BACKGROUND INFORMATION……………............3APPROACH…………………………………..............21THEORY OF LANGUAGE…………………………............21THE...
3
What is task?                4
TASK (1): a piece of work that must be done,especially one that is difficult or that must bedone regularly.TASK (2): to gi...
A task is any activity that learners engagein to process of learning a language.                        (Williams and Burd...
A task is a range of learning activities from thesimple and brief exercises to more complex andlengthy activities such as ...
An activity which required learners to arriveat an outcome from given information throughsome process of thought and which...
What is Task Based LanguageTeaching?                                  9
Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is anapproach which offers students opportunities toactively engage in communication i...
It was first developed by N. Prabhu inBangladore, Southern India. Prabhu believedthat students may learn more effectively ...
On the other hand, using tasks for teaching firstappeared in the vocational training practice of the 1950’s.Task focused h...
TBLT makes the performance of meaningfultasks central to the learning process.       Instead of a language structure or fu...
• Preparing a meal         • Two pictures or texts to• Ordering food in a cafe    find the differences• Talking to someone...
Help! Thieves!Can you describe   There were two       Did the       Yes, glassesthe thieves?        thieves, a man      wo...
TBLT constitutes a strong version of CommunicativeLanguage Teaching.                                           (Skehan, 20...
17
Why do we use a task-based      approach?                             18
• Tasks can be easily related to students’ real-lifelanguage needs.• They create contexts that facilitate second languagea...
Two essential characteristics of focus-on-form:       1) the overriding focus in a form-focusedclassroom is meaning or com...
APPROACH     DESIGN    PROCEDURE CONCLUSION1. Language is primarily a means of making meaning.2. Multiple models of langua...
APPROACH    DESIGN     PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 3. Lexical units are central in language use and    language learning. 4. “Con...
APPROACH      DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION   1. Tasks provide both the input and output processing      necessary for ...
APPROACH      DESIGN     PROCEDURE CONCLUSION1. Making errors is natural and is considered as a part   of the process in a...
APPROACH       DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 4. Learners need to be encouraged to produce the target language as produc...
APPROACH      DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 7. Second language teaching and learning pace should be made reasonable for...
APPROACH      DESIGN     PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 10. Teaching and learning processes should foster motivation and minimize le...
APPROACH         DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION• to facilitate students’ language learning by engaging them ina variety ...
APPROACH      DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • to give learners confidence in trying out whatever language   they know, ...
APPROACH       DESIGN      PROCEDURE CONCLUSION  • to engage learners in using language purposefully and  cooperatively,  ...
APPROACH           DESIGN             PROCEDURE CONCLUSION              LISTING:   Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE CONCLUSION                      Synthetic Syllabus                                          ...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE CONCLUSION      1. Jigsaw Tasks      2. Information-gap Tasks      3. Problem-solving Tasks ...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE CONCLUSION   1.Group Participant   2.Monitor   3.Risk-Taker and Innovator                   ...
APPROACH   DESIGN     PROCEDURE CONCLUSION    1. Selector and Sequencer Of Tasks    2. Preparing Learners For Tasks    3. ...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE CONCLUSION             -Books             -Newspaper             -Magazine             -Radi...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE   CONCLUSION                Pre-task               Task Cycle               Post-task       ...
APPROACH    DESIGN    PROCEDURE       CONCLUSION    •   Use materials such as        picture/text/song etc. to lead into  ...
APPROACH     DESIGN     PROCEDURE      CONCLUSION     •     Pair work and small group work           versus the whole clas...
APPROACH    DESIGN    PROCEDURE       CONCLUSION   •   Students give a report.   •   Repeat the task (e.g. students switch...
Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class,Pre-task             highlights useful words and...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE   CONCLUSION                                             42
APPROACH    DESIGN       PROCEDURE          CONCLUSION      • TBLT is applicable and suitable for students of all      age...
APPROACH    DESIGN      PROCEDURE        CONCLUSION     • TBLT allows meaningful communication.     • Students will be exp...
APPROACH     DESIGN       PROCEDURE          CONCLUSION   • TBLT requires a high level of creativity and   initiative on t...
APPROACH      DESIGN        PROCEDURE           CONCLUSION    • Task-based instruction is not teacher-centered and it    r...
APPROACH       DESIGN      PROCEDURE          CONCLUSION • While Task-Based Instruction may fruitfully develop   learners’...
APPROACH    DESIGN    PROCEDURE       CONCLUSION        TBLT is based on the principle that  language learning will progre...
APPROACH   DESIGN   PROCEDURE     CONCLUSION    It may help to encourage students to use thetarget language actively and m...
APPROACH   DESIGN     PROCEDURE      CONCLUSION         The basic assumption of TBLT -that it  provides for a more effecti...
Work with three other students.You are on a ship that is sinking. Youhave to swim to a nearby island. Youhave a waterproof...
• Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.)• Notebook computer (3.5 kilos)• Rope (6 kilos).• Fire lighting kits (500 gra...
•   Richards, Jack C. - Rodgers, Theodore S. (2001), Approaches and Methods inLanguage Teaching, Cambridge University Pres...
•   Dickinson, Paul. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching in aJapanese EFL Context•   Priyana, Joko. Task-Based Langu...
• Branden, Kriss Van den. Task Based Language Education From theory topractice• Rahman, M. Mojibur. Teaching Oral Communic...
• Finch, Andrew. A Task-Based Approach: Online Resources for Teachers• Littlewood, William. Task-Based Learning of Grammar...
Task based language teaching - TBLT
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Task based language teaching - TBLT

  1. 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION……………............3APPROACH…………………………………..............21THEORY OF LANGUAGE…………………………............21THEORY OF LEARNING…………………………..............23PRINCIPLES………………………………………...............24DESIGN………………………………………..............28OBJECTIVES………………………………………..............28SYLLABUS…………………………………………..............32TYPES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES….33LEARNER ROLES………………………………….............34TEACHER ROLES………………………………….............35INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS…………………………….36PROCEDURE………………………………….………37THE FRAMEWORK FOR TBL INSTRUCTION…………..37PRE-TASK – TASK CYCLE – POST-TASK……………….38CONCLUSION………………………………..............43ADVANTAGES OF TBLT……………………………………43DISADVANTAGES OF TBLT……………………………….45ACTIVITY…………………...…………………...........51REFERANCES……………………………….............53 2
  2. 2. 3
  3. 3. What is task? 4
  4. 4. TASK (1): a piece of work that must be done,especially one that is difficult or that must bedone regularly.TASK (2): to give someone the responsibility fordoing something. (Longman English Dictionary) 5
  5. 5. A task is any activity that learners engagein to process of learning a language. (Williams and Burden, 1997:168) 6
  6. 6. A task is a range of learning activities from thesimple and brief exercises to more complex andlengthy activities such as group problem-solving orsimulations and decision-making. (Breen, 1987:23) 7
  7. 7. An activity which required learners to arriveat an outcome from given information throughsome process of thought and which allowedteachers to control and regulate that process wasregarded as a task. (Prabhu , 1987:24) 8
  8. 8. What is Task Based LanguageTeaching? 9
  9. 9. Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is anapproach which offers students opportunities toactively engage in communication in order toachieve a goal or complete a task. TBLT seeks todevelop students’ interlanguage through providinga task and then using language to solve it. 10
  10. 10. It was first developed by N. Prabhu inBangladore, Southern India. Prabhu believedthat students may learn more effectively whentheir minds are focused on the task, rather thanon the language they are using. (Prabhu, 1987; as cited in Littlewood, 2004) 11
  11. 11. On the other hand, using tasks for teaching firstappeared in the vocational training practice of the 1950’s.Task focused here first derived from training designconcerns of the military regarding new military technologiesand occupational specialities of the period. Task analysisinitially focused on solo psychomotor tasks for which littlecommunication or collaboration was involved. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001:225) 12
  12. 12. TBLT makes the performance of meaningfultasks central to the learning process. Instead of a language structure or function to belearnt, students are presented with a task they have toperform or a problem they have to solve. (Harmer, J. The practice of English Language Teaching, 2007:71) 13
  13. 13. • Preparing a meal • Two pictures or texts to• Ordering food in a cafe find the differences• Talking to someone on • Solving a problem the phone • Designing a brochure.• Compiling qualities of a good friend. 14
  14. 14. Help! Thieves!Can you describe There were two Did the Yes, glassesthe thieves? thieves, a man woman wear and long black and a woman glasses? hair. She is young.Did the manhave a A black moustache, but Look at these Yes, here A task taken from pictures. they are!moustache? no glasses. He has short hair. a task-based syllabus for beginners. 15
  15. 15. TBLT constitutes a strong version of CommunicativeLanguage Teaching. (Skehan, 2003b) Teacher’s dominant authority turns into teacher’s guidingin TBLT; because, teacher centered learning (PPP) becomeslearner centered. It can be seen as both a refinement of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and a reaction to the use of PPP. (Ellis, 2003: ix) 16
  16. 16. 17
  17. 17. Why do we use a task-based approach? 18
  18. 18. • Tasks can be easily related to students’ real-lifelanguage needs.• They create contexts that facilitate second languageacquisition.• Tasks create opportunities for focusing on form.• Students are more likely to develop intrinsicmotivation in a task-based approach.• A task-based approach enables teachers to see ifstudents are developing the ability to communicate inan L2. 19
  19. 19. Two essential characteristics of focus-on-form: 1) the overriding focus in a form-focusedclassroom is meaning or communication, and 2) attention to form arises incidentally inresponse to communicative need (Ellis, 2001) 20
  20. 20. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION1. Language is primarily a means of making meaning.2. Multiple models of language inform task based instruction. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001: 226-228) 21
  21. 21. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 3. Lexical units are central in language use and language learning. 4. “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001: 227-228) 22
  22. 22. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 1. Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition. 2. Task activity and achievement are motivational. 3. Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purpose. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001: 228-229) 23
  23. 23. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION1. Making errors is natural and is considered as a part of the process in acquiring the target language.2. Exposure to comprehensible input is crucial.3. Learning tasks facilitating learners to engage in interactions are essential. (Priyana, 2006) 24
  24. 24. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 4. Learners need to be encouraged to produce the target language as producing the target language facilitates learning. 5. Although language production may be encouraged from the early stage in the learning process, it is reasonable to allow a silent period. 6. Focus on form is necessary. (Priyana, 2006) 25
  25. 25. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 7. Second language teaching and learning pace should be made reasonable for both learners with higher and lower aptitude. 8. Language learning tasks should be varied to cater for the needs for both extrovert and introvert learners. 9. Learning tasks should encourage learners to attend to both meaning and form and be varied in order to accommodate learners with different learning strategy preferences. (Priyana, 2006) 26
  26. 26. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 10. Teaching and learning processes should foster motivation and minimize learner anxiety. 11. The choice of teaching and learning tasks and content should be based on learner age. 12. Learning tasks should arouse and maintain learners’ learning motivation. (Priyana, 2006) 27
  27. 27. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION• to facilitate students’ language learning by engaging them ina variety of tasks that have a clear outcome. (Larsen-Freeman, 2001: 156) 28
  28. 28. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • to give learners confidence in trying out whatever language they know, • to give learners experience of spontaneous interaction, • to give learners the chance to benefit from noticing how others express similar meanings, • to give learners chances for negotiating turns to speak, (Willis, 1996: 35–6) 29
  29. 29. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • to engage learners in using language purposefully and cooperatively, • to make learners participate in a complete interaction, not just one-off sentences, • to give learners chances to try out communication strategies, • to develop learners’ confidence that they can achieve communicative goals. (Willis, 1996: 35–6) 30
  30. 30. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION LISTING: Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding.ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes - Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes - Matching, finding similarities, finding differences. Processes - Analysing real or hypothetical situations, PROBLEM SOLVING: reasoning, and decision making. SHARING PERSONAL Processes - Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining EXPERIENCES: attitudes, opinions, reactions. Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, CREATIVE TASKS: comparing, problem solving and many others (Willis 1996).31
  31. 31. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION Synthetic Syllabus 32
  32. 32. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 1. Jigsaw Tasks 2. Information-gap Tasks 3. Problem-solving Tasks 4. Decision-making Tasks 5. Opinion exchange Tasks 33
  33. 33. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 1.Group Participant 2.Monitor 3.Risk-Taker and Innovator 34
  34. 34. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 1. Selector and Sequencer Of Tasks 2. Preparing Learners For Tasks 3. Consciousness-Raising 35
  35. 35. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION -Books -Newspaper -Magazine -Radio programs -CDs -TV -Internet -Board -Worksheets 36
  36. 36. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION Pre-task Task Cycle Post-task 37
  37. 37. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • Use materials such as picture/text/song etc. to lead into the topic. • Brainstorming, comparing ideas, sharing experiences. • Provide elicit vocabulary. • Provide a model, exploit role-play. • Do a similar task • Allow the students time to plan. 38
  38. 38. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • Pair work and small group work versus the whole class. • Introduce a surprise element. • Set a time for completing the task. • Vary the number of participants. • Tell students they will have to present a report to the whole class. 39
  39. 39. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • Students give a report. • Repeat the task (e.g. students switch groups) • Consciousness-raising activities. • Students listen to a recording or watch a clip of fluent speakers doing the same task, and compare their tasks with theirs. • Teacher gives feedback and evaluates the success of the task. 40
  40. 40. Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class,Pre-task highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors. Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing)Task Cycle how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Students receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text orLanguage transcript of the recording. Focus Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. (Willis 1996: 38) 41
  41. 41. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION 42
  42. 42. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • TBLT is applicable and suitable for students of all ages and backgrounds. • Students will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBLT. • Students are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the target language of the lesson. • TBLT helps students pay close attention to the relationship between form and meaning 43
  43. 43. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • TBLT allows meaningful communication. • Students will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms. • Encourages students to be more ambitious in the language they use. • The psychological dynamics of the group which works together to complete a task will have a great influence on the success. 44
  44. 44. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • TBLT requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the task. • There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. • TBLT requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms. 45
  45. 45. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • Task-based instruction is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commitment on the part of students. If students are notably lacking in these qualities, task-based instruction may, indeed, be difficult to implement. • Evaluation of task-based learning can be difficult. The nature of task-based learning prevents it from being measurable by some of the more restricted and traditional tests. (Krahne, 1987) 46
  46. 46. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION • While Task-Based Instruction may fruitfully develop learners’ authority of what is known, it is significantly less effective for the systematic teaching of new language. This is especially so where time is limited and out-of-class exposure is unavailable, such as in Turkey. 47
  47. 47. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION TBLT is based on the principle that language learning will progress most successfully if teaching aims simply to create contexts in which the learner’s natural language learning capacity can be nurtured rather than making a systematic attempt to teach the language bit by bit. (Ellis, 2009:222) 48
  48. 48. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION It may help to encourage students to use thetarget language actively and meaningfully. But still, many aspects of TBLT have to bejustified such as task type, task sequencing andevaluation of task performance. 49
  49. 49. APPROACH DESIGN PROCEDURE CONCLUSION The basic assumption of TBLT -that it provides for a more effective basis for teaching than other language teaching approaches- remains in the domain of ideology rather than fact. It depends on tasks as the primary source of pedagogical input in teaching, but the absence of a systematic grammatical syllabus entails current versions of TBLT. 50
  50. 50. Work with three other students.You are on a ship that is sinking. Youhave to swim to a nearby island. Youhave a waterproof container, but canonly carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decidewhich of the following items you willtake. (Remember, you can’t take morethan 20 kilos with you.) 51
  51. 51. • Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.)• Notebook computer (3.5 kilos)• Rope (6 kilos).• Fire lighting kits (500 grams each)• Portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos.)• Short-wave radio (12 kilos)• Medical kit (2 kilos.)• Bottles of water (1.5 kilos each)• Packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk,coffee, tea. (Each packet weighs 500 grams)• Cans of food (500 grams each)• Box of novels and magazines (3 kilos)• Axe (8 kilos) 52
  52. 52. • Richards, Jack C. - Rodgers, Theodore S. (2001), Approaches and Methods inLanguage Teaching, Cambridge University Press.• Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (2000), Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching,Oxford University Press.• Harmer, Jeremy. (2007), The Practice of English Language Teaching, Ashford ColourPress• Ellis, Rod. The Methodology of Task-Based Teaching 53
  53. 53. • Dickinson, Paul. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching in aJapanese EFL Context• Priyana, Joko. Task-Based Language Instruction• Littlewood, William. The Task-Based Approach :Some Questions andSuggestions• Akbar, Ali - Farahani, Khomeijani. The Effects of Task- BasedTechniques, Gender, and Different Levels of Language Proficiency onSpeaking Development 54
  54. 54. • Branden, Kriss Van den. Task Based Language Education From theory topractice• Rahman, M. Mojibur. Teaching Oral Communication Skills: A Task-BasedApproach• Sanchez, Aquilino. The Task-Based Approach in Language Teaching• Skehani, Peter. Task-Based Instruction• Skehan, Peter. A Framework for the Implementation of Task-BasedInstruction• Seyyedi, Keivan. Task-Based Instruction 55
  55. 55. • Finch, Andrew. A Task-Based Approach: Online Resources for Teachers• Littlewood, William. Task-Based Learning of Grammar• Zhao, Huajing. How Far Do the Theories of Task-Based LearningSucceed in Combining Communicative and Form-Focused Approaches to L2Research• Dorathy, A. Anne. Second Language Acquisition through Task-BasedApproach – Role-play in English Language Teaching• Büyükkarcı, Kağan. A Critical Analysis Of Task-Based Learning 56
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