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An APA presentation used in English composition classes

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APA Presentations

  1. 1. USING APA Everest University - Composition 1 Integrating Sources Using APA or MLA Standards
  2. 2. APA, MLA, or CMS • MLA (MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION): English, Literature, and Humanities courses often follow MLA, and is most often used in K-12 coursework. • APA (AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION): Used in science and research, such as is the medical or education fields, and fields of psychology. • CMS (CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE): Used in humanities field of religion, history, and philosophy. Everest University - Composition 2
  3. 3. Integrating Sources • Not all writing requires the use of APA, MLA, or CMS • APA, MLA, or CMS is used to integrate sources into a thesis when the sources are being used to support facts or make a claim • To avoid plagiarism, APA, MLA, and CMS provide guidelines and procedures that allow verification of integrated sources Everest University - Composition 3
  4. 4. Source Functions • Support your thesis • Support a premise • Oppose your claim • Juxtapose your claim by providing similar claims from others Everest University - Composition 4
  5. 5. Everest University - Composition 5 Purposes of APA Documentation • Authoritative source for scholarly writing • Creates ethical and legal standards in publishing • Ensures the accuracy of scientific knowledge • Protects the rights and welfare of research participants • Protects intellectual property rights
  6. 6. Plagiarism • Plagiarism: to claim the words and ideas of another as one’s own – this does not mean you may not have the same idea, but if the idea is suggested in a previously written article, credit must be given to authors when those sources are known Everest University - Composition 6
  7. 7. Self-Plagiarism • If you cite your own previously published work, you must also provide citations and reference • Self-plagiarism is the use of your prior work as if it was new research • Duplication may be permissible in some circumstances, providing is not duplicate the core of the prior work. Everest University - Composition 7
  8. 8. Major Sources • NON-PERIODICALS • Journals (published quarterly or biannually) • Newsletters (published daily) • Magazines (published weekly or monthly) • PERIODICALS: books, reports • Electronic Sources • Blogs • Databases • Online journals • E-books • Audiovisual material (television programs, films, recordings, advertisements) • Personal communication (emails, letters, memos) Everest University - Composition 8
  9. 9. APA DOCUMENTATION Everest University - Composition 9 American Psychological Association 6th Edition
  10. 10. Two Essential Elements • CITATION: The in-text citation includes at minimum the following • Last name of author or authors • First word of title if no author is identified • The year of publication or online posting • Page number for quotation, summary, or paraphrase • REFERENCES (APA) or WORKS CITED (MLA) • Separate pages at the end of the paper • Double spaced • Arranged alphabetically Everest University - Composition 10
  11. 11. Important Guidelines for References • List ONLY the works cited • Format: Center the heading “References”, without quotation marks, not bold, underlined or italicized, and with no period following • Double spaced with no additional space between entries • Tables and charts follow the reference list • List works alphabetically Everest University - Composition 11
  12. 12. Important Guidelines for References • Author(s) last name, followed by initials • Date – put the year in parenthesis. For journals, magazines, and newspapers, also include the month and day. Do not abbreviate months. • Use hanging indents (Word shortcut key is CTRL+T) • Titles and capitals: In titles of books, reports, articles and web documents, capitalize only the first word of the title, proper nouns, or adjectives • Titles of magazines and journals: Give the periodical names in full, using uppercase and lower case letters Everest University - Composition 12
  13. 13. Important Guidelines for References • Titles and Italics: Italicize the title of books • Italicize the titles of newspapers, reports, and web pages • Italicize the title of magazines and journals, the comma following the title, and the volume number • Do not italicize issue numbers of magazines and journals or page numbers • Page numbers: For books and magazines give the inclusive page number (251-259) without using the p or pp abbreviation • Page numbers: For newspapers and sections of books, use the p or pp abbreviation with page numbers Everest University - Composition 13
  14. 14. Format of APA Papers The APA Paper Everest University - Composition 14
  15. 15. The Title Page Everest University - Composition 15
  16. 16. Header Setup Everest University - Composition 16
  17. 17. Abstract Page Everest University - Composition 17
  18. 18. Headings and Subheadings Everest University - Composition 18
  19. 19. Reference Page Everest University - Composition 19
  20. 20. Catch the APA Errors APA QUIZ Everest University - Composition 20
  21. 21. Catch the Error #1 • Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames (2002, p. 15). Everest University - Composition 21
  22. 22. Revised Answer • Hollingshead (2000) measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames. • Explanation: The year comes after the researcher’s name. No page number is needed if there is no direct quote. Everest University - Composition 22
  23. 23. Catch the Error #2 • Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong and Tuttle 2005). Everest University - Composition 23
  24. 24. Revised Answer • Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong & Tuttle, 2005). • Explanation: Use an ampersand (&) when citing parenthetically and put a comma between author(s) and year of publication. Everest University - Composition 24
  25. 25. Catch the Error #3 • Duffy & Petronius (2002, p. 23) found that none of the subjects showed improvement. Everest University - Composition 25
  26. 26. Revised Answer • Duffy and Petronius (2002) found that none of the subjects showed improvement. • Explanation: Use “and” -- not ampersand -- when citing authors outside of parentheses. No page number needed since there was no direct quote. Everest University - Composition 26
  27. 27. Catch the Error #4 • Boyle (1998, 1998, 1998) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. [Assume the three studies were done in 1998 and each was published separately that year.] Everest University - Composition 27
  28. 28. Revised Answer • Boyle (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. • Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study will be designated by a different letter – a, b, c, etc. Items are listed in the reference section alphabetically by title. Everest University - Composition 28
  29. 29. Catch the Error #5 • Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.” Everest University - Composition 29
  30. 30. Revised Answer • Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group” (p. 12). • Explanation: Since a direct quote was used, a page number must be provided after the quote. Everest University - Composition 30
  31. 31. Catch the Error #6 • When contacted, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (phone call, 2005). Everest University - Composition 31
  32. 32. Revised Answer • When contacted, C. S. Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (personal communication, December 1, 2005). • Explanation: Use “personal communication” and exact date when citing telephone calls, letters, memos, personal interviews, etc. You do not need to put this in the References section since the data is non-recoverable Everest University - Composition 32
  33. 33. Catch the Error #7 • Bretschneider, John Garrett and McCoy, Nancy Lewis, 1968. Sexual Interest and Behavior in Healthy 80- 102-Year-Olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 14, pp. 343-350. Everest University - Composition 33
  34. 34. Revised Answer • Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual interest and behavior in healthy 80- 102-year-olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 343-350. • Explanation: 1) only initials for first names; 2) year in parentheses followed by period; 3) lower case in article title; 4) italicize journal name and capitalize first letters; 5) no “Vol.,” just italicize; 6) no “pp.”; 7) hanging indent. Everest University - Composition 34
  35. 35. Catch the Error #8 • Hashimoto, Thomas. (March 13, 2000, p. 23). Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol. 199. Everest University - Composition 35
  36. 36. Revised Answer • Hashimoto, T. (2000, March 13). Seeing red in November. Newsweek, 199, 23. • Explanation: Only initial for first name. Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in parentheses. Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma, volume number italicized, then page number(s). Hanging indent, Everest University - Composition 36
  37. 37. Catch the Error #9 • Pinkerton (originally published in 1844, reprinted in 2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates (400 B.C.) felt the same way. Everest University - Composition 37
  38. 38. Revised Answer • Pinkerton (1844/2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates (trans. 1988) felt the same way. • Explanation: If original year of publication is known, list that first, followed by slash and year of publication you used. For classical works, cite the translation year. Everest University - Composition 38
  39. 39. Catch the Error #10 • Most experts believed the effects would be disastrous (NIMH 2000). For example, 8 of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after thirty-six hours. (Assume NIMH is introduced here for the first time.) Everest University - Composition 39
  40. 40. Revised Answer • Most experts believed the effects will be disastrous (National Institutes of Mental Health [NIMH], 2000). For example, eight of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after 36 hours. • Explanation: Number and abbreviation rules. (Usually 10 and above uses the number, or time, dates, ages, scores and points on a scale) Everest University - Composition 40
  41. 41. Citation Generator There are citation generators online that you can use to format your APA paper Everest University - Composition 41
  42. 42. APA Citation Machine Everest University - Composition 42
  43. 43. APA Producer Citation Generator Everest University - Composition 43
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