Childhood And History Ppt


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Childhood And History Ppt

  1. 1. Childhood and History
  2. 2. Focus of the content <ul><li>1. the transformation of the idea of children </li></ul><ul><li>2. the idea of education toward children </li></ul><ul><li>3. the trend of children’s literature </li></ul><ul><li>4. the influence of the printing toward </li></ul><ul><li>children’s literature </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rhyme and oral tradition in children’s </li></ul><ul><li>literature </li></ul>
  3. 3. Children’s Literature <ul><li>Generally </li></ul><ul><li>-- politics, social customs, religion and economics ( Little Women) </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically </li></ul><ul><li>--helps define family life and the roles of men and women ( Red Riding Hood/Snow White) </li></ul><ul><li>--affect our behavior and attitudes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>A. In the medieval world </li></ul><ul><li>---no place for childhood </li></ul><ul><li>1. shorter life span </li></ul><ul><li>2. children work for economic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>--children were taken as young adults </li></ul>
  5. 5. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>B. storytellers, ritual, and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>--nonliterate—before 15th century, literature encased in the oral tradition </li></ul><ul><li>--traditional (oral) tradition—stories in caves about real and metaphorical beasts; unexplained forces of nature—lightning, thunder, fire, the sun and the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Mythology </li></ul>
  6. 6. Before the sixteenth century <ul><ul><ul><li>B. function of the stories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>— bound the tribe together, providing a common body of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>--children were told what to believe, </li></ul><ul><li>how to act, and what roles to play </li></ul><ul><li>--socialize children into the linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>and moral practices of the tribe </li></ul>
  7. 7. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>----reveal common psychological impulses, as fears, needs and universal human problems </li></ul>
  8. 8. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>the dual role of the storyteller </li></ul><ul><li>—a historian (the genealogy and important events of the tribe; a fantasist </li></ul><ul><li>—a person who created and retold stories to entertain and instruct listeners in the values and mores of society </li></ul><ul><li>--storytellers are transient, traveling from castle to cottage </li></ul>
  9. 9. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>-- Illuminated manuscripts , drawn and copied by monks in medieval monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>-- courtesy books —flourished in the fifteenth century; very instructive and often in rhyme </li></ul>
  10. 10. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>From oral tradition to print </li></ul><ul><li>--traditional literature/invention of the printing press in the middle 1400s </li></ul><ul><li>--more people to learn to read </li></ul><ul><li>--schooling become possible for the rising European middle class (boys had to have books) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Before the sixteenth century <ul><li>From oral tradition to print </li></ul><ul><li>--William Caxton—publication of the first book </li></ul><ul><li>-- Aesop’s Fables (1484); Morte D’Arthur (1485); History of Reynard the Fox (1481) </li></ul><ul><li>--folk literature—children as the first-time audience </li></ul>
  12. 12. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>renaissance (1300s-1600s)—give dignity to human life and human achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>demands for all kinds of books—religion, law, medicine, practical manuals, education, arithmetic, astronomy, science, geography, news and literature </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><ul><li>Wynken de Worde (continue the printing business) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valentine and Orson (1504) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><ul><li>Religious didacticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>— John Fox’s Book of martyrs (1563) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protestantism—emphasis of personal salvation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>break with Roman Catholicism—literature—the personal search for a heavenly end </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>Religious didacticism </li></ul><ul><li>John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress— allegorical, didactic odyssey of a Christian seeking salvation struck a chord in younger readers </li></ul>
  16. 16. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>Two of the most famous example verses are as follows </li></ul><ul><li>Now I lay me down to sleep, </li></ul><ul><li>I pray thee, Lord, my soul to keep; </li></ul><ul><li>If I should die before I wake, </li></ul><ul><li>I pray thee, Lord, my soul to take. </li></ul><ul><li>— 1784 ed. </li></ul><ul><li>In Adam's Fall , </li></ul><ul><li>we sinned all. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>-- Chapbooks —small paper booklets—available to common people </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Thumb His Life and Death </li></ul><ul><li>-- Hornbooks —wooden boards shaped like paddles and covered with a very thin layers of transparent horn </li></ul>
  18. 18. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>--religious didacticism— New England Primer </li></ul><ul><li>A Picture Book and Fairy Tales </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Perrault (1697)—Mother Goose Tales in France </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brother Grimm in Germany—collect the tales in oral tradition “Cinderella,” “Puss in Boots,” “Sleeping Beauty” </li></ul>
  19. 19. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries <ul><li>at the turn of 17th century—ephemeral fairy tales replaced the heavy-handedness of religious didacticism </li></ul><ul><li>4. John Locke— Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1673) </li></ul><ul><li>Tabula rasa, blank slate (go against the idea of “original sin”) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Eighteenth Century <ul><li>1. Mother Goose nursery rhymes— Humpty Dumpty (ridicule the aristocrats) </li></ul><ul><li>2. nursery rhymes—political satire, nonsensical, weather, human traits, human folly </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enduring Legacies of Mother Goose— </li></ul><ul><li>a. Mother Goose—verse and fairy </li></ul><ul><li>tale </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Eighteenth Century <ul><li>4.adventure and satire —emerged from the puritanical world of the early 1700s </li></ul><ul><li>The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe </li></ul><ul><li>by Daniel Defoe (1719) </li></ul><ul><li>Guilliver Travels by Jonathan Swift (1726) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Childhood Recognized </li></ul><ul><li>John Newberry— A Little Pretty Pocket Book (1744) and Good Two Shoes (1745) </li></ul><ul><li>---for entertaining and instructive </li></ul><ul><li>--the Newberry Medal </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Eighteenth Century <ul><li>6. Scientific Didacticism </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78)— émile (1762)—provide an example of the child brought up naturally (an entirely different concept of schooling) </li></ul><ul><li>7. “a stock literary character emerging in books for children” </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Nineteenth Century <ul><li>Brothers Grimm , Jacob and Wilhelm—collected folktales </li></ul><ul><li>Grimm’s Fairy Tales (1823) </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Christian Andersen —composed his original fairy tales </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Emperor’s New Clothes,” “Thumbelina,” and “The Steadfast Tin Soldier,” “Ugly Duckling” </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Nineteenth Century <ul><li>Children’s Literature Enters a “Golden Age” </li></ul><ul><li>--burgeoning industrial revolution and the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas Carol(1843) by Charles Dickens </li></ul><ul><li>Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll) </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Nineteenth Century <ul><li>- revolutionized ideas about what was appropriate or permissible for children </li></ul><ul><li>- - Rich in theme, imagery and whimsy </li></ul><ul><li>Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Nineteenth Century <ul><li>Victorian era (known for its middle class ethos </li></ul><ul><li>--children have books on manners, morals, and the mores of society </li></ul><ul><li>-- Adventure of Tom Sawyer (1876) </li></ul><ul><li>--illustrators (combine Art and text) </li></ul><ul><li>--literature for pleasure rather than </li></ul><ul><li>for admonition </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Twentieth Century <ul><li>picture books—early twentieth century </li></ul><ul><li>1920s and 1930s—marked by an interest in individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>growth and development in intelligence, language, and social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>an influx of talented writers and illustrators </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Twentieth Century <ul><li>e.1940s and 1950s —family stories, fantasies, historical fiction </li></ul><ul><li>--interest in psychological theories of Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>f. 1950s and 1960s —an awareness of social inequity </li></ul><ul><li>g. 1970s—1990s —the breaking of taboos in content </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>children’s literature emerged when societal and cultural forces defined a period of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>the double nature of children’s literature: to entertain and to instruct </li></ul><ul><li>the definition of childhood continue to evolve </li></ul>