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Desarrollo comercial en startups
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Desarrollo comercial en startups

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Desarrollo Comercial en Startups

Desarrollo Comercial en Startups
-Desarrollo comercial & Marketing para Startups
-Crecimiento & Desarrollo del Mercado

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  • Distinct phases of product & company growth There are four stages of growth any startup goes through. They are Customer Discovery (when you ’re just trying to figure out if there are any customers who might want your product), Customer Validation (when you make your first revenue by selling your early product), Customer Creation (akin to a traditional startup launch, only with strategy involved), and Company Building (where you gear up to Cross the Chasm). The four phases provide a useful roadmap that can orient you to what’s going on as your job and company changes. Learning and iteration vs. linear execution The first two steps and the last two steps represent two very different approaches. In the beginning, startups are focused on figuring out which way is up. They really don ’t have a clue what they should be doing, and everything is guesses. In the old model, they would probably launch during this phase, failing or succeeding spectacularly. Only after a major, public, and expensive failure would they try a new iteration. Most people can’t sustain more than a few of these iterations, and the founders rarely get to be involved in the later tries. The root of that mistake is premature execution. The major insight of the Customer Development Process is that startups need time spent in a mindset of learning and iterating, before they try to launch. During that time, they can collect facts and change direction in private, without dramatic and public embarrassment for their founders and investors. It is a disciplined approach to make sure this period doesn’t last forever, and clear criteria for when you know it’s time to move to an execution footing: when you have a repeatable and scalable sales process, as evidenced by early customers paying you money for your early product. Getting out of the building Very few startups fail for lack of technology. They almost always fail for lack of customers. Yet surprisingly few companies take the basic step of attempting to learn about their customers (or potential customers) until it is too late. True, there are the rare products that have literally no market risk; they are all about technology risk ( ”cure for cancer”). For the rest of us, we need to get some facts to inform and qualify our hypotheses (”fancy word for guesses”) about what kind of product customers will ultimately buy. And this is where we find the maxim that “In a startup no facts exist inside the building, only opinions.” Most likely, your business plan is loaded with opinions and guesses, sprinkled with a dash of vision and hope. Customer development is a parallel process to product development, which means that you don’t have to give up on your dream. We just want you to get out of the building, and start finding out whether your dream is a vision or a delusion. Surprisingly early, you can start to get a sense for who the customer of your product might be, how you’ll reach them, and what they will ultimately need. Customer development is emphatically not an excuse to slow down or change the plan every day. It’s an attempt to minimize the risk of total failure by checking your theories against reality. Different market types There are three fundamental situations that change what your company needs to do: creating a new market (the original Palm), bringing a new product to an existing market (Handspring), and resegmenting an existing market (niche, like In-n-Out Burger; or low-cost, like Southwest Airlines). If you ’re entering an existing market, be prepared for fast and furious competition from the incumbent players, but enjoy the ability to fail (or succeed) fast. When creating a new market, expect to spend as long as two years before you manage to get traction with early customers, but enjoy the utter lack of competition. Finding the right market for the product The goal of listening to customers is not to talk to as many customers as possible, and build them as many features as they asked as possible. This is a common mistake; the goal in product development is to find the minimum feature set required to get early customers. In order to do this, the customer development team works hard to find a market, any market, for the product as currently specified. The idea is not to just abandon the vision of the company at every turn; instead, it ’s to do everything possible to validate the founders’ belief. The nice thing about this paradigm is it sets the company up for a rational discussion when the task of finding customers fails. You can start to think through the consequences of this information before it’s too late. You might still decide to press ahead building the original product, but you can do so with eyes open, knowing that it’s going to be a tough, uphill battle. Or, you might start to iterate the concept, each time testing it against the set of facts that you’ve been collecting about potential customers. You don’t have to wait to iterate until after the splashy high-burn launch.
  • The Customer Development Process is designed to turn Market Risk/Product Fit hypotheses into facts in four main phases (First Iteration, then Execution)  : -Discovery: Test hypotheses i.e. problem and product concept -Validation: Build a repeatable and scalable sales process -Creation: Create end-user demand and fill the sales pipeline -Building: Scale via relentless execution Customer Discovery 1) Hypothesis 2) Test problem hypothesis 3) Test product concept 4) Iterate & expand -Stop selling, start listening: There are no facts inside your building, so get outside -Test your hypotheses: Two are fundamental: problem and product concept Exit Criteria: -What are your customers ’ top problems? How much will they pay to solve them? -Does your product concept solve them? Do customers agree? How much will they pay? -Draw a day-in-the-life of a customer – Before & after your product -Draw the org chart of users & buyers Customer Validation 1) Get ready to sell 2) Develop sales roadmap 3) Validate with orders 4) Business model verified -Develop a repeatable and scalable sales process -Only earlyvangelists are crazy enough to buy Exit Criteria: -Do you have a proven sales roadmap? Organizational chart? Influence map? -Do you understand the sales cycle? ASP, LTV, ROI, etc. -Do you have a set of orders ($ ’s) validating the roadmap? -Does the financial model make sense? Customer Creation 1) Set objectives 2) Positioning 3) Launch 4) Create demand -Creation comes after proof of sales -Creation is a strategy not a tactic Exit Criteria: -Which startup strategy are you executing? -Positioning tested & complete? -Launch strategy match startup type? -Demand creation activities match startup type? -Year 1 objectives match startup type? Company Building 1) Earlyvangelist to mainstream customer transition 2) Review management/mission-centric culture 3) Transition development team to departments 4) Build fast-response departments -Move from earlyvangelists to mainstream customers -(Re)build your company ’s organization & management Exit Criteria: -Does sales growth plan match market type? -Does spending plan match market type? -Does the board agree? -Is your team right for the stage of company? -Have you built a mission-oriented culture?
  • The Customer Development Process is designed to turn Market Risk/Product Fit hypotheses into facts in four main phases (First Iteration, then Execution)  : -Discovery: Test hypotheses i.e. problem and product concept -Validation: Build a repeatable and scalable sales process -Creation: Create end-user demand and fill the sales pipeline -Building: Scale via relentless execution Customer Discovery 1) Hypothesis 2) Test problem hypothesis 3) Test product concept 4) Iterate & expand -Stop selling, start listening: There are no facts inside your building, so get outside -Test your hypotheses: Two are fundamental: problem and product concept Exit Criteria: -What are your customers ’ top problems? How much will they pay to solve them? -Does your product concept solve them? Do customers agree? How much will they pay? -Draw a day-in-the-life of a customer – Before & after your product -Draw the org chart of users & buyers Customer Validation 1) Get ready to sell 2) Develop sales roadmap 3) Validate with orders 4) Business model verified -Develop a repeatable and scalable sales process -Only earlyvangelists are crazy enough to buy Exit Criteria: -Do you have a proven sales roadmap? Organizational chart? Influence map? -Do you understand the sales cycle? ASP, LTV, ROI, etc. -Do you have a set of orders ($ ’s) validating the roadmap? -Does the financial model make sense? Customer Creation 1) Set objectives 2) Positioning 3) Launch 4) Create demand -Creation comes after proof of sales -Creation is a strategy not a tactic Exit Criteria: -Which startup strategy are you executing? -Positioning tested & complete? -Launch strategy match startup type? -Demand creation activities match startup type? -Year 1 objectives match startup type? Company Building 1) Earlyvangelist to mainstream customer transition 2) Review management/mission-centric culture 3) Transition development team to departments 4) Build fast-response departments -Move from earlyvangelists to mainstream customers -(Re)build your company ’s organization & management Exit Criteria: -Does sales growth plan match market type? -Does spending plan match market type? -Does the board agree? -Is your team right for the stage of company? -Have you built a mission-oriented culture?
  • The Diffusion of innovations is a social process The Technology Adoption Life Cycle model describes the adoption of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. Its underlying thesis is that technology is absorbed into any given community in stages corresponding to the psychological and social profiles of various segments within that community. This process can be thought of as a continuum with definable stages, each associated with a definable group, and each group making up a predictable portion of the whole. Technology Adoption profiles The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a classical normal distribution or “bell curve.” The model indicates that the first group of people to use a new product is called “innovators,” followed by “early adopters.” Next come the early and late majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are called “laggards.” The roots of the technology-adoption life cycle lie in the different responses that each group of people and organizations can make whenever a disruptive innovation is introduced into their midst. Essentially they are the following: Underlying Drivers in Growth Markets – Technology-Adoption Strategies: Innovators/Techies: Just try it! Early adopters/Visionaries: Get ahead of the herd! Early majority/Pragmatists: Stick with the Herd! Late majority/Conservatives: Stick with what ’s proven! Laggards/Skeptics: Just say no!
  • The Diffusion of innovations is a social process The Technology Adoption Life Cycle model describes the adoption of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. Its underlying thesis is that technology is absorbed into any given community in stages corresponding to the psychological and social profiles of various segments within that community. This process can be thought of as a continuum with definable stages, each associated with a definable group, and each group making up a predictable portion of the whole. Technology Adoption profiles The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a classical normal distribution or “bell curve.” The model indicates that the first group of people to use a new product is called “innovators,” followed by “early adopters.” Next come the early and late majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are called “laggards.” The roots of the technology-adoption life cycle lie in the different responses that each group of people and organizations can make whenever a disruptive innovation is introduced into their midst. Essentially they are the following: Underlying Drivers in Growth Markets – Technology-Adoption Strategies: Innovators/Techies: Just try it! Early adopters/Visionaries: Get ahead of the herd! Early majority/Pragmatists: Stick with the Herd! Late majority/Conservatives: Stick with what ’s proven! Laggards/Skeptics: Just say no!
  • The Chasm The five responses—Just try it, Get ahead of the herd, Stick with the herd, Stick with what ’s proven, and Just say no—represent the universe of alternative reactions, and the area of the total curve they occupy is proportional to their frequency of occurrence. Most people find themselves drawn to one of the five more than the others, and to the degree this is true, they can accurately categorize themselves with the labels in the diagram. But every category represents a new choice, and people can be late adopters in some and early adopters in others. In the Technology Adoption Life Cycle model, there is a chasm between the early adopters of the product (the technology enthusiasts and visionaries) and the early majority (the pragmatists). This is because visionaries and pragmatists have very different expectations, and there are specific techniques to successfully cross the “chasm,” including choosing a target market, understanding the whole product concept, positioning the product, building a marketing strategy, choosing the most appropriate distribution channel and pricing. How Markets Develop In the actual development of any specific market, individual choices are masked in the statistics of the group, and what we see are these five strategies interacting to create a pattern described by the technology-adoption life cycle. There are different stages in the unfolding of the model, and each stage represents in some sense a rebellion against and a repudiation of the prior stage. Here ’s how it plays out: Early market:  When a disruptive innovation is first introduced, it initially attracts the attention of technology enthusiasts (who see it as cool) and visionaries (who see it as potentially disruptive). The latter fund projects to see if they can exploit the disruptive capabilities with a view toward gaining a dramatic competitive advantage over their peers. Pragmatic buyers are curious about these efforts but are far too cautious to actually participate in them. They are on the other side of the chasm. When these early adopting projects bear fruit, the press, fascinated, writes glowing articles describing the technology as the next big thing. A new category is named, but in truth it is not yet clear if it will be for real or just a flash in the pan. The Chasm:  The chasm represents a betwixt-and-between state. Having now been in the marketplace for some time, the offer has lost its novelty, and visionaries no longer see it as a source of dramatic competitive advantage. They pursue their search for disruptive opportunities elsewhere. At the same time, there has not been the kind of widespread adoption necessary to convince pragmatists that it would be safe to purchase. Pragmatists with their stick-to-the-herd strategy need to see other pragmatists buying before they buy. As a result, the market is stalled. Crossing the Chasm:  The only reliable way to exit the chasm is to target on the other side a niche market made up of pragmatists united by a common problem for which there is no known solution. Such “pragmatists in pain” are motivated to help the new technology cross the chasm if, and only if, it is packaged as a complete solution to their problem, what is called a whole product. Bowling Alley:  In this phase of category maturity, the technology has gained acceptance among pragmatists in multiple-niche markets where it enables genuine solutions to uncommon problems. Wherever one niche adopts, adjacent niches become more susceptible—hence the bowling-pin metaphor. Within adopting niches, the new paradigm builds a loyal following among customers and value-chain partners who see a market in the making. Outside these niches it is becoming more widely known and accepted—but not yet adopted—by the general public. Tornado:  The technology has proved its usefulness in niche markets, and in the process, a killer app has emerged, something that makes it both broadly applicable and highly attractive to a mass market. Overnight it becomes perceived as necessary and standard. All the pragmatists who were hanging back from committing rush into the market to make sure they aren ’t left behind. Competition to capture this influx of new customers is fierce. Revenues grow at double- or even triple-digit rates, with investors bidding up the stock of every company that can participate in the category. Main Street:  The initial surge of hypergrowth subsides, leaving behind a market-share pecking order that is likely to persist for a long time to come. Customers have selected their vendor of choice and are now focused on deploying the technology more broadly. At the same time, they expect to see systematic improvements in the offerings and reward each with an uptick in purchasing. The technology-adoption life cycle comes to an end once the marketplace has completely assimilated the disruption that triggered it. In the case of automobiles, this happened sometime between the First and Second World Wars; in the case of television sets, in the 1960s; in the case of cell phones, in the past decade. Until this end is reached, the influence of technology-adoption forces is so dominant that it suppresses other dynamics.
  • The Chasm The five responses—Just try it, Get ahead of the herd, Stick with the herd, Stick with what ’s proven, and Just say no—represent the universe of alternative reactions, and the area of the total curve they occupy is proportional to their frequency of occurrence. Most people find themselves drawn to one of the five more than the others, and to the degree this is true, they can accurately categorize themselves with the labels in the diagram. But every category represents a new choice, and people can be late adopters in some and early adopters in others. In the Technology Adoption Life Cycle model, there is a chasm between the early adopters of the product (the technology enthusiasts and visionaries) and the early majority (the pragmatists). This is because visionaries and pragmatists have very different expectations, and there are specific techniques to successfully cross the “chasm,” including choosing a target market, understanding the whole product concept, positioning the product, building a marketing strategy, choosing the most appropriate distribution channel and pricing. How Markets Develop In the actual development of any specific market, individual choices are masked in the statistics of the group, and what we see are these five strategies interacting to create a pattern described by the technology-adoption life cycle. There are different stages in the unfolding of the model, and each stage represents in some sense a rebellion against and a repudiation of the prior stage. Here ’s how it plays out: Early market:  When a disruptive innovation is first introduced, it initially attracts the attention of technology enthusiasts (who see it as cool) and visionaries (who see it as potentially disruptive). The latter fund projects to see if they can exploit the disruptive capabilities with a view toward gaining a dramatic competitive advantage over their peers. Pragmatic buyers are curious about these efforts but are far too cautious to actually participate in them. They are on the other side of the chasm. When these early adopting projects bear fruit, the press, fascinated, writes glowing articles describing the technology as the next big thing. A new category is named, but in truth it is not yet clear if it will be for real or just a flash in the pan. The Chasm:  The chasm represents a betwixt-and-between state. Having now been in the marketplace for some time, the offer has lost its novelty, and visionaries no longer see it as a source of dramatic competitive advantage. They pursue their search for disruptive opportunities elsewhere. At the same time, there has not been the kind of widespread adoption necessary to convince pragmatists that it would be safe to purchase. Pragmatists with their stick-to-the-herd strategy need to see other pragmatists buying before they buy. As a result, the market is stalled. Crossing the Chasm:  The only reliable way to exit the chasm is to target on the other side a niche market made up of pragmatists united by a common problem for which there is no known solution. Such “pragmatists in pain” are motivated to help the new technology cross the chasm if, and only if, it is packaged as a complete solution to their problem, what is called a whole product. Bowling Alley:  In this phase of category maturity, the technology has gained acceptance among pragmatists in multiple-niche markets where it enables genuine solutions to uncommon problems. Wherever one niche adopts, adjacent niches become more susceptible—hence the bowling-pin metaphor. Within adopting niches, the new paradigm builds a loyal following among customers and value-chain partners who see a market in the making. Outside these niches it is becoming more widely known and accepted—but not yet adopted—by the general public. Tornado:  The technology has proved its usefulness in niche markets, and in the process, a killer app has emerged, something that makes it both broadly applicable and highly attractive to a mass market. Overnight it becomes perceived as necessary and standard. All the pragmatists who were hanging back from committing rush into the market to make sure they aren ’t left behind. Competition to capture this influx of new customers is fierce. Revenues grow at double- or even triple-digit rates, with investors bidding up the stock of every company that can participate in the category. Main Street:  The initial surge of hypergrowth subsides, leaving behind a market-share pecking order that is likely to persist for a long time to come. Customers have selected their vendor of choice and are now focused on deploying the technology more broadly. At the same time, they expect to see systematic improvements in the offerings and reward each with an uptick in purchasing. The technology-adoption life cycle comes to an end once the marketplace has completely assimilated the disruption that triggered it. In the case of automobiles, this happened sometime between the First and Second World Wars; in the case of television sets, in the 1960s; in the case of cell phones, in the past decade. Until this end is reached, the influence of technology-adoption forces is so dominant that it suppresses other dynamics.
  • The Chasm The five responses—Just try it, Get ahead of the herd, Stick with the herd, Stick with what ’s proven, and Just say no—represent the universe of alternative reactions, and the area of the total curve they occupy is proportional to their frequency of occurrence. Most people find themselves drawn to one of the five more than the others, and to the degree this is true, they can accurately categorize themselves with the labels in the diagram. But every category represents a new choice, and people can be late adopters in some and early adopters in others. In the Technology Adoption Life Cycle model, there is a chasm between the early adopters of the product (the technology enthusiasts and visionaries) and the early majority (the pragmatists). This is because visionaries and pragmatists have very different expectations, and there are specific techniques to successfully cross the “chasm,” including choosing a target market, understanding the whole product concept, positioning the product, building a marketing strategy, choosing the most appropriate distribution channel and pricing. How Markets Develop In the actual development of any specific market, individual choices are masked in the statistics of the group, and what we see are these five strategies interacting to create a pattern described by the technology-adoption life cycle. There are different stages in the unfolding of the model, and each stage represents in some sense a rebellion against and a repudiation of the prior stage. Here ’s how it plays out: Early market:  When a disruptive innovation is first introduced, it initially attracts the attention of technology enthusiasts (who see it as cool) and visionaries (who see it as potentially disruptive). The latter fund projects to see if they can exploit the disruptive capabilities with a view toward gaining a dramatic competitive advantage over their peers. Pragmatic buyers are curious about these efforts but are far too cautious to actually participate in them. They are on the other side of the chasm. When these early adopting projects bear fruit, the press, fascinated, writes glowing articles describing the technology as the next big thing. A new category is named, but in truth it is not yet clear if it will be for real or just a flash in the pan. The Chasm:  The chasm represents a betwixt-and-between state. Having now been in the marketplace for some time, the offer has lost its novelty, and visionaries no longer see it as a source of dramatic competitive advantage. They pursue their search for disruptive opportunities elsewhere. At the same time, there has not been the kind of widespread adoption necessary to convince pragmatists that it would be safe to purchase. Pragmatists with their stick-to-the-herd strategy need to see other pragmatists buying before they buy. As a result, the market is stalled. Crossing the Chasm:  The only reliable way to exit the chasm is to target on the other side a niche market made up of pragmatists united by a common problem for which there is no known solution. Such “pragmatists in pain” are motivated to help the new technology cross the chasm if, and only if, it is packaged as a complete solution to their problem, what is called a whole product. Bowling Alley:  In this phase of category maturity, the technology has gained acceptance among pragmatists in multiple-niche markets where it enables genuine solutions to uncommon problems. Wherever one niche adopts, adjacent niches become more susceptible—hence the bowling-pin metaphor. Within adopting niches, the new paradigm builds a loyal following among customers and value-chain partners who see a market in the making. Outside these niches it is becoming more widely known and accepted—but not yet adopted—by the general public. Tornado:  The technology has proved its usefulness in niche markets, and in the process, a killer app has emerged, something that makes it both broadly applicable and highly attractive to a mass market. Overnight it becomes perceived as necessary and standard. All the pragmatists who were hanging back from committing rush into the market to make sure they aren ’t left behind. Competition to capture this influx of new customers is fierce. Revenues grow at double- or even triple-digit rates, with investors bidding up the stock of every company that can participate in the category. Main Street:  The initial surge of hypergrowth subsides, leaving behind a market-share pecking order that is likely to persist for a long time to come. Customers have selected their vendor of choice and are now focused on deploying the technology more broadly. At the same time, they expect to see systematic improvements in the offerings and reward each with an uptick in purchasing. The technology-adoption life cycle comes to an end once the marketplace has completely assimilated the disruption that triggered it. In the case of automobiles, this happened sometime between the First and Second World Wars; in the case of television sets, in the 1960s; in the case of cell phones, in the past decade. Until this end is reached, the influence of technology-adoption forces is so dominant that it suppresses other dynamics.
  • The Chasm The five responses—Just try it, Get ahead of the herd, Stick with the herd, Stick with what ’s proven, and Just say no—represent the universe of alternative reactions, and the area of the total curve they occupy is proportional to their frequency of occurrence. Most people find themselves drawn to one of the five more than the others, and to the degree this is true, they can accurately categorize themselves with the labels in the diagram. But every category represents a new choice, and people can be late adopters in some and early adopters in others. In the Technology Adoption Life Cycle model, there is a chasm between the early adopters of the product (the technology enthusiasts and visionaries) and the early majority (the pragmatists). This is because visionaries and pragmatists have very different expectations, and there are specific techniques to successfully cross the “chasm,” including choosing a target market, understanding the whole product concept, positioning the product, building a marketing strategy, choosing the most appropriate distribution channel and pricing. How Markets Develop In the actual development of any specific market, individual choices are masked in the statistics of the group, and what we see are these five strategies interacting to create a pattern described by the technology-adoption life cycle. There are different stages in the unfolding of the model, and each stage represents in some sense a rebellion against and a repudiation of the prior stage. Here ’s how it plays out: Early market:  When a disruptive innovation is first introduced, it initially attracts the attention of technology enthusiasts (who see it as cool) and visionaries (who see it as potentially disruptive). The latter fund projects to see if they can exploit the disruptive capabilities with a view toward gaining a dramatic competitive advantage over their peers. Pragmatic buyers are curious about these efforts but are far too cautious to actually participate in them. They are on the other side of the chasm. When these early adopting projects bear fruit, the press, fascinated, writes glowing articles describing the technology as the next big thing. A new category is named, but in truth it is not yet clear if it will be for real or just a flash in the pan. The Chasm:  The chasm represents a betwixt-and-between state. Having now been in the marketplace for some time, the offer has lost its novelty, and visionaries no longer see it as a source of dramatic competitive advantage. They pursue their search for disruptive opportunities elsewhere. At the same time, there has not been the kind of widespread adoption necessary to convince pragmatists that it would be safe to purchase. Pragmatists with their stick-to-the-herd strategy need to see other pragmatists buying before they buy. As a result, the market is stalled. Crossing the Chasm:  The only reliable way to exit the chasm is to target on the other side a niche market made up of pragmatists united by a common problem for which there is no known solution. Such “pragmatists in pain” are motivated to help the new technology cross the chasm if, and only if, it is packaged as a complete solution to their problem, what is called a whole product. Bowling Alley:  In this phase of category maturity, the technology has gained acceptance among pragmatists in multiple-niche markets where it enables genuine solutions to uncommon problems. Wherever one niche adopts, adjacent niches become more susceptible—hence the bowling-pin metaphor. Within adopting niches, the new paradigm builds a loyal following among customers and value-chain partners who see a market in the making. Outside these niches it is becoming more widely known and accepted—but not yet adopted—by the general public. Tornado:  The technology has proved its usefulness in niche markets, and in the process, a killer app has emerged, something that makes it both broadly applicable and highly attractive to a mass market. Overnight it becomes perceived as necessary and standard. All the pragmatists who were hanging back from committing rush into the market to make sure they aren ’t left behind. Competition to capture this influx of new customers is fierce. Revenues grow at double- or even triple-digit rates, with investors bidding up the stock of every company that can participate in the category. Main Street:  The initial surge of hypergrowth subsides, leaving behind a market-share pecking order that is likely to persist for a long time to come. Customers have selected their vendor of choice and are now focused on deploying the technology more broadly. At the same time, they expect to see systematic improvements in the offerings and reward each with an uptick in purchasing. The technology-adoption life cycle comes to an end once the marketplace has completely assimilated the disruption that triggered it. In the case of automobiles, this happened sometime between the First and Second World Wars; in the case of television sets, in the 1960s; in the case of cell phones, in the past decade. Until this end is reached, the influence of technology-adoption forces is so dominant that it suppresses other dynamics.
  • Stage in the TALC The first step to define a Market Development Strategy is identifying stage of category in TALC, since it affects all the relevant variables. The Market Development Strategy Checklist The Market Development Strategy checklist requires covering the following variables: Market creation variables: 1. Target Customer – Source of money 2. Compelling Reason to Buy – Source of demand 3. Whole product – To fulfill the compelling reason to buy Market attractiveness variables: 4. Partners and Allies – Needed for whole product 5. Distribution – Function of whole product and integration complexity 6. Pricing – Function of perceived value Market penetration variables: 7. Competition – For customer ’s money 8. Positioning – Relative to competition 9. Next Target – Next move
  • 1. Target customer Is there a single, identifiable economic buyer for this offer, readily accessible to the sales channel we intend to use, and sufficiently well-funded to pay the price for the whole product? In the absence of such a buyer, sales forces waste valuable time evangelizing groups of people trying to generate a sponsor. Sales cycles drag on forever, and projects can be shut down at any time. 2. Compelling reason to buy Are the economic consequences sufficient to mandate any reasonable economic buyer to fix the problem called out in the scenario? If pragmatists can live with the problem for another year, they will. But they will continue to be interested in learning more. So your sales people will be invited back again and again—they just won ’t return with purchase orders. Instead, they will report that the customer said, “Great presentation!” What the customer was really saying was, “I learned some more and I didn’t have to buy anything.” 3. Whole product Can our company with the help of partners and allies field a complete solution to the target customer ’s compelling reason to buy in the next three months such that we can be in the market by the end of next quarter and be dominating the market within twelve months thereafter? The clock is ticking. We need to cross now, which means we need a problem we can solve now. Any thread left hanging could be the one that trips us up.
  • 4. Partners and allies Do we already have relationships begun with the other companies needed to fulfill the whole product? If you do, it is typically from a single early-market project, or else you are just lucky. Pulling together this partnership is a major challenge for the whole product manager. 5. Distribution Do we have a sales channel in place that can call on the target customer and fulfill the whole product requirements put on distribution? Calling on the line-of-business side of the house requires some fluency in the language of the target niche, and established relationships with individuals accelerates this process dramatically. Lacking this, companies typically hire a well-connected individual out of the target industry and charter her to lead the sales force back in. 6. Pricing Is the price of the whole product consistent with the target customer ’s budget and with the value gained by fixing the broken process? Do all the partners, including the distribution channel, get compensated sufficiently to keep their attention and loyalty? Note here that it is the whole product price, not the price of the product per se, that matters. Services will often take as much or more of this total as product.
  • 7. Competition Has this problem already been addressed by another company such that they have crossed the chasm ahead of us and occupied the space we would be targeting? Dick Hackborn, the HP executive who led the move into laser printers, had a favorite saying: “Never attack a fortified hill.” Same with beachheads. If some other company got there before you, all the market dynamics that you are seeking to make work in your favor are already working in its favor. Don’t go there. 8. Positioning Is the company credible as a provider of products and services to the target niche? At the outset, the answer is typically, Not very. One of the delights of niche marketing, however, is the speed at which this resistance can be overcome if only one truly commits to a whole product that fixes the broken process. 9. Next target customer If we are successful in dominating this niche, does it have good “bowling pin”potential? That is, will these customers and partners facilitate our entry into adjacent niches? This is an important issue of strategy. Chasm-crossing is not the end, but rather the beginning, of mainstream market development. It is important that we have additional follow-on niches that can be lucratively addressed. Else the economics of niche marketing simply do not hold up.

Desarrollo comercial en startups Desarrollo comercial en startups Presentation Transcript

  • Desarrollo Comercial en Startups
  • Introduccion
    • Paso 1:
    Qué hace un startup X
    • Startup = clientes ( ‘ Create a customer ’ )
    Qué hace un startup X CLIENTE
    • Define todos los elementos:
    Modelo de Negocio Algo que el cliente quiera Cómo se lo hacemos llegar (Dropbox) Cómo lo cobramos (Rescuetime)
  • Desarrollo Comercial Desarrollo Comercial Marketing para Startups
    • Principios de desarrollo de clientes
    • El proceso de desarrollo de clientes
    Desarrollo comercial
    • Principios de desarrollo de clientes
      • Etapas distintas de crecimiento del producto y de la compañía
      • Aprendizaje vs. ejecución
      • Salir del edificio
      • Diferentes tipos de mercados
      • Encontrar el mercado adecuado para el producto
    Desarrollo comercial
      • Fuente: Steve Blank & Eric Ries
    • El proceso de desarrollo de clientes
    Probar hipótesis – El problema y el concepto del producto Definir un proceso de ventas repetible y escalable Crear demanda del usuario final Crecer en base a ejecución impecable Desarrollo comercial
      • Fuente: Steve Blank
      • Iteración
      • Ejecución
      • La Búsqueda del Negocio
      • El Crecimiento del Negocio
      • Fit entre Producto y Mercado
  • Desarrollo comercial
      • El Proceso de Desarrollo de Clientes:
      • Entender lo que el mercado quiere antes de crecer
      • Fuente: Steve Blank & Eric Ries
      • Iteración
      • Ejecución
      • La Búsqueda del Negocio
      • El Crecimiento del Negocio
      • Fit entre Producto y Mercado
    • El proceso de desarrollo de clientes - Creación de Clientes
      • Actividades de creación de clientes
    Tipo de Mercado Objetivos del Primer Año Posicionamiento Generación de Demanda Lanzamiento Mercado Existente
    • Diferenciación del producto
    • Guiar demanda al canal de distribución
    • Credibilidad
    • Competencia en base a atributos existentes
    • Participación de mercado
    Mercado re-segmentado
    • Segmentación e innovación
    • Educación del cliente y guiar demanda al canal de distribución
    • Segmentación e innovación
    • Nuevos atributos de competencia
    • Re-formulación del mercado / Participación del nuevo mercado
    Nuevo mercado
    • Definición del nuevo mercado, la necesidad y la solución
    • Educación del cliente
    • Credibilidad e innovación
    • Educación del mercado y definición de estándares
    • Adopción del mercado
    Desarrollo comercial
      • Fuente: Steve Blank
    • Qué no hacer
    • Qué sí hacer
    Marketing para Startups
    • Producto – ahora que?
    Marketing para Startups ¿Y los clientes, apá?
    • TechCrunch?
    Marketing para Startups X
    • Respuesta 1: “ Get out of the building! ”
    Marketing para Startups X
    • Respuesta 2: “ Sell it before you build it ”
    Marketing para Startups
    • Crea un Landing Page
    Marketing para Startups
    • Encuentra los clientes adecuados
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Steve Blank, “ Four Steps to the Epiphany ”
    • Usa los canales adecuados
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Steve Blank, “ Four Steps to the Epiphany ”
    • Considera el costo de adquisición de clientes
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Venturefizz.com
    • Aprovecha el proceso social
      • Enfoque en UN segmento
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Carnegie Mellon University
    • Aprovecha el proceso social
      • Enfoque en UN segmento
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Carnegie Mellon University
    • Aprovecha el proceso social
      • Enfoque en UN segmento
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Carnegie Mellon University
    • Aprovecha el proceso social
      • Enfoque en UN segmento
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Carnegie Mellon University
    • Aprovecha el proceso social
      • Enfoque en UN segmento
    Marketing para Startups Ref: Carnegie Mellon University
    • Enfoque en Tracción
    Marketing para Startups
    • Usa Métricas
      • Para encontrar un proceso predecible
    Marketing para Startups
    • Usa las métricas correctas
      • Adquisición
      • Activación
      • Retención
      • Referencias
      • Revenue (Ingresos)
    Marketing para Startups AARRR! Ref: Dave McClure, “ Startup metrics for pirates ”
    • Ahora sí, a TechCrunch (&NYT, & WSJ, etc.)
    Marketing para Startups
  • Crecimiento Cómo se Desarrollan los Mercados Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
  • Crecimiento
      • El Ciclo de Adopción de la Tecnología:
      • Adaptar la estrategia de acuerdo a la etapa del ciclo
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Chasm
    • El ciclo de adopción de tecnología
    • Cómo vender a clientes convencionales
    Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
    • El ciclo de adopción de tecnología
      • Perfiles de Adopción de Tecnología
    Techies (Innovadores) Visionarios (Adopción temprana) Pragmáticos (Mayoría temprana) Conservadores (Mayoría tardía) Escépticos (Rezagados) Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    • El ciclo de adopción de tecnología
      • Respuestas ante la Adopción de Tecnología
    Techies (Innovadores) Visionarios (Adopción temprana) Pragmáticos (Mayoría temprana) Conservadores (Mayoría tardía) Escépticos (Rezagados) Probarla Adelantarse a los demás Hacer lo mismo que los demás Esperar No cambiar Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    • Cómo vender a clientes convencionales
      • El Abismo
    Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    • Cómo vender a clientes convencionales
      • Cruzando el Abismo: Enfoque en un segmento inicial
    Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    • Cómo vender a clientes convencionales
      • Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
    Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: Geoffrey Moore
    Early Market Bowling Alley Tornado Main Street
    • Cómo vender a clientes convencionales
      • Implicaciones para Ventas y Marketing
    Objetivo del Cliente: Ventaja Competitiva Resolver un problema Adoptar la solución obvia Extender el paradigma Necesidad del cliente: Solución completa La opción segura El mejor trato Potencial de la tecnología Objetivo del proveedor: Participación en el segmento Participación de mercado Rentabilidad Validar la tecnología Estrategia: Mostrar ROI Definir estándares Enfoque en segmentos Demostrar la tecnología Habilidades: Conocer al cliente Cerrar el trato Manejo de la relación Habilidad técnica Cómo se desarrollan los mercados
      • Fuente: The Chasm Institute
    • Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
    • Variables de creación del mercado
    • Variables de atractividad del mercado
    • Variables de penetración del mercado
    Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
    • Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
      • Elementos de la estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
    1. Cliente objetivo 2. Razón para comprar 3. Producto completo 4. Socios y Aliados 5. Distribución 6. Precio 7. Competencia 8. Posicionamiento 9. Siguiente objetivo Fuente de ingresos Para satisfacer la razón para comprar En función de la complejidad del producto completo Por el dinero del cliente Siguiente movimiento Origen de la demanda Requeridos para el producto completo En función de todos los demás factores Relativo a la competencia
      • Fuente: The Chasm Companion
    Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
    • Variables de creación del mercado
      • Cliente objetivo
        • Comprador económico identificado, accesible por el canal de distribución, y con suficientes fondos para pagar el precio del producto completo
      • Razón para comprar
        • Consecuencias económicas suficientes para asegurar que cualquier comprador razonable quiera resolver el problema
      • Producto completo
        • La habilidad (con la ayuda de socios y aliados) de proporcionar una solución completa a la razón para comprar del cliente
    Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
      • Fuente: The Chasm Companion
    • Variables de atractividad del mercado
      • Socios y Aliados
        • Relaciones con las demás compañías que se necesitan para ofrecer el producto completo
      • Distribución
        • Canal de ventas que pueda accesar al cliente objetivo y satisfacer los requerimientos de distribución del producto
      • Precio
        • Precio del producto completo consistente con el presupuesto del cliente y el valor obtenido al resolver el problema
    Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
      • Fuente: The Chasm Companion
    • Variables de penetración del mercado
      • Competencia
        • Enfocarse en un espacio que no ha sido ocupado por otra compañía
      • Posicionamiento
        • Establecer credibilidad como un proveedor de productos y servicios al mercado objetivo
      • Siguiente objetivo
        • Potencial para facilitar la entrada en segmentos adyacentes
    Estrategia de desarrollo del mercado
      • Fuente: The Chasm Companion
    • Ventas & Marketing son un proceso
    • El Proceso de venta inicia mucho antes
    • El Desarrollo Comercial va de la mano con el cliente
    • Clave: Desarrollo del producto correcto y las características alrededor del producto correcto
    • Enfoque en etapa del mercado correcta
    Resumen
    • Si no te da vergüenza, es que esperaste demasiado
    Resumen Youtube: “Steve Ballmer Windows 1.0”
        • La única manera de evitar los fracasos es no hacer nada
    Resumen Ref: Bob Sutton (Stanford University)