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Overview of the Hive Stinger Initiative


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Dr. Eric N. Hanson, Principal Software Development Engineer at Microsoft and Apache Hive committer presents the recent improvements in Hive

Dr. Eric N. Hanson, Principal Software Development Engineer at Microsoft and Apache Hive committer presents the recent improvements in Hive

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  • 1. Overview of the Hive Stinger Initiative Eric N. Hanson Principal Software Development Engineer Microsoft HDInsight Team 30 June 2014
  • 2. What is Stinger?  Umbrella term for… • Faster query in Hive • ORC • Vectorization • Tez • Better language features for analysis • Window functions etc.
  • 3. Why Stinger? • Hive has good functionality • But it started out sloooowww • Need to speed it up • keep it competitive • make it fun to use
  • 4. ORC • A good columnstore format • Run length encoding, value encoding, dictionary encoding • Layers stream compression over the top • Written by Owen O’Malley •
  • 5. Using ORC • create table Tbl (col int) stored as orc; • orc.compress default ZLIB • See andvectorizationhadoopsummit
  • 6. TPC-DS File Sizes Page 6 *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 7. Vectorization Page 7
  • 8. How the code works (simplified) Page 8 class LongColumnAddLongScalarExpression { int inputColumn; int outputColumn; long scalar; void evaluate(VectorizedRowBatch batch) { long [] inVector = ((LongColumnVector) batch.columns[inputColumn]).vector; long [] outVector = ((LongColumnVector) batch.columns[outputColumn]).vector; if (batch.selectedInUse) { for (int j = 0; j < batch.size; j++) { int i = batch.selected[j]; outVector[i] = inVector[i] + scalar; } } else { for (int i = 0; i < batch.size; i++) { outVector[i] = inVector[i] + scalar; } } } } } No method calls Low instruction count Cache locality to 1024 values No pipeline stalls SIMD in Java 8
  • 9. Vectorization and Compilation • Vectorization “instructions” generated from templates • Example’s: –Int add col-col –Int add col-scalar –Int add scalar-col –Double add col-col –Double add col-scalar –Double add scalar-col –And hundreds more! • Pre-compilation of expressions • Reduces # of function calls and instructions at runtime • Expressions like (a + 2) / b are interpreted with these primitives
  • 10. Example of vectorized template code } else { if (batch.selectedInUse) { for(int j = 0; j != n; j++) { int i = sel[j]; outputVector[i] = vector1[i] <OperatorSymbol> vector2[i]; } } else { for(int i = 0; i != n; i++) { outputVector[i] = vector1[i] <OperatorSymbol> vector2[i]; } } }
  • 11. Using vectorization in Hive • set hive.vectorized.execution.enabled = true; • Run query over ORC • Only works for scalar types • Execution • ~5X CPU reduction
  • 12. Apache Tez (“Speed”) • Replaces MapReduce as primitive for Pig, Hive, Cascading etc. – Smaller latency for interactive queries – Higher throughput for batch queries – 22 contributors: Hortonworks (13), Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, Microsoft YARN ApplicationMaster to run DAG of Tez Tasks Task with pluggable Input, Processor and Output Tez Task - <Input, Processor, Output> Task ProcessorInput Output *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 13. Tez: Building blocks for scalable data processing Classical ‘Map’ Classical ‘Reduce’ Intermediate ‘Reduce’ for Map-Reduce-Reduce Map Processor HDFS Input Sorted Output Reduce Processor Shuffle Input HDFS Output Reduce Processor Shuffle Input Sorted Output *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 14. Hive – MR Hive – Tez Hive-on-MR vs. Hive-on-Tez SELECT a.x, AVERAGE(b.y) AS avg FROM a JOIN b ON ( = GROUP BY a UNION SELECT x, AVERAGE(y) AS AVG FROM c GROUP BY x ORDER BY AVG; SELECT a.state JOIN (a, c) SELECT c.price SELECT JOIN(a, b) GROUP BY a.state COUNT(*) AVERAGE(c.price) M M M R R M M R M M R M M R HDFS HDFS HDFS M M M R R R M M R R SELECT a.state, c.itemId JOIN (a, c) JOIN(a, b) GROUP BY a.state COUNT(*) AVERAGE(c.price) SELECT Tez avoids unneeded writes to HDFS *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 15. Tez Sessions … because Map/Reduce query startup is expensive • Tez Sessions –Hot containers ready for immediate use –Removes task and job launch overhead (~5s – 30s) • Hive –Session launch/shutdown in background (seamless, user not aware) –Submits query plan directly to Tez Session Native Hadoop service, not ad-hoc *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 16. Stinger Phase 3: Interactive Query In Hadoop Page 16 Hive 10 Trunk (Phase 3)Hive 0.11 (Phase 1) 190x Improvement 1400s 39s 7.2s TPC-DS Query 27 3200s 65s 14.9s TPC-DS Query 82 200x Improvement Query 27: Pricing Analytics using Star Schema Join Query 82: Inventory Analytics Joining 2 Large Fact Tables All Results at Scale Factor 200 (Approximately 200GB Data) *Courtesy of Hortonworks
  • 17. How you can use Stinger enhancements • Use Hive 13 • Use ORC: create table … stored as ORC • Enable vectorization: set hive.vectorized.execution.enabled=true • Enable Tez: set hive.execution.engine=tez • See interactive-queries-hive-tez/
  • 18. Reference(s) • Stinger overview, Strata, fall 2013: oct2013?qid=09d16028-bd7e-47d8-8438- 34f3242c6f0e&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1 Slides marked “Courtesy of Hortonworks” are from Hortonworks talks