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  • 1. Pre – teaching Questions
    • Have you ever answered a survey Questionnaire?
    • Have you ever made a Questionnaire?
    • Have you ever written a Questionnaire
    • Do you remember what it looks like?
    • How many parts are there?
    • Do you like answering a Questionnaire?
  • 2. Questionnaire
      • What is in this lesson:
      • Advantages and disadvantages
      • Considerations in administering a questionnaire
      • Analysis of questionnaire data
    Obj. 3.1, 3.2 & 3.5
  • 3. What are Questionnaires and what do they measure?
    • Questionnaires are any written instruments that present respondents with a series of questions or statements to which they are to react either writing out their answers or selecting from among existing answers”
    • Brown (2001,p6)
    Obj. 3.3
  • 4. Three types of data in questionaires
      • Factual question : (classification/subject descriptors)=> who are the respondents?
      • Age/gender/race
      • Residential location/ marital and sicioeconomic status, level of education, occupation
      • Other background information
      • *** years of learning English, text books used … if that is research on ELT
    Obj. 3.4
  • 5. 2. Behavioural Questions
    • Ask what respondents are doing or have done in the past
    • people’s action, life-styles, habits
    • **** in L2 studies, these ask about the frequency of using a language learning strategy
    Obj. 3.4
  • 6. 3. Attitudinal Questions
    • Find out what people think
    • Attitudes
    • Opinions
    • beliefs
    • Interests
    • values
    Obj. 3.4
  • 7. Advantages of Questionaires
    • Easy and fast way to collect data
    • Cheap
    • Versatile (multi-functional): with people of different genders, at different ages, in different locations..
    Obj. 3.4
  • 8. Disadvantages
    • Too simple questions , answers
    • Unreliable and unmotivated respondents
    • Little or no opportunity to correct the respondents’ mistakes
    • Fatigue effects
    Obj. 3.4
  • 9. Constructing the Questionnaire
    • 5 steps and procedures to construct the questionnaire :
    • Deciding on the general features of the questionnaire: Length, format and the main part
    • Writing effective items/questions and drawing an item pool
    • Selecting and sequencing the items
    • Writing appropriate instructions and examples
    • Piloting the questionnaire and conduct item analysis
  • 10. 1. General Features
    • Length
      • be short and takes short time to answer
    • Layout
      • booklet format
      • Appropriate density
      • Orderly layout
      • Sequence marking
    • Anaminity
    Obj. 3.6 & 5.1
  • 11. Examples of sequencing marking Obj. 3.6 & 5.1
    • 1. Language learning is an exciting activity
    • 2. Language learning often makes me happy
    • II. LANGUAGE CHOICE 3. If you could choose, which foreign languages would you choose to learn next year at school? Please mark three languages in order of importance
    • (a)…………………………………………………
    • (b)…………………………………………………
    • (c)………………………………………………..
  • 12. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Title
    • Questionaire for English learners
    • Questionaire for Teachers of English
  • 13. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Instruction
      • The general instruction should cover the following things:
      • What the study is about and why it is important or socially useful
      • The organization responsible for conducting the study
      • Emphasizing that there are no right or wrong answers (honesty is the most important)
      • Promising confidentiality
      • Saying ‘thank you”
  • 14. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Sample general instruction
    Obj. 3.7 & 4.1 We would like to ask you to help us by answering the following questions concerning Foreign language learning. This survey is conducted by the Language Research Group of The University of X to better understand… This is not a test, so there is no “right” or “wrong answers and you don’t need to provide your name….
  • 15. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Specific instructions:
    • Tell respondents what they have to do in order to answer the questions
    Obj. 3.7 & 4.1 Sample instructions for numerical rating scales In the following section we would like you to answer some questions by simple giving marks from 1 to 5 1 = not at all 2 = not really 3 = so-so 4= quite a lot 5 = very much For example, consider the following item. If you like hamburger very much, write 5 in the space in front of the question: -------------- How much do you like a hamburger? Please write one (and only one) whole number in front of each question and don’t leave out any of them. Thanks
  • 16. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Questionaire Items
    • These come after the instruction
    • Rarely take the form of actual questions (?)
    • Be separated from the instruction (font style…)
    Obj. 3.7 & 4.1
  • 17. Main parts of a Questionaire
    • Additional Information and Thank you
    Obj. 3.7 & 4.1
  • 18. Questionaire Content
    • The appropriate sampling of the content
    • => Find the short list of specific content
    • Using multi-item scales
    • (Likert 91930s)
    Obj. 3.8 & 5.1
  • 19. Types of Questions: Open-ended and closed ended
    • Closed ended questions
    • A range of possible responses is determined by the researcher
    • Eg:
    • Foreign languages should be compulsory in high school
    • Agree Neutral Disagree
    • Open ended questions
    Obj. 3.8 & 5.1
  • 20. Closed- ended questionnaire items Young a (1986, cited in Bell (1987) categorises questions as follows : Circle one of the following to indicate your attitude to the following statement: “ I like to learn through interacting with native speakers” Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Scale Rank the following from 1 to 4 in order of preference “ I like to learn best by studying’: - with the whole class - in small groups - in pair - independently Ranking Indicate your salary range by circling one of the following: Lest than 20,000 40,000-60,000 20,000 – 40,000 more than 60,000 Category Indicate your qualifications by circling any of the following: Diploma B.A M.A Ph.D List Example Question types
  • 21. How many NESB students are there in the following classes Grid Circle one of the following: How often did you practice English outside class last week? 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, more than 10 Quantity/ Frequency Example Question types Year 4 Year 3 Year 2 Year 1 15+ 10-15 5-10` 0-5
  • 22. Dorney (3003) classified closed questions as rating scale items, ranking Items, multiple choice items and checklist Rating scale: Likert scale Multiple choice item: If there were a French Club in my school, I would Ranking order items Numeric Items Checklist
  • 23. Open- ended questions
    • Specific open questions
    • Asking about concrete pieces of information, such as facts about the respondent, past activities
    • Eg:
    • What languages have you studied in the past?
    • Classification questions
    • Eg.
    • If you rated the course-book you are using as “poor” or “very poor”, please briefly explain why. Write your answer here:
    • …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ..
    • Sentence completion items:
    • Eg.
    • One thing I like about this activity is ………..