Narative Theories
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Narative Theories

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    Narative Theories Narative Theories Presentation Transcript

    • SECTION A: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COURSEWORK Narrative Theory
    • Section A: Theoretical Evaluation  You will be asked 2 questions about your coursework.  Question 1(a) will ask you to describe and evaluate the development of your coursework from your AS Production to your A2 Production.  You will be asked to do this in relation to one or two of the following areas:  Digital technology  Creativity  Research and Planning  Post-production  Use of media conventions
    • Question 1(b)  Question 1(b) will ask you to choose one coursework product (either AS or A2) and evaluate it in relation to a theoretical concept.  The exam will specify one concept from the following:  Genre  Narrative  Representation  Audience  Media Language
    • Narrative Theory  Narrative theory analyses the way in which media texts communicate meaning about events.  Narrative theory can be applied to range of different media including film, TV. Photographs, and magazines.  Narrative analysis of internet based media is more problematic, though may still be relevant. For example, you could consider how someone’s Facebook profile creates a narrative about their life.
    • Key Narrative Theorists  Branigan  Propp  Barthes  Todorov  Levi-Strauss
    • Edward Branigan  Branigan argues that narrative is ‘ a way of organising spatial and temporal data into a cause-effect chain of events with a beginning, a middle and end that embodies a judgement about the nature of events.’  What is Branigan saying? Can you think of an example?  Branigan’s key point is that the narrative will embody a judgement – ideology and narrative.
    • Vladimir Propp  Propp suggests that there are a limited number of character types that share a function.  When an audience reads a media text it deploys its knowledge of these character types in order to decode the meaning of the text.  Can you relate any of the character types to the characters in your coursework products?
    • Tzvetan Todorov  Equilibrium – disequilibrium – resolution.  How might this be used to analyse the ideology of a media text?
    • Roland Barthes  Barthes identifies 5 narrative codes which readers use to decode texts.  He emphasises the active role of readers in creating meaning, and their ‘culturally formed expectations’.  The narrative codes are:  Action  Enigma  Semic  Symbolic  Cultural
    • Claude Levi-Strauss  Narratives are structured by pairs of binary oppositions.  How can this be used to analyse media texts?
    • Review Theorists Theorist Why does this theory apply to my film? Todorov Propp Levi-Strauss Barthes
    • Narrative Analysis  Apply one of the narrative theories to the analysis of the music video.  Narrative analysis involves considering how a range of elements (including mise-en-scene, editing, camerawork, sound, as well as events) create meaning for the audience.  Narrative analysis focuses on how the meanings made by the audience are constructed?  How useful is this approach?
    • Todorov  Equilibrium – the geeky girl is in love with the boy next door who only sees her as a friend.  Disequilibrium – the boy’s girlfriend cheats on him?  Resolution – the geeky girl is transformed into a beautiful girl and gets together with the boy.  What sort of values are reinforced by this narrative structure?
    • Propp – character types  Hero – character who seeks something – Taylor Swift  Villain – character who the hero must overcome – the girlfriend  Princess – the boy – he is the reward for the hero.  What effect does the use of these character types have?  Why might the hero and villain be female?  What values are reinforced by this?
    • Levi-strauss – binary oppositions  The video involves a number of pairs of opposites reflecting (and resolving) the narrative conflicts.  There are different sets of oppositions between the jock/the geek, and the cheerleader/the geek.  These oppositions identify the central ideological messages of the video.
    • Binary Opposites  Male  Sociable  Popular  Sport  Object  Female  Studious  Unpopular  Reading  Subject Jock Nerd
    • Levi-Strauss  What are the key conflicts?  Which values are dominant in the pairs?  How are the conflicts resolved?  What messages are conveyed through this narrative?
    • Barthes – Narrative Codes  Action – Viewers are expected to connect different pieces of narrative (e.g. The boy is shown arguing on his phone – viewer assumes it is with his girlfriend).  Enigma – Will the jock and the geek get together?  Semic – glasses, book, notepads, red car, uniforms, white dress/red dress  Symbolic – conflicts between male/female, popular/unpopular, different types of femininity  Cultural – the video draws on stereotypes/cliches of teen movies – jock, cheerleader, geek, girl next door, prom, etc.
    • Narrative Revision  Remember to go into the exam with key points on theories relevant to your film:  Propp  Barthes  Todorov  Levi-Strauss  Postmodern Theory