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Overview of Affective Gaming

Overview of Affective Gaming

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Affective Gaming Affective Gaming Presentation Transcript

  • Affective Gaming: Making Games More Engaging by Adding Emotion WPI 1 October 2009 Eva Hudlicka Psychometrix Associates Blacksburg, VA [email_address] psychometrixassociates.com
  • Outline
    • Emotions & Games: Affective Gaming
    • Background on Emotion Research
    • Affective Computing
    • Computational Affective Modeling
    • Conclusions
  • Where We Are Now
    • Tremendous advances in gaming technologies
    • Focused primarily on:
      • Physical realism of game characters & environments
      • Complexity & performance of simulations & networking
    • Today’s games still limited in:
      • Affective realism & complexity of game characters
      • Social complexity & realism of their interactions
      • Narrative complexity
      • Player modeling
      • Ability to adapt to player’s state
  • In Terms of the Full Potential of Gaming.. We Are About Here…
  • To Achieve the “next big leap”
    • ..in engagement & effectiveness
    • Games would benefit from:
      • Adapting to players’ affective states
        • (Focus of existing current affective gaming research)
      • Enhancing social & affective complexity & realism of:
        • Game characters
        • Their interaction with each other & the players
        • Game narrative as a whole
    • “ A s sist Me, Challenge Me, Emote Me” (Gilleade, Dix & Allanson 2005)
  • Emotions Are Key Factors in Both “Play” & “Work”
    • Central factor in engagement
    • Important role in learning
    • Influence decision-making & problem-solving
    • Facilitate communication & development of relationships
    • Key factor in serious games
  • Outline
    • Emotions & Games: Affective Gaming
    • Background on Emotion Research
    • Affective Computing
    • Computational Affective Modeling
    • Conclusions
  • So What ARE Emotions?
    • Evaluative judgments of the:
      • World
      • Others
      • Self
    • … in light of agent’s goals & beliefs
    • … motivating & coordinating adaptive behavior
  • Roles of Emotions Intrapsychic Interpersonal WHAT? * Social coordination * Rapid communication of behavioral intent; HOW? Express emotions via: -Facial expression -Speech (content & properties) -Gesture, Posture -Specific actions WHAT? * Motivation * Homeostasis * Adaptive behavior
    • HOW?
    • - Global interrupt system
    • Goal management
    • Prepare for coordinated actions
    • - Emotion generation (appraisal)
    • Emotion effects (processing biases)
  • How Do We Recognize an Emotion if We See One?
    • Complex, multimodal phenomena
    • Manifested across multiple , interacting modalities:
      • Somatic / Physiological (neuroendocrine - e.g., heart rate, GSR)
      • Cognitive / Interpretive (“Nothing is good or bad but thinking makes it so…”)
      • Behavioral / Motivational (action oriented, expressive, ‘visible’)
      • Experiential / Subjective (“that special feeling…”, consciousness)
  • Emotion Generation via Appraisal Stimuli Recalled Perceived Imagined Appraisal Process Emotions Existing emotions, moods, traits (personality) Goals (desires, values, standards) Beliefs, Expectations
  • What Does Emotion Do Once It’s Been Generated?
  • Emotion Effects on Cognition
    • Emotion & cognition function as closely-coupled information processing systems
      • Complex feedback interactions
    • Emotions influence fundamental processes mediating high-level cognition:
      • Attention & working memory speed & capacity
      • Long-term memory recall & encoding
    • Anxiety
      • Attentional narrowing / threat bias / self-focus bias
    • Anger
      • Risk tolerance / impulsive action bias / attribution of hostility
  • Emotion Effects on Behavior Emotion Facial expression Gestures Posture Behavior Blah blah blah
  • Outline
    • Emotions & Games: Affective Gaming
    • Background on Emotion Research
    • Affective Computing
    • Computational Affective Modeling
    • Conclusions
  • Affective Computing
    • Broad area of interdisciplinary research and practice relating computers and affect
      • “ Anything that combines computing and emotions”
    • Term coined by Rosalind Picard (MIT Media Lab)
      • 1997 book “Affective Computing” (MIT Press)
      • “ How can emotions be generated in computers, be recognized by computers, and be expressed by computers?” ( Picard, Affective Computing, ‘97)
  • KISMET - Cynthia Breazeal, MIT Media Lab
  • Max - Becker-Asano et al.
  • Affective Computing Includes…
    • Emotion sensing & recognition
      • via a variety of sensors from multiple modalities
    • Generation of ‘affective’ behaviors in machines
      • Facial expressions in agents and robots
      • Affective synthetic speech
      • Affect-induced behavioral variation in robots and agents
    • Computational models of emotion & affective phenomena
      • Emotion generation (via appraisal)
      • Emotion effects on cognition & behavior
      • Affective user models
    • Cognitive-affective architectures ..for agents & robots
      • Generic requirements for modeling emotion
      • Characterizing emotion in computational terms
  • Central Role of Affective Models MAX (Becker, Prendinger et al.) Breazeal De Rosis Affective Models
  • Methods & Techniques Relevant for Affect-Focused Game Design
    • Sensing & recognition of players’ emotions
      • Adaptive gaming
      • Game control
    • Expression of emotions by game characters
      • More realistic & believable behavior
      • Complex social interactions
    • Models of emotion in game characters
      • Complex, autonomous behavior
      • Socially and affectively realistic behavior
      • Adaptive behavior
    • Models of players’ emotions
      • Affective user models to support game adaptation
    • Affective game evaluation
      • Develop games with desired affective profiles
  • Outline
    • Emotions & Games: Affective Gaming
    • Background on Emotion Research
    • Affective Computing
    • Computational Affective Modeling
    • Conclusions
  • Affective Agent Architectures
    • Enable game characters to:
      • React to evolving situations in game
      • React to other characters in game
      • React to player’s state and behavior
    • … by dynamically generating appropriate emotions
    • … which influence decision-making & behavior
    • … and by supporting their realistic display
  • How Difficult Is This?
    • Depends on game complexity… game type..
    • Which emotions are necessary?
    • What features of the game context are available to trigger an emotion?
    • Simple games may not need much
    • Sophisticated ‘social’ games & serious games need:
      • More emotions
      • Real-time generation of appropriate emotion
      • Realistic influence of emotion on perception + cognition
      • Real-time expression of appropriate emotion
      • More realistic affective dynamics
  • Affective Architectures Control Agent Behavior Effects of Emotions (on cognition & behavior) Generation of Emotions (via cognitive appraisal) Agent Architecture Emotions Stimuli
  • Computational Tasks for Appraisal Models Stimuli
    • Emotion attributes:
    • Complexity of emotion construct
    • * type
    • * intensity
    • * cause …
    • * direction
    • * …
    • Types of stimuli:
    • Internal / External
    • Real / Imagined
    • Past / Present / Future
    • Domain specific / Abstract appraisal dimensions
    • Complexity of stimulus structure
    • Mental constructs required (e.g., goals, expectations)
    • Stimuli-to-emotion mappings
    • Intensity calculation
    • Nature of mapping process:
    • * Stages & functions
    • * Degree of variability
    • Integrating multiple emotions
    • Emotion dynamics over time
    Emotions
  • How Do We Do It?
    • Black-box models
      • Stimulus ---> Emotion
      • Simple but ‘clunky’ - does not generalize
    • Process models
      • Explicit models of some underlying processes
      • Emotion generation
      • Emotion effects on
        • Perception
        • Decision-making
        • Behavior
        • Expression
  • Black Box Models Directly map stimuli onto emotions: Character gains points ---> Happy Character loses points ---> Sad Character outsmarted ---> Angry Character ridiculed --> ????? Ooops! No rule for that one Now what?
  • Emotion Generation via Appraisal Stimuli Appraisal Variables Recalled Perceived Imagined
      • Domain-Independent Appraisal Variables
      • Novelty
      • Valence
      • Goal / Need relevance
      • Goal congruence
      • Agency
      • Coping potential
      • Social and self norms and values
    Cognitive Appraisal Process Emotions
  • STIMULI Novelty Valence Goal relevance Outcome probability Urgency Goal congruence Agency Coping potential Norms high high v. high low other low low high FEAR Componential View: Appraisal Variables
  • Stimuli --> Appraisal Variables --> Emotion(s) This is the difficult part! N-Dim Appraisal Vector Distance measure (Euclidean dist.) World & Self Emotions ? N-Dim Emotion Space
  • Stimuli --> Appraisal Variables --> Emotion(s)
    • Explicit representations required for:
      • Situations, Expectations, Beliefs, Values, Goals, Plans, Causal structures, Agent history, Social context, Cultural context
    • Large amounts of domain-specific knowledge
    • Complex reasoning
      • What if, uncertainty management
    • Typically implemented using symbolic representations
      • Belief nets, Goal-Procedure hierarchies, Rules, Semantic nets
    World & Self
  • Modeling Emotion Effects on Attention, Perception & Cognition Effects of Emotions (on cognition) Cognitive-Affective Architecture Situations Expectations Goals Cognitive Appraisal Emotions Stimuli
  • Emotion Effects in a Game Context
    • NPC tasks:
      • Resupply; Ask friend for help; Capture enemy
      • Points awarded for each task
    • NPC behavior changes depending on emotion
    • Normal: resupply; cooperate; capture enemy - max pts.
    • Angry: no resupply; no cooperate; no capture enemy - no pts.
    • Anxious : no resupply; kill friend; no capture enemy - no pts.
    • Happy: no resupply; cooperate; capture enemy - med. pts.
    NPC Supplies (1) Friend (2) Enemy (3)
  • Computational Tasks for Modeling Emotion Effects Emotion(s)
    • Cognition Attention, perception, memory,
    • learning, problem-solving, decision-making…)
    • Behavior Verbal, non-verbal, action selection
    Effect(s)
    • - Emotion-to-cognitive processes & structures mappings
    • Emotion-to-behavior mappings
    • Variability in effects (by intensity, by individual…)
    • Integration of multiple emotions
    • - Similar vs. opposing - In cognition.. in behavior ..where?
  • Emotions As Distinct Modes of Processing
    • Parameter-controlled ‘global’ effects across multiple processes
    • Effects on low-level fundamental processes: attention & working memory
      • Speed & capacity & content bias (e.g., threat, self)
    • Effects on long-term memory
      • Encoding & retrieval: speed & elaboration & bias (threat, self)
    • Effects on higher-level processes
      • Problem-solving, decision-making, planning..
      • Cognitive appraisal processes (e.g., assessments of coping potential)
    • ‘ High-level’ effects implemented in terms of effects on the fundamental processes
  • Modeling Methodology: Overview (Hudlicka, MAMID) Individual Differences individual behavior influenced by ... ‘ Ignore friend’ vs. ‘ Ask for help’ vs. ‘ Kill (by mistake)’ Architecture Parameter Calculation Cognitive-Affective Architecture Cognitive-Affective Architecture Parameters architecture processing controlled by..... Behavior Outputs different individual profiles manifested in terms of different
  • Possible NPC Architecture & Constructs (Hudlicka, MAMID) Cues Actions Attention Cues: State of the world (“Enemy seen” “ Resources adequate”) Situation Assessment Situations: Perceived state ( “Able to capture enemy” ) Expectation Generator Expectations: Expected state (“Enemy successfully captured”; “ Game points gained”; “Game won”) Goal Manager Goals: Desired state (“Game points high”) Action Selection Actions: to accomplish goals (“Capture enemy”) Affect Appraiser Affective state & emotions : Valence: Positive Happiness: High Anxiety: Low
  • Personality & Emotions As Parameters Traits Extraversion Stability Conscientiousness Aggressiveness STATES / TRAITS Processing Structural Module Parameters Construct parameters Architecture topology Long-term memory speed, capacity Cue selection & delay …. Data flow among modules Content & structure Affective States Anxiety Anger Sadness Joy COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE Attention Action Selection Situation Assessment Goal Manager Expectation Generator Affect Appraiser ARCHITECTURE PARAMETERS
  • Modeling Threat Bias Processing Parameters - Cue selection - Interpretive biases ... Process Threat cues Process Threatening interpretations Traits Low Stability MAMID TRAITS / EMOTIONS COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE PARAMETERS COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE Attention Action Selection Situation Assessment Goal Manager Expectation Generator Emotion Generation Emotions Higher Anxiety / Fear Predisposes towards Preferential processing of Threatening stimuli Threat constructs Rated more highly
  • Parameter Value Calculation
    • Parameter values are linear combinations of weighted factors
      • (W factor1 * factor1) + (W factor2 * factor2) …
    Threat Salience Confidence Valence / Emotional Stability Rank
  • Outline
    • Emotions & Games: Affective Gaming
    • Background on Emotion Research
    • Affective Computing
    • Computational Affective Modeling
    • Conclusions
  • Future Games Need To…
    • Recognize & adapt to players’ emotions
    • Understand players’ affective profiles
    • Increase affective realism of game characters
    • Increase affective complexity of the entire game experience
  • Affect-Focused Game Design
    • Affective computing provides methods & techniques for…
      • Emotion modeling in game characters
      • Affective user modeling
      • Emotion recognition in players
      • Emotion expression in game characters
    • Affective game engines needed to support development of affective games (Hudlicka, 2009)
      • Provide infrastructure & primitives necessary to support
  • Questions? affectivegaming.org Broekens & Hudlicka