October 2012PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORINITIATIVES FOR THE          Dr Hugues SERAPHIN                             PhD PGCE ...
CONTENTS PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR INITIATIVES FOR THE  DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI:   THE TOURISM INDUSTRY, ...
INTRODUCTIONBefore January 2010 earthquake, Haiti was:One of the poorest countries in the worldUnsafe destination due to...
ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI                            Environmental overview of Haiti                            Literatu...
ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW OF HAITIHaiti was once the richest French colony. Haiti was evencalled the ‘Pearl of the Antilles’ ...
LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature supporting the factHaitians are not entrepreneursEntrepreneurs have to be:Innovative (Schump...
LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature supporting the factHaitians are entrepreneursIn order to be considered as an entrepreneur, it...
OPPORTUNITIES   MEMA (Mon Entreprise Mon Avenir) projectFunded by the Clinton Bush Haiti FundTurn Haitians’ ventures int...
OPPORTUNITIES  The Digicel Entrepreneur of the Year programmeBuild new economic foundations for HaitiRewarding and culti...
MEMA / DIGICELBoth projects are supposed to be inclusiveHOWEVERApplication requires a ‘Business plan’50% of the populati...
ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THETOURISM SECTOR: THE WAY                          6   reasons why the tourismFORWARD FOR HAITI?    ...
WHY THE TOURISM SECTOR1. Principle 7 of the Port-au-Prince declaration, 2011:   Development of MSTEs2. In the world the to...
CONCLUSIONInnovation     is  a    contextual     concept.           Moreover,entrepreneurship in developing countries is ...
PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR         October 2012INITIATIVES FOR THEDEVELOPMENT OFENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI:THE TOURISMINDUST...
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Private and public sector initiatives for the development of entrepreneurship in Haiti:

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Private and public sector initiatives for the development of entrepreneurship in Haiti:

  1. 1. October 2012PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORINITIATIVES FOR THE Dr Hugues SERAPHIN PhD PGCE MADEVELOPMENT OFENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI: Lecturer in Event Management and MarketingTHE TOURISM INDUSTRY, (The University of Winchester)SHOULD NOT IT BE THE Associate researcherPRIORITY? CREDDI-LEAD 2438 Guyane Hugues.seraphin@winchester.ac.uk
  2. 2. CONTENTS PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR INITIATIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI: THE TOURISM INDUSTRY, SHOULD NOT IT BE THE PRIORITY?1 – INTRODUCTION2 – ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI3 - ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE TOURISM SECTOR: THE WAYFORWARD FOR HAITI?4 - CONCLUSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONBefore January 2010 earthquake, Haiti was:One of the poorest countries in the worldUnsafe destination due to its political instability(Thomson, 2004; Higate & Henry, 2009)Difficult to:Build sustainable economic developmentAttract FDI(Barreau, 2012) Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship plays a crucial role in E.g. of public sector initiative social mobility (Casson, E.g. of private sector initiatives 1991) and has the ability to save the economy of a country(Louart, 1980)
  4. 4. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI Environmental overview of Haiti Literature review MEMA project (public sector) Digicel Award (Private sector)
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW OF HAITIHaiti was once the richest French colony. Haiti was evencalled the ‘Pearl of the Antilles’ (Séraphin, 2011) Fragile state: Lack of political will/capacity to provide: Basic functions needed for poverty reduction and development Safeguard human rights of the population Public services Vulnerable state: Public policies Economy Shaped by external forces (Moita, Gautier, 2010)
  6. 6. LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature supporting the factHaitians are not entrepreneursEntrepreneurs have to be:Innovative (Schumpeter, 1934) Able to adapt to the market and manage risks (Cantillon, 1758)Take action in the face of unknown future events(Knight,1921;Drucker, 1985))Haitians are not entrepreneurs based on the fact they do notcreate or innovate. Their strategies are individual and shortterm. Moreover, their business are not operating with a strategybut as a need to survival (Van der Sterren, 2008).
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature supporting the factHaitians are entrepreneursIn order to be considered as an entrepreneur, it is important to:Think entrepreneurially (Sahlman, 1999)Be driven by opportunities without regard to the resources controlled (Timmons, Spinelli, 2008)Many Haitians are self-employed have the venture (products,service, sales, ideas, etc.) but do not have access to the financialservices (Van der Sterren, 2008), therefore rely of informal sources offinance to start their business (Bygrave, 2003).The Haitians are promoters (as opposed to ‘trustee’ as they aredriven only by their perception of the opportunities that exist in theirenvironment. This strategic orientation requires being creative andinnovative (Sahlman, 1999). The Haitians are therefore entrepreneurs.
  8. 8. OPPORTUNITIES MEMA (Mon Entreprise Mon Avenir) projectFunded by the Clinton Bush Haiti FundTurn Haitians’ ventures into profitablebusinessesTo be short-listed, the projects must be:SustainableInnovativeinclusive http://memahaiti.org/qparticiper.php
  9. 9. OPPORTUNITIES The Digicel Entrepreneur of the Year programmeBuild new economic foundations for HaitiRewarding and cultivating the new business leaders of HaitiTo be short-listed, the projects must:Show a clear strategic directionBe innovativeHave a positive impact on the local community
  10. 10. MEMA / DIGICELBoth projects are supposed to be inclusiveHOWEVERApplication requires a ‘Business plan’50% of the population in Haiti is illiterate65% of the population in Haiti lives below the threshold of poverty(Roc, 2008)In South Africa, Kristen and Rogerson (2002), noticed a limitedinvolvement of the locals in entrepreneurship programmes becauseof the limited education of most of the localsThere is no financial product (Micro Finance Institutions) orientatedtowards micro and small-scale enterprises in Haiti. The MFI delivercredit to micro and small enterprises and contributes to povertyreduction by providing poor people access to financial services(Van der Sterren, 2008). Limited personal and family savings and anabsence of financial innovation severely limit the growth prospectsof promising start-ups in developing countries (Lingelbach, 2005)
  11. 11. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THETOURISM SECTOR: THE WAY 6 reasons why the tourismFORWARD FOR HAITI? sector should be the priority of the government in terms of implementation of entrepreneurship programmes
  12. 12. WHY THE TOURISM SECTOR1. Principle 7 of the Port-au-Prince declaration, 2011: Development of MSTEs2. In the world the tourism industry is made up of mostly small and medium enterprises run by people inexperienced in business(Cooper, Hall, 2008) and their innovativeness is limited (Hjalager, 2009)3. Haiti is almost virgin and full of opportunities for investment in general and tourism related activates in particular (Chauvet, 2010)4. MSE can increase the participation of the poor in the tourism industry (Manyara, Jones, 2005)5. When enterprises are owned by locals, there is a high likelihood of purchase of local supplies (Shah, 2000).6. Entrepreneurial development by local residents occur spontaneously in response to growth in tourist demand (Butler, 1980)
  13. 13. CONCLUSIONInnovation is a contextual concept. Moreover,entrepreneurship in developing countries is distinctive fromthat practiced in developed countries (Lingelbach, et al. 2005)The tourism sector and entrepreneurship seem to be highlycompatibleIt is also very important that the Haitian government rethinksits financial system. The lack of funding has constrainingimpacts on the development of social enterprises (Karatas-Ozkan &Manville, 2011).
  14. 14. PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR October 2012INITIATIVES FOR THEDEVELOPMENT OFENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HAITI:THE TOURISMINDUSTRY, SHOULD NOT IT BE Dr Hugues SERAPHINTHE PRIORITY? PhD PGCE MA Lecturer in Event Management and Marketing (The University of Winchester)THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Associate researcherANY QUESTION? CREDDI-LEAD 2438 Guyane Hugues.seraphin@winchester.ac.uk
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