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A Survey of
                      Procedural Methods for
                         Terrain Modelling




Ruben Smelik
Klaas...
Motivation for Automated Terrain Modelling

    • Game worlds are increasing in size, detail and visual realism
    • Manu...
Procedural content generation

    • Content generation procedures based on rules, random numbers, etc.

    • Also know a...
Current limitations

    • Too random, user has no real control over outcome
       • Trial and error

    • In-depth know...
Topics in Procedural Terrain Modelling

    1. Earth (height-maps, eroded landscapes)

    2. Water (oceans, rivers and la...
Earth - Height-map Generation

    • Subdivision

                                                                        ...
Earth - Erosion Simulation
    • Thermal erosion


                                         Benes, B. and Forsbach, R. (20...
Earth - Commercial Tools




               TerraGen (Planetside Software)
8                                              ...
Water - Rivers, Oceans and Lakes




                           Belhadj, F. and Audibert, P. (2005)
            Modeling L...
Vegetation - Plant Models

     • L-Systems (symbolic rewriting grammar)




                              Měch, R., Prusi...
Vegetation - Distribution Simulation
                        Realistic distribution of plants
                        base...
Vegetation - Commercial tools




                    SpeedTree (IDV, inc.)
                     XFrog (Greenworks)

12   ...
Road - Network Patterns




                       Sun, J., Yu, X., Baciu, G., and Green, M. (2002).
             Template...
Road - Network Generation

     • L-Systems with validity checks, slope constraints and population-
       oriented rules
...
Urban - Building Grammars

     • Split and Shape grammars




                 Müller, P., Wonka, P., Haegler, S., Ulmer,...
Urban - Commercial Tools




                 “Random” roads and city
                     Virtual Pompei
16              ...
Integrated Procedural Terrain Modelling




17                                     Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
Current Results




18                     Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
Conclusions

     • Procedural modelling is an active research area with many
       developments

     • Focus shifts fro...
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A Survey of Procedural Methods for Terrain Modelling

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CASA workshop 3AMIGAS (supported by FOCUS K3D and GATE)

Technical program presentation no. 3:
presenter Ruben Smelik, TNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Hague, The Netherlands

http://www.cs.uu.nl/events/3amigas/
http://www.focusk3d.eu/
http://gate.gameresearch.nl

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Transcript of "A Survey of Procedural Methods for Terrain Modelling"

  1. 1. A Survey of Procedural Methods for Terrain Modelling Ruben Smelik Klaas Jan de Kraker Saskia Groenewegen Tim Tutenel Rafael Bidarra
  2. 2. Motivation for Automated Terrain Modelling • Game worlds are increasing in size, detail and visual realism • Manual design requires effort, time, 3D modelling skills, money, etc. Wolfenstein 3D (id, 1992) Crysis (Crytek, 2007) 2 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  3. 3. Procedural content generation • Content generation procedures based on rules, random numbers, etc. • Also know as data amplification algorithms: • Few parameters => large amount of content • Common techniques: • Fractals • Rewriting systems • Simulations • Advantages: • Saves effort / time / money • Variation through randomness • Storage 3 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  4. 4. Current limitations • Too random, user has no real control over outcome • Trial and error • In-depth knowledge and experimentation required • Unintuitive parameters, e.g. “persistence” • Methods have not (yet) been integrated properly 4 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  5. 5. Topics in Procedural Terrain Modelling 1. Earth (height-maps, eroded landscapes) 2. Water (oceans, rivers and lakes) 3. Vegetation (plant models, distribution) 4. Road (networks) 5. Urban (buildings, facades) 5 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  6. 6. Earth - Height-map Generation • Subdivision Miller, G. S. P. (1986) The Definition and Rendering of Terrain Maps. • Fractal Brownian Motion (using Perlin Noise) Musgrave, F. K. (1993) 6 Methods for Realistic Landscape Imaging. Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  7. 7. Earth - Erosion Simulation • Thermal erosion Benes, B. and Forsbach, R. (2001) Layered Data Representation for Visual Simulation of Terrain Erosion. • Fluvial erosion Anh, N. H., Sourin, A., and Aswani, P. (2007) Physically based Hydraulic Erosion Simulation on Graphics Processing Unit. 7 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  8. 8. Earth - Commercial Tools TerraGen (Planetside Software) 8 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  9. 9. Water - Rivers, Oceans and Lakes Belhadj, F. and Audibert, P. (2005) Modeling Landscapes with Ridges and Rivers: Bottom Up Approach. 9 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  10. 10. Vegetation - Plant Models • L-Systems (symbolic rewriting grammar) Měch, R., Prusinkiewicz, P. (1994). Visual models of plants interacting with their environment. 10 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  11. 11. Vegetation - Distribution Simulation Realistic distribution of plants based on an ecosystem model Deussen, O., Hanrahan, P., Lintermann, B., Měch, R., Pharr, M., and Prusinkiewicz, P. (1998). Realistic Modeling and Rendering of Plant Ecosystems. 11 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  12. 12. Vegetation - Commercial tools SpeedTree (IDV, inc.) XFrog (Greenworks) 12 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  13. 13. Road - Network Patterns Sun, J., Yu, X., Baciu, G., and Green, M. (2002). Template-based Generation of Road Networks for Virtual City Modeling. 13 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  14. 14. Road - Network Generation • L-Systems with validity checks, slope constraints and population- oriented rules Parish, Y. I. H. and Müller, P. (2001). Procedural Modeling of Cities. 14 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  15. 15. Urban - Building Grammars • Split and Shape grammars Müller, P., Wonka, P., Haegler, S., Ulmer, A., and Gool, L. V. (2006) Wonka, P., Wimmer, M., Sillion, F., and Ribarsky, W. (2003) Procedural Modeling of Buildings. Instant Architecture. 15 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  16. 16. Urban - Commercial Tools “Random” roads and city Virtual Pompei 16 CityEngine (Procedural, inc.) Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  17. 17. Integrated Procedural Terrain Modelling 17 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  18. 18. Current Results 18 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009
  19. 19. Conclusions • Procedural modelling is an active research area with many developments • Focus shifts from height-map generation to urban environments • Research directions: • Performance • GPU programming • More detailed urban environments • E.g. building interiors • Integrated frameworks with intuitive controls 19 Amsterdam,Tuesday, June 16 2009

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