ITC423/ 114 Database Systems   2008-40 LECTURER: Antoinette Cevenini [email_address] Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Stu...
Objectives <ul><li>Design  relational databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and query using  SQL . </li></ul><ul><li>Deve...
Resources <ul><li>Subject Outline on soft copy on students’ share drive  -- (Hand-out) </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed text b...
REQUIRED HARDWARE SOFTWARE <ul><li>IBM PC compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access 2000 and above ver. with  SQL </li...
Assessment details Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Assignments <ul><li>Submissions  must be on or before due date </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties apply for every late day </li><...
Pass/fail requirements <ul><ul><li>Subject requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful submission of all assessment...
Last Semester ITC114 Pass Rate – 50%
Last Semester ITC423 Pass Rate -66%
Pass Rate & Attendance <ul><li>90% of students failed have attendance below 50% </li></ul>
RULES <ul><li>Attendance:   Expected at least 80% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if you are late for more than 15 minutes or leave ...
Recommendations <ul><li>Try not to miss any Lectures and/or Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>ESPECIALLY DO NOT MISS TESTS  </li...
HOW TO STUDY <ul><li>Prepare a study schedule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need 5-6 hours a week after class time </li></ul>...
WHO CAN FAIL ? <ul><li>IF YOU MISS  THREE OR MORE  LECTURES </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU DON’T READ THE TEXT BOOK </li></ul><u...
What Jobs are there? Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney SQL Database Administrator Oracle Database Admi...
Chapter 1 Database Systems  Lecture 1 Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Chapter 1 topics <ul><li>The difference between data and information </li></ul><ul><li>What a database is,  </li></ul><ul>...
Chapter 1 -( continued ): <ul><li>Flaws in file system data management </li></ul><ul><li>How a database system differs fro...
Data vs. Information <ul><li>Data : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw facts; building blocks of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
What is a Database  <ul><li>A  Database  is a managed collection of associated data  </li></ul><ul><li>stored in a compute...
DBMS <ul><li>DBMS (database management system): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of programs that manages database structu...
Advantages of DBMS <ul><li>DBMS Makes Data Management More Efficient and Effective </li></ul><ul><li>End users have better...
DBMS Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Types of Databases <ul><li>Single-user : Supports only one user at a time running on a personal computer </li></ul><ul><li...
Multi-user  Databases <ul><li>Workgroup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user database that supports a small group of users or...
Location of Databases <ul><li>Centralized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports data located at a single site </li></ul></ul><ul...
Uses of Databases <ul><li>Transactional (or production ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a company’s day-to-day operations...
Why Database Design is Important <ul><li>Avoid redundant data (unnecessarily duplicated) </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly designed...
Files and File Systems <ul><li>Simple - unable to deal or handle large amount of data and variables -Difficult to manipula...
Questions to answer <ul><li>What products sold well during the past week, month, quarter or year? </li></ul><ul><li>What i...
Manual File Systems <ul><li>Traditional collection of file folders kept in file cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate for sma...
Conversion from Manual File System to Computer File System <ul><li>File systems required data processing (DP) specialists ...
Contents of Customer File   Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Contents of the Agent File Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Basic File Terminology Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
A Simple File System Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Problems with  File System Data Management <ul><li>Each file used its own application programs owned by individual or depa...
Problems with  File System Data Management <ul><li>Every task requires extensive programming in a third-generation languag...
Programming in 3GL <ul><li>Time-consuming, high-level activity </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer must be familiar with physical...
Programming in 3GL (continued) <ul><li>Ad hoc queries are impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Writing programs to design new repo...
<ul><li>Modifications are likely to produce errors, requiring additional time to “debug” the program </li></ul><ul><li>Sec...
Structural and Data Dependence <ul><li>Structural dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to a file depends on its structu...
Field Definitions  and Naming Conventions <ul><li>Flexible record definition anticipates reporting requirements by breakin...
Sample Customer File Fields Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Data Redundancy <ul><li>Data redundancy results in data inconsistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different and conflicting vers...
Data Anomalies <ul><li>Modification anomalies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when changes must be made to existing records </...
Database vs. File System <ul><li>Problems inherent in file systems make using a database system desirable </li></ul><ul><l...
Contrasting Database and File Systems Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
The Database System Environment <ul><li>Database system : defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, use o...
The Database System Environment (continued) <ul><li>Hardware : all the system’s physical devices </li></ul><ul><li>Softwar...
The Database System Environment (continued) <ul><li>Procedures : instructions and rules that govern the design and use of ...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data storage management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS creates and manages complex structur...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data transformation and presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS transforms data entered...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Multiuser access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS uses sophisticated algorithms to en...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data integrity management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS promotes and enforces integrity r...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Database access languages and application programming interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Database communication interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current DBMSs accept end-user r...
Managing the Database System:  A Shift in Focus <ul><li>Database system provides a framework in which strict procedures an...
The Database System Environment (continued) Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
DBMS Functions ( continued ) <ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enforces user security and dat...
DBMS Functions ( continued ) <ul><ul><li>Data integrity management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotes and enforces in...
Illustrating Metadata  with Microsoft Access Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Illustrating Data Storage Management with Oracle Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
Summary <ul><li>Information is derived from data, which is stored in a database </li></ul><ul><li>To implement and manage ...
Summary ( continued ) <ul><li>Databases were preceded by file systems </li></ul><ul><li>Because file systems lack a DBMS, ...
T u t o r i a l  --  Practical <ul><li>PART 1: </li></ul><ul><li>To help you find the answers, You can read Chapter 1 in y...
T u t o r i a l <ul><li>PART 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt  Chapter 1 Review questions: file name =  c1.htm </li></ul><ul><...
A N S W E R S Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney View Answers to Tutorial Questions
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  1. 1. ITC423/ 114 Database Systems 2008-40 LECTURER: Antoinette Cevenini [email_address] Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Design relational databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and query using SQL . </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a simple database application </li></ul><ul><li>Database theory , and its applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration. </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  3. 3. Resources <ul><li>Subject Outline on soft copy on students’ share drive -- (Hand-out) </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed text book </li></ul><ul><li>Rob, P., & Coronel, C. (2009). Database systems: Design, implementation and management (8th ed.). Thomson </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  4. 4. REQUIRED HARDWARE SOFTWARE <ul><li>IBM PC compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access 2000 and above ver. with SQL </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  5. 5. Assessment details Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  6. 6. Assignments <ul><li>Submissions must be on or before due date </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties apply for every late day </li></ul><ul><li>Submit two Copies: </li></ul><ul><li>Hard copy to reception </li></ul><ul><li>Soft copy to Turnitin </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  7. 7. Pass/fail requirements <ul><ul><li>Subject requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful submission of all assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must achieve an overall 50% or above in the course </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  8. 8. Last Semester ITC114 Pass Rate – 50%
  9. 9. Last Semester ITC423 Pass Rate -66%
  10. 10. Pass Rate & Attendance <ul><li>90% of students failed have attendance below 50% </li></ul>
  11. 11. RULES <ul><li>Attendance: Expected at least 80% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if you are late for more than 15 minutes or leave class any earlier than 15 minutes (Without reasonable explanation) in each session you will be marked absent for the whole period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>Switch off your mobile phone while in class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please check mobiles and switch off NOW ….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE COMPUTER DURING LECTURE </li></ul><ul><li>NO FOOD OR DRINK IN THIS ROOM PLEASE! </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  12. 12. Recommendations <ul><li>Try not to miss any Lectures and/or Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>ESPECIALLY DO NOT MISS TESTS </li></ul><ul><li>Always submit your assignments on due dates: PENALTY for late ASSIGNMENTS apply </li></ul><ul><li>PLAGIARISM: Do Not COPY any parts of your assignment/s Use appropriate referencing whenever necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct referencing style (APA) </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  13. 13. HOW TO STUDY <ul><li>Prepare a study schedule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need 5-6 hours a week after class time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good mix of theory & practice </li></ul><ul><li>Do all design and SQL exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>Read lecture slides, all given material & text book </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt all review questions as given </li></ul><ul><li>Check your answers or be present when solutions are presented in class </li></ul><ul><li>Practice old exam questions </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  14. 14. WHO CAN FAIL ? <ul><li>IF YOU MISS THREE OR MORE LECTURES </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU DON’T READ THE TEXT BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU DON’T DO TUTORIALS/TESTS/REVIEW QTNS On Weekly Basis </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  15. 15. What Jobs are there? Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney SQL Database Administrator Oracle Database Admin SQL DBA
  16. 16. Chapter 1 Database Systems Lecture 1 Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  17. 17. Chapter 1 topics <ul><li>The difference between data and information </li></ul><ul><li>What a database is, </li></ul><ul><li>about different types of databases, and </li></ul><ul><li>why they are valuable assets for decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Why database design is important </li></ul><ul><li>How modern databases evolved from files and file systems </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  18. 18. Chapter 1 -( continued ): <ul><li>Flaws in file system data management </li></ul><ul><li>How a database system differs from a file system, and </li></ul><ul><li>How a DBMS functions within the database system </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  19. 19. Data vs. Information <ul><li>Data : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw facts; building blocks of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprocessed information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data processed to reveal meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate, relevant, and timely information is key to good decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Good decision making is key to survival in global environment </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  20. 20. What is a Database <ul><li>A Database is a managed collection of associated data </li></ul><ul><li>stored in a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>shared by multiple users </li></ul><ul><li>protected with security measures </li></ul><ul><li>stored with controlled redundancy </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  21. 21. DBMS <ul><li>DBMS (database management system): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of programs that manages database structure and controls access to data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows data to be shared among multiple applications or users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes data management more efficient and effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as the intermediary between user and the Database </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  22. 22. Advantages of DBMS <ul><li>DBMS Makes Data Management More Efficient and Effective </li></ul><ul><li>End users have better access to more and better-managed data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes integrated view of organization’s operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces data inconsistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides quick answers to ad hoc queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to more efficient business operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases end-user productivity </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  23. 23. DBMS Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  24. 24. Types of Databases <ul><li>Single-user : Supports only one user at a time running on a personal computer </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-user: Supports multiple users at the same time </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  25. 25. Multi-user Databases <ul><li>Workgroup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user database that supports a small group of users or a single department --Usually less than 50 users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user database that supports a large group of users or an entire organization -- across many departments --Usually more than 50 users </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  26. 26. Location of Databases <ul><li>Centralized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports data located at a single site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports data distributed across several sites </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  27. 27. Uses of Databases <ul><li>Transactional (or production ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a company’s day-to-day operations ie; product or service sales, supply purchases and every day operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These normally need to be entered immediately into the DB. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to have accurate data entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data warehouse : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data used to generate information required to make tactical or strategic decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used to store historical data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure is quite different </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  28. 28. Why Database Design is Important <ul><li>Avoid redundant data (unnecessarily duplicated) </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly designed database generates errors  leads to bad decisions  can lead to failure of organization </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  29. 29. Files and File Systems <ul><li>Simple - unable to deal or handle large amount of data and variables -Difficult to manipulate and query data </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolete </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  30. 30. Questions to answer <ul><li>What products sold well during the past week, month, quarter or year? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the current daily weekly, monthly, quarterly or yearly sales dollar volume? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the current period’s sales compare to those of last week, month, or year </li></ul><ul><li>Did the various cost categories increase, decrease or remain stable during a certain period </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  31. 31. Manual File Systems <ul><li>Traditional collection of file folders kept in file cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate for small amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Few reports </li></ul><ul><li>Growing collections of file folders </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming and cumbersome </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  32. 32. Conversion from Manual File System to Computer File System <ul><li>File systems required data processing (DP) specialists </li></ul><ul><li>DP specialists created file structures, wrote software, and designed application programs </li></ul><ul><li>DP specialist wrote programs for reports: </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, computer files were similar in design to manual files (see Figure 1.3) </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  33. 33. Contents of Customer File Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  34. 34. Contents of the Agent File Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  35. 35. Basic File Terminology Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  36. 36. A Simple File System Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  37. 37. Problems with File System Data Management <ul><li>Each file used its own application programs owned by individual or department </li></ul><ul><li>As system grew, demand for DP’s programming skills grew </li></ul><ul><li>Additional programmers hired </li></ul><ul><li>Primary activity of department (and DP manager) remained programming </li></ul><ul><li>Each new report required different program </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  38. 38. Problems with File System Data Management <ul><li>Every task requires extensive programming in a third-generation language (3GL) </li></ul><ul><li>3GL requires Programs to specify what must be done and how it should be done </li></ul><ul><li>Modern databases use fourth-generation language (4GL) </li></ul><ul><li>4GL allow the user to specify what must be done </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  39. 39. Programming in 3GL <ul><li>Time-consuming, high-level activity </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer must be familiar with physical file structure </li></ul><ul><li>As system becomes complex, access paths become difficult to manage and tend to produce malfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Complex coding establishes precise location of files and system components and data characteristics </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  40. 40. Programming in 3GL (continued) <ul><li>Ad hoc queries are impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Writing programs to design new reports is time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>As number of files increases, system administration becomes difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Making changes in existing file structure is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>File structure changes require modifications in all programs that use data in that file </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  41. 41. <ul><li>Modifications are likely to produce errors, requiring additional time to “debug” the program </li></ul><ul><li>Security features hard to program and therefore often omitted </li></ul>Programming in 3GL (continued) Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney Programming in 3GL (continued)
  42. 42. Structural and Data Dependence <ul><li>Structural dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to a file depends on its structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in database structure affect program’s ability to access data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical data format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How a human being views the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical data format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How the computer “sees” the data </li></ul></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  43. 43. Field Definitions and Naming Conventions <ul><li>Flexible record definition anticipates reporting requirements by breaking up fields into their component parts </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  44. 44. Sample Customer File Fields Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  45. 45. Data Redundancy <ul><li>Data redundancy results in data inconsistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different and conflicting versions of the same data appear in different places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Errors more likely to occur when complex entries are made in several different files and recur frequently in one or more files </li></ul><ul><li>Data anomalies develop when required changes in redundant data are not made successfully </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  46. 46. Data Anomalies <ul><li>Modification anomalies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when changes must be made to existing records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insertion anomalies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when entering new records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deletion anomalies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when deleting records </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  47. 47. Database vs. File System <ul><li>Problems inherent in file systems make using a database system desirable </li></ul><ul><li>File system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many separate and unrelated files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logically related data stored in a single logical data repository </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  48. 48. Contrasting Database and File Systems Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  49. 49. The Database System Environment <ul><li>Database system : defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, use of data </li></ul><ul><li>Database system is composed of 5 main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application programs and utility software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  50. 50. The Database System Environment (continued) <ul><li>Hardware : all the system’s physical devices </li></ul><ul><li>Software : three types of software required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application programs and utility software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People : all users of the database system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System and database administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts and programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End users </li></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  51. 51. The Database System Environment (continued) <ul><li>Procedures : instructions and rules that govern the design and use of the database system </li></ul><ul><li>Data : the collection of facts stored in the database </li></ul><ul><li>Database systems created and managed at different levels of complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Database solutions must be cost-effective as well as tactically and strategically effective </li></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  52. 52. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data storage management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS creates and manages complex structures required for data storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also stores related data entry forms, screen definitions, report definitions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance tuning : activities that make the database perform more efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS stores the database in multiple physical data files </li></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  53. 53. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data transformation and presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS transforms data entered to conform to required data structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS transforms physically retrieved data to conform to user’s logical expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS creates a security system that enforces user security and data privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security rules determine which users can access the database, which items can be accessed, etc. </li></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  54. 54. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Multiuser access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS uses sophisticated algorithms to ensure concurrent access does not affect integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS provides backup and data recovery to ensure data safety and integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery management deals with recovery of database after a failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to preserving database’s integrity </li></ul></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  55. 55. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Data integrity management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS promotes and enforces integrity rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizes consistency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data relationships stored in data dictionary used to enforce data integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity especially important in transaction-oriented database systems </li></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  56. 56. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Database access languages and application programming interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS provides access through a query language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query language is a nonprocedural language: lets the user specify what needs to be done but not HOW to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Query Language (SQL) is the de facto query language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard supported by majority of DBMS vendors </li></ul></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  57. 57. DBMS Functions (continued) <ul><li>Database communication interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current DBMSs accept end-user requests via multiple different network environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications accomplished in several ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End users generate answers to queries by filling in screen forms through Web browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS automatically publishes predefined reports on a Web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS connects to third-party systems to distribute information via e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  58. 58. Managing the Database System: A Shift in Focus <ul><li>Database system provides a framework in which strict procedures and standards enforced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of human changes from programming to managing organization’s resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database system enables more sophisticated use of the data </li></ul><ul><li>Data structures created within the database and their relationships determine effectiveness </li></ul>Database Systems, 8 th Edition
  59. 59. The Database System Environment (continued) Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  60. 60. DBMS Functions ( continued ) <ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enforces user security and data privacy within database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user access control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creates structures that allow multiple users to access the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides backup and data recovery procedures </li></ul></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  61. 61. DBMS Functions ( continued ) <ul><ul><li>Data integrity management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotes and enforces integrity rules to eliminate data integrity problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database access languages and application programming interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides data access through a query language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database communication interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows database to accept end-user requests within a computer network environment </li></ul></ul></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  62. 62. Illustrating Metadata with Microsoft Access Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  63. 63. Illustrating Data Storage Management with Oracle Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  64. 64. Summary <ul><li>Information is derived from data, which is stored in a database </li></ul><ul><li>To implement and manage a database, use a DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Database design defines its structure </li></ul><ul><li>Good design is important </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  65. 65. Summary ( continued ) <ul><li>Databases were preceded by file systems </li></ul><ul><li>Because file systems lack a DBMS, file management becomes difficult as a file system grows </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS were developed to address file systems’ inherent weaknesses </li></ul>Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney
  66. 66. T u t o r i a l -- Practical <ul><li>PART 1: </li></ul><ul><li>To help you find the answers, You can read Chapter 1 in your textbook, lecture slides or research on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>What is data redundancy, and which characteristics of the file system can lead to it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a DBMS, and what are its functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the lack of data independence in file systems. </li></ul>
  67. 67. T u t o r i a l <ul><li>PART 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt Chapter 1 Review questions: file name = c1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Answers will be discussed in the next week’s class </li></ul>
  68. 68. A N S W E R S Prepared By: Antoinette Cevenini, Study Centre Sydney View Answers to Tutorial Questions
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