Childhood And History Ppt
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  • 1. Childhood and History
  • 2. Focus of the content
    • 1. the transformation of the idea of children
    • 2. the idea of education toward children
    • 3. the trend of children’s literature
    • 4. the influence of the printing toward
    • children’s literature
    • 5. Rhyme and oral tradition in children’s
    • literature
  • 3. Children’s Literature
    • Generally
    • -- politics, social customs, religion and economics ( Little Women)
    • Specifically
    • --helps define family life and the roles of men and women ( Red Riding Hood/Snow White)
    • --affect our behavior and attitudes
  • 4. Before the sixteenth century
    • A. In the medieval world
    • ---no place for childhood
    • 1. shorter life span
    • 2. children work for economic reasons
    • --children were taken as young adults
  • 5. Before the sixteenth century
    • B. storytellers, ritual, and tradition
    • --nonliterate—before 15th century, literature encased in the oral tradition
    • --traditional (oral) tradition—stories in caves about real and metaphorical beasts; unexplained forces of nature—lightning, thunder, fire, the sun and the moon
    • Greek Mythology
  • 6. Before the sixteenth century
        • B. function of the stories
        • — bound the tribe together, providing a common body of knowledge
    • --children were told what to believe,
    • how to act, and what roles to play
    • --socialize children into the linguistic
    • and moral practices of the tribe
  • 7. Before the sixteenth century
    • ----reveal common psychological impulses, as fears, needs and universal human problems
  • 8. Before the sixteenth century
    • the dual role of the storyteller
    • —a historian (the genealogy and important events of the tribe; a fantasist
    • —a person who created and retold stories to entertain and instruct listeners in the values and mores of society
    • --storytellers are transient, traveling from castle to cottage
  • 9. Before the sixteenth century
    • -- Illuminated manuscripts , drawn and copied by monks in medieval monasteries
    • -- courtesy books —flourished in the fifteenth century; very instructive and often in rhyme
  • 10. Before the sixteenth century
    • From oral tradition to print
    • --traditional literature/invention of the printing press in the middle 1400s
    • --more people to learn to read
    • --schooling become possible for the rising European middle class (boys had to have books)
  • 11. Before the sixteenth century
    • From oral tradition to print
    • --William Caxton—publication of the first book
    • -- Aesop’s Fables (1484); Morte D’Arthur (1485); History of Reynard the Fox (1481)
    • --folk literature—children as the first-time audience
  • 12. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • renaissance (1300s-1600s)—give dignity to human life and human achievement
      • demands for all kinds of books—religion, law, medicine, practical manuals, education, arithmetic, astronomy, science, geography, news and literature
  • 13. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
      • Wynken de Worde (continue the printing business)
    • Valentine and Orson (1504)
  • 14. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
      • Religious didacticism
      • — John Fox’s Book of martyrs (1563)
        • protestantism—emphasis of personal salvation
        • break with Roman Catholicism—literature—the personal search for a heavenly end
  • 15. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • Religious didacticism
    • John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress— allegorical, didactic odyssey of a Christian seeking salvation struck a chord in younger readers
  • 16. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • Two of the most famous example verses are as follows
    • Now I lay me down to sleep,
    • I pray thee, Lord, my soul to keep;
    • If I should die before I wake,
    • I pray thee, Lord, my soul to take.
    • — 1784 ed.
    • In Adam's Fall ,
    • we sinned all.
  • 17. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • -- Chapbooks —small paper booklets—available to common people
    • Tom Thumb His Life and Death
    • -- Hornbooks —wooden boards shaped like paddles and covered with a very thin layers of transparent horn
  • 18. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • --religious didacticism— New England Primer
    • A Picture Book and Fairy Tales
    • Charles Perrault (1697)—Mother Goose Tales in France
    • 2. Brother Grimm in Germany—collect the tales in oral tradition “Cinderella,” “Puss in Boots,” “Sleeping Beauty”
  • 19. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    • at the turn of 17th century—ephemeral fairy tales replaced the heavy-handedness of religious didacticism
    • 4. John Locke— Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1673)
    • Tabula rasa, blank slate (go against the idea of “original sin”)
  • 20. The Eighteenth Century
    • 1. Mother Goose nursery rhymes— Humpty Dumpty (ridicule the aristocrats)
    • 2. nursery rhymes—political satire, nonsensical, weather, human traits, human folly
    • 3. Enduring Legacies of Mother Goose—
    • a. Mother Goose—verse and fairy
    • tale
  • 21. The Eighteenth Century
    • 4.adventure and satire —emerged from the puritanical world of the early 1700s
    • The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
    • by Daniel Defoe (1719)
    • Guilliver Travels by Jonathan Swift (1726)
    • 5. Childhood Recognized
    • John Newberry— A Little Pretty Pocket Book (1744) and Good Two Shoes (1745)
    • ---for entertaining and instructive
    • --the Newberry Medal
  • 22. The Eighteenth Century
    • 6. Scientific Didacticism
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78)— émile (1762)—provide an example of the child brought up naturally (an entirely different concept of schooling)
    • 7. “a stock literary character emerging in books for children”
  • 23. The Nineteenth Century
    • Brothers Grimm , Jacob and Wilhelm—collected folktales
    • Grimm’s Fairy Tales (1823)
    • Hans Christian Andersen —composed his original fairy tales
    • “ The Emperor’s New Clothes,” “Thumbelina,” and “The Steadfast Tin Soldier,” “Ugly Duckling”
  • 24. The Nineteenth Century
    • Children’s Literature Enters a “Golden Age”
    • --burgeoning industrial revolution and the technology
    • Christmas Carol(1843) by Charles Dickens
    • Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll)
  • 25. The Nineteenth Century
    • - revolutionized ideas about what was appropriate or permissible for children
    • - - Rich in theme, imagery and whimsy
    • Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott
  • 26. The Nineteenth Century
    • Victorian era (known for its middle class ethos
    • --children have books on manners, morals, and the mores of society
    • -- Adventure of Tom Sawyer (1876)
    • --illustrators (combine Art and text)
    • --literature for pleasure rather than
    • for admonition
  • 27. The Twentieth Century
    • picture books—early twentieth century
    • 1920s and 1930s—marked by an interest in individual differences
    • growth and development in intelligence, language, and social behavior
    • an influx of talented writers and illustrators
  • 28. The Twentieth Century
    • e.1940s and 1950s —family stories, fantasies, historical fiction
    • --interest in psychological theories of Jean Piaget
    • f. 1950s and 1960s —an awareness of social inequity
    • g. 1970s—1990s —the breaking of taboos in content
  • 29. Summary
    • children’s literature emerged when societal and cultural forces defined a period of childhood
    • the double nature of children’s literature: to entertain and to instruct
    • the definition of childhood continue to evolve