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What are we modeling when we model emotion

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  • 1. What Are We Modeling When We Model Emotion? Eva Hudlicka Psychometrix Associates Blacksburg, VA hudlicka@ieee.org AAAI Spring Symposium on “Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior” March 27, 2008
  • 2. akaWhat Are We Modeling When Emotion Modeling 101 We Model Emotion?
  • 3. Hudlicka “Emotion Modeling”• Lack of clarity re: – What is modeled and how• Lack of design guidelines re: – Which theories to use? – Which data? – Which computations must be performed? – Which representational & reasoning formalisms are best? – What type of architecture is best? 3
  • 4. Hudlicka Emotion Modeling Is ______ A: Emotion expression by machines B: Emotion recognition by machines C: Emotion generation in agents / robots D: Emotion effects on agent / robot behavior E: Affective user models F: All of the above .. And probably some others too 4
  • 5. Hudlicka“Emotion Models” Model ________ A: Feelings B: Moods C: Emotions D: Affective States E: Personality Traits 5
  • 6. A Taxonomy of Affective Factors Hudlicka Attitudes, Affective Factors Preferences… Traits States“Big 5” “Giant 3” … Affective States Emotions Moods Negative Positive Basic Complex Fear Joy Anger … PrideGuilt Shame… 6
  • 7. Hudlicka Emotion Models Also Vary In… • Specific roles of emotions modeled • Specific aspects of emotions modeled 7
  • 8. Hudlicka Roles of Emotions WHAT? WHAT? * Social coordination * Motivation * Rapid communication * Homeostasis of behavioral intent; * Adaptive behavior Intrapsychic Interpersonal HOW? HOW? - Emotion generation (appraisal) - Emotion effects (processing Express emotions via: -Facial expression biases) -Speech (content & properties) - Global interrupt system -Gesture, Posture - Goal management -Specific actions - Prepare for coordinated actions 8
  • 9. Hudlicka How Do We Recognize an Emotion if We See One?• Manifested across multiple, interacting modalities: – Somatic / Physiological (neuroendocrine - e.g., heart rate, GSR) – Cognitive / Interpretive (“Nothing is good or bad but thinking makes it so…”) – Behavioral / Motivational (action oriented, expressive, ‘visible’) – Experiential / Subjective (“that special feeling…”, consciousness)• Much terminological confusion can be attributed to a lack of consideration of these multiple modalities of emotions – e.g., Is emotion a feeling or a thought? - It’s both 9
  • 10. Hudlicka Simple Fear “Signature”: Large, Approaching Object Feeling of fearIncreasedheart-rate; Flee? Attacked? Freeze? Crushed? Cognitive Subjective 10
  • 11. Hudlicka Problem• Lack of consistency & terminological clarity• … makes it difficult to:• Develop systematic guidelines for model development• Communicate effectively about alternative approaches• Evaluate & compare different models & theories 11
  • 12. Hudlicka Objective: Deconstruct ‘emotion modeling’ • View emotion models in terms of two fundamental processes: – Emotion generation – Emotion effects • Identify fundamental computational tasks necessary to implement these – The emotion modeling “building blocks” • …as a step toward more systematic design, comparison & evaluation of models 12
  • 13. Hudlicka Emotion Roles Intrapsychic:Social - Goal management- Communication - Behavior preparation- Coordination -……-…. implement Emotion Effects Emotion Generation on Cognition & BehaviorComputational Tasks Computational Tasks Emotion Model “Building Blocks”
  • 14. Hudlicka Emotion Modeling “Building Blocks”• Should provide a basis for identifying: – Theory requirements – Data requirements – Representational & reasoning requirements 14
  • 15. Hudlicka The Cognitive Caveat • Primary focus on cognitive modality of emotion 15
  • 16. Hudlicka 16
  • 17. Hudlicka Core Processes of Emotions Generation of Emotions Effects of Emotions (via cognitive appraisal) (on cognition & behavior) Cognitive-Affective Architecture Goals Stimuli Cognitive Situations Appraisal Expectations Emotions 17
  • 18. Hudlicka Emotion Generation via Appraisal Appraisal Process AppraisalStimuli Dimensions EmotionsPerceivedRecalledImagined Goals (desires, values, standards) Existing emotions, Beliefs, Expectations moods, traits 18
  • 19. Hudlicka Emotion Generation via Appraisal Appraisal Process AppraisalStimuli Dimensions EmotionsPerceivedRecalledImagined 19
  • 20. Hudlicka Emotion Generation via Appraisal Appraisal Process AppraisalStimuli Dimensions EmotionsPerceivedRecalledImagined Goals (desires, values, standards) Existing emotions, Beliefs, Expectations moods, traits 20
  • 21. Hudlicka Emotion Generation via Appraisal Appraisal Process AppraisalStimuli Dimensions Emotions Domain-Independent Appraisal DimensionsPerceivedRecalled NoveltyImagined Valence Goal / Need relevance Goal congruence Agency Coping potential Social and self norms and values Goals (desires, values, standards) Beliefs, Expectations 21
  • 22. HudlickaSTIMULI FEARNovelty high Valence low Goal high relevance Agency other Outcome high probability Goal low congruence Urgency v. high Coping potential low Norms 22
  • 23. HudlickaSTIMULI ANGERNovelty high Valence low Goal high relevance Agency other Outcome high probability Goal low congruence Urgency v. high Coping potential high Norms 23
  • 24. HudlickaMost Influential Appraisal Theories in Computational Models• Ortony, Clore and Collins (OCC) (1988 - …) – Detailed taxonomy of triggers and emotions – Well-suited for computational implementation• Leventhal and Scherer (1984 - …) – Domain-independent appraisal dimensions – Appraisal as a dynamic, evolving process – Multiple levels of resolution• Arnold  Lazarus  Smith and Kirby (1960 - ..) – Emphasis on coping – Appraisal as a dynamic process – Increasing emphasis on mechanisms 24
  • 25. Hudlicka What Do We Need To Know To Build a Model• Stimulus - to - emotion mapping… – … for person… situation… affective state (?) – Implemented directly or via appraisal dimensions?• Integrating internal & external stimuli – … remembered & imagined, seen & told…• Distinct stages in the appraisal process – Functions implemented in each – Dependencies & interactions among them• Factors influencing emotion intensity & how? – Emotion dynamics (ramp-up & decay) – … variations by person… situation… emotion• Multiple emotions & conflict resolution 25
  • 26. Hudlicka Computational Tasks for Appraisal Models Stimuli Emotions - Stimuli-to-emotion mappings - Intensity calculation - Nature of mapping process: * Stages & functions * Degree of variability -Integrating multiple emotions -Emotion dynamics over timeTypes of stimuli: Emotion attributes:- Internal / External - Complexity of emotion construct- Real / Imagined * type- Past / Present / Future * intensity- Domain specific / Abstract appraisal dimensions * cause …- Complexity of stimulus structure * direction- Mental constructs required * … (e.g., goals, expectations) 26
  • 27. Hudlicka Emotion Effects on Cognition Cognitive-Affective Architecture GoalsStimuli Affect Appraiser Situations Emotions Expectations 27
  • 28. Hudlicka Emotion Effects on Cognition• Emotion and cognition function as closely-coupled information processing systems• Emotions influence fundamental processes mediating high-level cognition: – Attention speed and capacity – Working memory speed and capacity – Long-term memory recall and encoding• Influences on processing & contents and structure – Transient biases influence processing – Long-term biases result in differences in long-term memory content & structure 28
  • 29. Hudlicka Examples of Affective Biases• Anxiety – Narrows attentional focus – Bias toward detection of threatening stimuli – Bias toward interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as threats – Promotes self-focus• Anger – Increases risk tolerance – Bias toward impulsive action – Bias toward attribution of hostile intent in others• Positive emotions – Increase estimates of degree of control – Overestimate of likelihood of positive events – Focus on “big picture” 29
  • 30. Hudlicka Theories• Fewer theories exist than for appraisal• Specific mechanisms of emotion effects not as well developed• Some available theories: – Spreading activation & priming (Bower, 1984; Derryberry, 1988) • “Network theory of Affect” – Distinct modes of processing associated with different emotions (Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987) – Emotions as patterns of parameters modulating processing (Fellous, Matthews, Ortony et al., Hudlicka, Ritter…) 30
  • 31. Hudlicka Modeling Threat Bias TRAITS / COGNITIVE COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE STATES ARCHITECTURE PARAMETERS Processing Threat constructs Process Attention Rated more highly Threat Parameters cuesTraits Situation Assessment Low Stability Module & Process Construct parms. Threatening Expectation interpretations -Cue selection Generator Predisposes towards - Interpretive biases Affect Preferential processing of Appraiser ... Threatening stimuli Emotions Goal Manager Higher Anxiety / Fear Action SelectionMAMID 31
  • 32. Hudlicka What Do We Need To Know To Build a Model• Emotion - to - effects mapping – Which cognitive processes & structures affected… & how – How are contents & organization of LTM affected – How are cognitive appraisal processes affected• Relationship between emotion & mood intensity and type & magnitude of influence – Can distinct intensities have qualitatively distinct influences?• What are the mediating variables of the effects? – Emotions OR individual appraisal dimensions (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006)?• Multiple emotions & conflict resolution – How & where are multiple emotions integrated? 32
  • 33. Hudlicka Computational Tasks for Modeling Emotion EffectsEmotion(s)… & other affective - Emotion-to-behavior mappingsfactors: - Emotion-to-processes & structures mappings- Affective States - Variability in effects (by intensity, by individual…)- Moods - Integration of multiple emotions- Traits - Similar vs. opposing - In cognition.. in behavior ..where? Effect(s) -Cognition Attention, perception, memory, learning, problem-solving, decision-making…) -Behavior Verbal, non-verbal, action selection 33
  • 34. Hudlicka Ideally, theories would exactly specify all computational tasks .. and provide necessary details for their implementation• In practice, that is rarely the case• The act of constructing a computational model typically helps define & refine these details 34
  • 35. Hudlicka Related Work • Lot of people have been thinking about emotion model design – Sloman – Ortony – Canamero – Velasquez – Scheutz – Lisetti – Reilly –… 35
  • 36. Hudlicka Summary • Analyze emotion models in terms of two categories of processes: – Emotion generation – Emotion effects • Identify associated computational tasks • See if these “building blocks” provide basis for: – More systematic design of emotion models – Comparison & evaluation of existing models & modeling alternatives – Comparison & evaluation of existing theories • (Focus on cognitive modality of emotions) 36
  • 37. Hudlicka Parting Thought“Anyone can model emotions. That is easy.But to model emotions in the right context to the right degree at the right time for the right reason, and in the right waythis is not easy.”Paraphrasing “On anger”, Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 37
  • 38. What Are We Modeling When We Model Emotion? Eva Hudlicka Psychometrix Associates Blacksburg, VA hudlicka@ieee.org AAAI Spring Symposium on “Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior” March 27, 2008