Module 01 (Student) Introduction To The Scientific Study Of Life


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  • Figure 27.1 Asexual reproduction of an aggregating sea anemone ( Anthopleura elegantissima ) by fission.
  • Figure 27.2A Asexual (left) and sexual (right) reproduction in the starlet sea anemone ( Nematostella vectensis ).
  • Figure 27.2B Hermaphroditic earthworms mating.
  • Figure 27.2C Frogs in an embrace that triggers the release of eggs and sperm (the sperm are too small to be seen).
  • Module 01 (Student) Introduction To The Scientific Study Of Life

    1. 1. Introduction: The Scientific Study of Life <ul><li>Biology is the Study of Life. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Life? </li></ul>
    2. 2. The genetic information in DNA underlies all of the features that distinguish life from nonlife <ul><ul><li>Order and regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of energy from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to environmental stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary change </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Order and Regulation: Feedback Inhibition
    4. 4. Growth and Development
    5. 5. Ecosystem: Energy Flow and Material Cycling
    6. 6. <ul><li>Nearly all the energy that organisms use comes ultimately from sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>It flows through an ecosystem in one direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals recycle among living organisms and their environment </li></ul>BCC – 5 – 5 Sunlight energy Chloroplasts, site of photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O Glucose + O 2 Mitochondria sites of cellular respiration (for cellular work) Heat energy
    7. 7. Response to Environmental Stimuli
    8. 8. Asexual Reproduction – Fission
    9. 9. Eggs Asexual Reproduction – Budding; Sexual Reproduction – Laying Eggs
    10. 10. Hermaphroditism
    11. 11. Eggs Sexual Reproduction
    12. 12. Figure 15.1
    13. 13. <ul><li>Interactions between different kinds of organisms affect the lives of all </li></ul><ul><li>A structural hierarchy of life, from molecules to ecosystems, defines the scope of biology </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all organisms living in a particular area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all nonliving physical components of the environment that affect the organisms (soil, water, air, rocks, wind) </li></ul></ul>THE SCOPE OF BIOLOGY
    14. 14. Life’s Heirachy – Organizational Levels of Life
    15. 15. Life’s Heirachy – Organizational Levels of Life (con’d)
    16. 16. <ul><li>Taxonomy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping organisms by fundamental features helps make the vast diversity of life manageable for study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists classify organisms into a hierarchy of broader and broader groups according to characteristics. </li></ul></ul>The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains EVOLUTION, UNITY, AND DIVERSITY
    17. 17. Taxonomy – Classification of Organisms <ul><li>Species: One kind of organism that has similar characteristics and can interbreed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each species has a two-part name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First part: Genus name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with the second part, it designates one particular species name </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Domain Bacteria – Kingdom Monera
    19. 19. Domain Archea – Kingdom Monera
    20. 20. Domain Eucarya – Kingdom Protista
    21. 21. Domain Eukarya – Kingdom Fungi
    22. 22. Domain Eukarya – Kingdom Plantae
    23. 23. Domain Eukarya – Kingdom Animalia
    24. 24. <ul><li>All organisms share a set of common features, signs of unity in life’s vast diversity </li></ul><ul><li>These orchids show the variety possible within one species </li></ul>Unity with Diversity : All forms of life have common features BCC – 4 – 1
    25. 25. The Cell Theory <ul><li>The cell is the basic unit of life. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are made of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms have DNA as their genetic blueprint. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>DNA is a nucleic acid, made of chemical units called nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Each species has its own nucleotide sequence </li></ul>BCC – 4 – 1
    27. 27. <ul><li>Natural selection is the editing mechanism of populations. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Darwin’s way of explaining evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution happens when populations of organisms with inherited variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the success of some individuals over others </li></ul>BCC – 4 – 1 Natural selection
    28. 28. <ul><li>Charles Darwin is a central figure in biology </li></ul><ul><li>He synthesized the concept of natural selection as a way to explain the theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution is the unifying theme of biology </li></ul>Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life BBC – 4 – 1
    29. 29. <ul><li>The theory of natural selection explains the main mechanism whereby all species of organisms change, or evolve </li></ul>BBC – 4 – 1 (1) Population with varied inherited traits (2) Elimination of individuals with certain traits (3) Reproduction of survivors
    30. 30. Evolution is based on adaptations to the environment –
    31. 31. <ul><li>The theory of natural selection applies to all levels in life’s hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>In an ecosystem, these interactions make up a complex web of relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The functional aspects of an ecosystem primarily come from the trophic structure of the ecosystem’s web </li></ul></ul>Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs
    32. 32. <ul><li>A web of interactions in a rain forest ecosystem </li></ul>Figure
    33. 33. <ul><li>Many technological advances stem from the scientific study of life </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating everyday reports in the press about a large range of subjects requires critical thinking and some familiarity with many areas of biology </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand how rain forest destruction impacts global climate, it is important to understand biology from the molecular to the ecosystem level </li></ul>Figure
    34. 34. <ul><li>Plants, or plant products, are the ultimate sources of food in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This African sunbird is consuming nectar, a plant product </li></ul></ul>Figure
    35. 35. <ul><li>The lives of gray-headed flying foxes are closely entwined with the lives of the eucalyptus trees that form their habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus trees provide food and roosting sites for the flying foxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying foxes aid in eucalyptus pollination and help disperse the resulting seeds </li></ul></ul>Life in the Trees
    36. 36. <ul><li>Flying foxes are becoming an endangered species, partly because of habitat destruction </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Biology is connected to a great number of important issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental problems and solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul>Connection: Biology is connected to our lives in many ways BIOLOGY AND EVERYDAY LIFE Figure
    38. 38. Many technological advances stem from the scientific study of life: <ul><li>Evaluating everyday reports in the press about a large range of subjects requires critical thinking and some familiarity with many areas of biology. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy/Physiology (Gross/Micro-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paleontology </li></ul></ul>