1798 Passage of an act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen. Established a federal network of hospitals for the care of merchant seamen.
1871 Appointment of the first Supervising Surgeon (later called Surgeon General) for the Marine Hospital Service.
1891 Passage of immigration legislation, assigning to the Marine Hospital Service the responsibility for medical examination of arriving immigrants.
1902 Conversion of Marine Hospital Service into the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, recognizing its activities in the field of public health. In 1912 the name was shortened to the Public Health Service.
“ Science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability.”
"What would induce a man to spend years of labor in getting together and printing tens of thousands of titles of articles concerning the treatment of fevers, consumption, wounds, and abscesses. Among the chief motives, no doubt, is the desire to be of public service, a feeling very strong in all Americans, except perhaps politicians."
“ The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided , That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.”
Public Access Policy , Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161