Morphology is the study of the patterns of word formation in a particular lan guage. It is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given languages morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, or intonation/stress.
A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word (such as ”dog”) or a word element (such as the ”-s”at the end of ”dogs”) that cant be divided into smaller meaningful parts.
Morphemes have four defining characteristics:- They cannot be subdivided. For example, we could break the morpheme "cat" down into the "c" sound, the "a" sound, and the "t" sound. But none of these sounds by itself conveys any meaning- They add meaning to a word. We could begin with "cat" and add the morpheme "-s" (meaning plural) to get "cats." Here weve changed the meaning of the word from one cat to more than one cat.- They can appear in many different words. For example, the latin morpheme “duc” (meaning lead,draw,pull‘ can be used in different words such as “reduce”, “deduce” or “seduce”.- They can have any number of syllables. The word "hurricane" is a single morpheme with 3 syllables.
Morphemes are commonly classified into freemorphemes : - Which can occur as separate words. (Ex. “dog”)And bound morphemes: - Which cant stand alone as words. (Ex. “-ing”)
- A root word is a word without any word parts addedto the beginning or end.- There are 3 different forms of affixes: - Prefixes: placed before a root word. - Sufixes: placed after a root word. - Infixes: placed in the middle of a root word. Examples
Note: There are times when the root word must be changed when a suffix is added. When a root word ends in a silent "e", the e is dropped before adding a suffix. (ex.) un + bake + ed becomes ”unbaked” When a root word ends in a consonant, the consonant is "doubled" beforeadding a suffix beginning with a vowel. (ex.) re + run + ing becomes rerunning
A morph is simply the phonetic representation of amorpheme - how the morpheme is said. Thisdistinction occurs because the morpheme can remainthe same, but the pronunciation changes.Cats - -s morpheme is pronounced /s/Dogs - -s morpheme is pronounced /z/Houses - -s morpheme is pronounced /ɪz/These various pronunciations are the morphs of themorpheme -s.
Allomorphs are the varieties of a morpheme, which isclosely related to the morph. The morph is just howyou pronounce the morpheme, the allomorph is thevariation in pronunciation.So, the morpheme -s (plural) has three allomorphswith the morph /s/, /z/, and /ɪz/.
A morphological process is a means of changing a root to adjust its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational context. Derivation Affixation Morphological Inflection Processes Compounding
Derivation Affixation is the process of Affixation forming a new word by the Morphological Inflection addition of Processes Compounding a morpheme (or affix) to an already existing word. There are 2 different ways to do it:• Inflection takes as input a word and outputs a form ofthe same word appropriate to a particular context:– e.g. buy -> bought• Derivation takes as input a word and output a differentword that is derived from the input word:– e.g. buy + er -> buyer
Takes as input a word and outputs a form of the same word appropriate to aparticular context: – e.g. buy -> bought.* These words don’t use to appear in dictionaries.INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES CAN BE OF:• Tense:Indicates the relative time at which the situation described by the sentence occurred: - e.g. “-ed” in“talked”, “-s” in “talks”, “-en” in “taken”.• Number:•(e.g. singular, plural, dual) “Cats”, “Boxes”• Aspect:Indicates the state of completion of the situation – e.g. perfective, progressive, experiential, etc.“talking”, “cleaning”, “reading”.• Degree:Often comparative (hotter) forms and superlative (hottest) forms are expressed• Case (or Possession): case (e.g. nominative, accusative, etc.) “-’s” in “the girl’s doll”,“hers”, “him”, etc.
Derivation takes as input a word and output adifferent word that is derived from the input word:– e.g. buy + er -> buyerThis type of morpheme often change the meaning ofthe word or the part of speech (word class) or both.Often create new words. They usually come indictionary. EXAMPLES: Kind – Unkind Able – Enable Dark - Darkness
Compounding is the combination of two already existing words: Rain + Bow = Rainbow Over + Come = Overcome Red + Head = Redhead Word + Formation = Word-formation Sometimes compounds can be spelled as just one word, or with an hifen.
COINAGECoinage is the word formation process inwhich a new word is created with no influenceof any other word. Examples:AspirinGoogleZipperKeroseneMuggle
BORROWINGA word from one language that has beenadapted for use in another. Examples:SalsaBungalowTobacco
BLENDINGA word formed by merging the sounds andmeanings of two or more other words or wordparts. Examples:Motorcade (Motor + Cavalcade)Emoticon (Emote + Icon)Smash (Smack + Mash)
CLIPPING (or BACKFORMATION)A word formed by dropping one ormore syllablesfrom a polysyllabic word, suchas cell from cellular phone. Examples:Celebs (from Celebrities)Hippo (from Hippopotamus)Info (from Information)Intro (from Introduction)
CONVERSIONAssigns an already existing word to a newword class (part of speech)or syntactic category. Examples:Henry downed a pint of beer.Melissa went to town and did a buy.I eared her language.
ACRONYMSWords which are formed from the initialletters of other words. Examples:LOL (Laughing Out Loud)NASA (National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration)
http://grammar.about.com/ http://vocablog-plc.blogspot.pt http://pt.scribd.com http://en.wikipedia.org www.sil.org http://nicedefinition.com www2.hawaii.edu www.usingenglish.com www.studyzone.org www.readingrockets.org www.ruf.rice.edu darkwing.uoregon.edu www.encyclopedia.com i.ytimg.com a.tribalfusion.com dictionary.reference.com buckhoff.topcities.com webspace.ship.edu languagelink.let.uu.nl gsteinbe.intrasun.tcnj.edu www.cs.bham.ac.uk cla.calpoly.eduAll rights reserved to: Laura Martins; Marcio Ferreira and Paula Sousa