins.#CLOwebinar
  2. 2. #CLOwebinarSpeakers: Bryan AustinChief Game ChangerGame On! LearningKarl Kapp, Ed.D.CFPIMCIRM
  3. 3. • Q&A– Click on the Q&A icon onyour floating toolbar on thetop of your screen.– Type in your question in thespace at the bottom.– Click on “Send.”#CLOwebinar
  4. 4.  Polling Polling question willappear in the “Polling”panel. Select your responseand click on “Submit.”#CLOwebinar
  5. 5. 1. Will I receive a copy of the slides after the webinar?YES2. Will I receive a copy of the webinar recording?YESPlease allow up to 2 business days to receive these materials.#CLOwebinar
  6. 6. Can Game-Based Learning MoreEffectively Improve Performance?
  7. 7. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved7Welcome!What’s in this session for YOU! Gamification of learning versus game-basedlearning – what’s the difference? Theory and research behind game-based learning Why game-based learning, and for what? Aligning training to business imperatives –knowledge, skills, behaviors – using serious games Measuring the performance impact of training –how does game-based learning stack up?© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved7#CLOgameon
  8. 8. The Gamification of Learning and InstructionGame-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education#CLOgameon
  9. 9. 25-Year Citizen of theCorporate Training Industry#CLOgameon
  10. 10. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved10♦A = Just learning about it, nowhere yet♦B = Planning to implement in 2013♦C = Already implementing – custom♦D = Already implementing – off the shelf♦E = Already implemented! Poll: Where are you withLearning Gamification?
  11. 11. LearningGamification orGame-BasedLearning – what’sthe diff?© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved11#CLOgameon
  12. 12. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved12Gamification of LearningAdding game elements totraditional learning.Structural: Points Badges LeaderboardContent: Characters Challenge FeedbackGamificationUsing game-basedmechanics, aesthetics andgame-thinking to engagepeople, motivate actionpromote learning, and solveproblems.What is this “game” stuff?
  13. 13. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved13Gamification of LearningStructural GamificationThe application of game-elements to propel alearner through contentwith no alteration orchanges to the content.Structural: Points Badges LeaderboardWhat is this “game” stuff?
  14. 14. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved14Gamification of LearningContent GamificationThe application of gameelements and gamethinking to alter content tomake it more game-likebut doesn’t turn thecontent into a game.Content: Challenge Story Characters MissionsWhat is this “game” stuff?
  15. 15. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved15Simulation LearningA realistic, controlled-riskenvironment where learnerscan practice specificbehaviors and experiencethe impacts of theirdecisions.Simulation LearningSimulations contain Realistic cognitiveelements Actual steps andprocedures Authentic practiceWhat is this “game” stuff?
  16. 16. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved16Game-based LearningThe use of a game to teachknowledge, skills andabilities to learners using aself-contained game.Game-Based LearningGames designed to teachcontain Story Game play Characters Competition Recognition and rewards Increasing complexity Challenges Freedom to failWhat is this “game” stuff?
  17. 17. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved17Gamification + Simulation = Learning GameWhat is this “game” stuff?#CLOgameon
  18. 18. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved18Gamification of LearningAdding game elements totraditional learning.Structural: Points Badges LeaderboardContent: Characters Challenge FeedbackGame-Based LearningCourse designed as agame experience Story Game play Characters Competition Recognition and rewards Increasing complexity Challenges Freedom to failWhat is this “game” stuff?
  19. 19. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved19• Gamification is to Learning Game as:– Part is to Whole– Piece is to Puzzle– Slice is to Pie– Steering Wheel is to Car• Gamification uses parts of games but is not agame in-and-of itself.What is this “game” stuff?#CLOgameon
  20. 20. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved20Gamification isusing game-basedmechanics,aesthetics andgame-thinking toengage people,motivate actionpromote learning,and solveproblems.Game-basedLearning is theuse of a game toteach knowledge,skills and abilitiesto learners usinga self-containedgame.What is this “game” stuff?SimulationLearning is arealistic, controlled-risk environmentwhere learners canpractice specificbehaviors andexperience theimpacts of theirdecisions.
  21. 21. The Theory andResearch BehindGame-BasedLearning© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved21#CLOgameon
  22. 22. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved22Lectures are NOT effective forfostering higher levelthoughts and informationprocessingGibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham.http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin.Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7.Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  23. 23. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved23• Researchers could not track down a singlestudy which found lecturing to be moreeffective than another method for thepromotion of thought:– 21 studies found lecturing to be less effectivethan: discussion, reading and individual work inclass.– The evidence on the weakness of lectures topromote thought is devastating.Lecture-Based LearningResearch#CLOgameon
  24. 24. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved24• During lectures students thoughts– involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesizeor inter-relate information for only 1% of the time– 78% of the lecture was spent in ‘passive thoughtsabout the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.• In 1994, a researcher named Isaacs observed– “Lectures are not a very effective way of teaching inhigher education – especially if the aim is to teachthinking, or to change attitudes or other higher aimsbeyond the simple transmission of factualknowledge.”Lecture-Based LearningResearch#CLOgameon
  25. 25. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved25Instruction with learninggames yields higher gainsin learning and retentionthan traditional instruction.Statistics are from: Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games.Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studiesConfirmed findings (not statistics): Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). AMeta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced onlinepublication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  26. 26. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved26Type ofKnowledge /Retention% HigherDeclarative 11%Procedural 14%Retention 9%#CLOgameonPercentages of Impact OverTraditional Training
  27. 27. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved27Type ofKnowledge /Retention% HigherDeclarative 11%Procedural 14%Retention 9%17% Higher thanLectures5% Higher thanDiscussion#CLOgameonPercentages of Impact OverTraditional Training
  28. 28. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved28Type ofKnowledge /Retention% HigherDeclarative 11%Procedural 14%Retention 9%It wasn’t the game, it was levelof activity in the game.In other words, the engagementof the learner in the game leadsto learning.#CLOgameonPercentages of Impact OverTraditional Training
  29. 29. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved29TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real-life,on-the-job situations seems abundantly positive… Computer-based simulations—assessed as an alternative to other means oftraining, as a supplement to other means of training, as a device tocombat skill decay in experienced trainees, and as a means ofimproving performance levels as they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer a majority of the time.In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal orsuperior transfer to the control group from simulations.Shenan HahnADL Research and Evaluation Team#CLOgameon
  30. 30. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved30EngagementPedagogyGameEducationalSimulationInstructional games should be embeddedin instructional programs that includedebriefing and feedback.Instructional support to help learnersunderstand how to use the game increasesinstructional effectiveness of the gamingexperience.Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004).
  31. 31. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved31Serious games lead to well-structured prior knowledge onwhich learners can build but theeffect is only seen over time.Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive andMotivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  32. 32. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved32Negotiation SkillsCan be divided into differentsegments:• Know your position• Know your opposition’sposition• Understand what youcan give up..Immediately after the learning from conventionalinstruction or a game, the surface level and text baselevel representation of content is still sufficiently availablecausing no difference between the conventionalinstruction or the game in comparison studies.In contrast, after 2-4 days, the benefit of deeper processingin the game condition pays off as the surface level and textbase level representation of the content decays.Studies with a one session learning stage in which an immediate and a delayed testis administered show no efficacy on the short term but they do in the long term.
  33. 33. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved33What motivates learners?Malone, T. (1981) Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. pp. 333-369.#CLOgameon
  34. 34. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved34Malone’s Theory ofIntrinsically Motivating InstructionChallenge Fantasy Curiosity
  35. 35. ChallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  36. 36. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved36Fantasy– There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent (Episodic memory).Emotionally, a person can connect withthe experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  37. 37. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved37
  38. 38. Why Game-BasedLearning inCorporateWorkforceDevelopment?© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved38#CLOgameon
  39. 39. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved39A Common Theme#CLOgameon
  40. 40. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved40Another Common Theme
  41. 41. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved41“When it comes to employee skill gaps,companies typically don’t tolerate technicalcompetence – at any level. That’s why I’malways baffled that so many companiestolerate leadership incompetence – atevery level.”Source: DDI“More than half of organizations report theirbusiness is being held back by a lack ofleadership talent.”Source: Bersin by Deloitte study, 2011Leadership Mediocrity#CLOgameon
  42. 42. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved42♦Communication skills♦Self motivation♦Learning agility♦Self awareness♦AdaptabilitySource:Center for Creative LeadershipMost Desired LeadershipCompetencies#CLOgameon
  43. 43. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved43The Corporate LatticeCathleen Benco and Molly Anderson♦ Build a portfolio ofcareer-enhancing skillsand experiences♦ Develop transferableskills♦ Be an agile learner♦ Choose companieswisely
  44. 44. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved44♦Communication♦Critical thinking♦Creativity♦CollaborationSource: Center for Creative LeadershipSoft Skills CriticalCompetencies – the 4 “Cs”#CLOgameon
  45. 45. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved45Business professions often have thebusiness, technical or product knowledge.The question is whether they also have thecommunication skills and the ability to workeffectively with people as they buildcredibility with clients and/or their own staff.Communication“People now spend over 40% of their time atwork engaged in non-sales selling – persuading,influencing, and convincing others. We spend24 minutes of every hour devoted to movingothers. This aspect of work is crucial to ourprofessional and organizational success.”
  46. 46. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved46400 Senior HR professionals were asked to name the mostimportant skill their employees will need in the next 5 years.Critical thinking was #1, surpassing innovation andapplication of IT.Source: SHRM and The Conference BoardCritical thinkers possess:– Analysis/problem solving skills– Good judgment/decision making– Ability to evaluate information– CreativitySource: Pearson EducationCritical Thinking#CLOgameon
  47. 47. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved47♦ Learning is best defined as moving dataout of short-term memory and consolidatingit into long-term memory.♦ Solidifying learning: the brain seeks noveltyabove all else and is highly activated byanything new or unusual. Conversely,when the brain is bored, it stops payingattention and learning is impossible.Source: Training Industry Quarterly“What We’ve Learned About Learning”How Can Higher Order SkillsBe Best Learned?#CLOgameon
  48. 48. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved48“Serious games can develop soft skills likeemotional intelligence, communicationmanagement, critical problem solving andcollaboration skills.”Source: Marinho, 2012Serious games can teach higher-orderthinking skills such as strategic thinking,interpretive analysis, problem solving, planformulation and the ability to adapt to rapidchangeSource: Harvard Business ReviewEnter: “Serious” Games#CLOgameon
  49. 49. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved49♦ 6 main reasons: Engagement challenges with traditional elearning Course completion rates with traditional elearning Better skill building effectiveness Startling word-of-mouth, momentum, buzz Learner feedback and willingness to recommend Longer retention of acquired skillsWhy are organizationsimplementing?#CLOgameon
  50. 50. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved50Engagement“Intuitive, didactic and somewhat addictive. A spectacular course!”“Completely interesting, both in terms of your desire to do it, and yourretention of the concepts, as they are based on practical cases.”“The online experience is like nothing I’ve seen. It is a very enriching coursepresented in a very enjoyable way.”“The best training course that I’ve seen, useful and above all educational.”“I’ve finished the course, what a shame! The most entertaining, interestingand useful course that I have done.”“The best elearning course I have ever seen.”“I didn’t want it to end! I completely recommend it.”
  51. 51. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved51“Intuitive, didactic and somewhat addictive. A spectacular course!”“Completely interesting, both in terms of your desire to do it, and yourretention of the concepts, as they are based on practical cases.”“The online experience is like nothing I’ve seen. It is a very enriching coursepresented in a very enjoyable way.”“The best training course that I’ve seen, useful and above all educational.”“I’ve finished the course, what a shame! The most entertaining, interestingand useful course that I have done.”“The best elearning course I have ever seen.”“I didn’t want it to end! I completely recommend it.”30,000+LearnersEngagement
  52. 52. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved52Attained ProficiencyEngagementEngagement#CLOgameon
  53. 53. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved53Confidence♦ Skill practice time versus traditionaltraining♦ Versatility in the new skills byapplying them in varied types ofscenarios♦ Specific, individualized remediation♦ Competition with colleagues♦ Rewards and recognition earned asthe game progresses♦ Increasingly complex challengesEngagementEngagementAttainedProficiencyAttainedProficiency#CLOgameon
  54. 54. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved54Retention♦ Memorable context♦ Animated video♦ Relevant to, but not mimic jobEngagementEngagementAttainedProficiencyAttainedProficiencyConfidenceConfidence#CLOgameon
  55. 55. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved55Learning transfer to jobLearning MetricTraditionaleLearningGame-BasedeLearningGame-Based eLearningCharacteristicsApplication-Based Learning Flow Low High90%-95% training time at the skillapplication level, increasinglychallenging practice scenariosLevel of Engagement Low HighGame-based learner experience,competition, level of challenge,recognition and rewardsAttained Skill Proficiency Low HighApplication-based learning flow,increasingly complex scenarios,individualized remediationPost-Training Confidence Low-Moderate HighAmount of challenging practice time,competition, engagement,individualized remediationRetention of Learned Skills Moderate HighExperiential learning, amount ofchallenging practice time, competition,memorable learning#CLOgameon
  56. 56. MeasuringPerformanceImpact – DoSerious GamesStack Up?© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved56#CLOgameon
  57. 57. © 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved57♦Would your organization make a goodresearch partner?– Co-present research findings– Skill area: negotiation/persuasive communicationskills– Participants: sales professionals– Existing focus and infrastructure on learninganalytics and measurement– Key sales competencies already defined♦Let us know of your interest!Ready to Start?#CLOgameon
  58. 58. Questions?Next Steps?Bryan Austin bryan@gameonlearning.com (352) 366-1001http://www.gameonlearning.com/blogKarl Kapp kkapp@bloomu.edu (570) 389-4849http://www.uleduneering.com/kappnotes© 2013 Game On! Learning – all rights reserved58
  59. 59. Join Our Next CLO WebinarCarpe Diem – Seizing the Opportunity to Build anAgile Organization TodayThursday, May 9, 2013TM Webinars start at 2 p.m. Eastern / 11 a.m. PacificRegister for upcoming CLO Webinars atwww.clomedia.com/webinarsJoin the Chief Learning Officer magazine Networkhttp://network.clomedia.com/#CLOwebinar

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