Libraries to Go


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Internet Librarian 2009: The presenters address the challenges involved in providing library content and services to mobile users. They discuss offering an entire library experience to mobile users, discovery tools available (mobile-friendly OPACs, union catalogs, library webpages and subject guides), best practices for cataloging electronic resources specific to mobile devices, as well as IT issues, collection development trends, licensing issues, and gathering usage statistics.

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  • As our screens get smaller and smaller . . .
  • 2012 prediction: worldwide Mobile devices will be the primary connection tool to the internet for most people in the world in 2020 (
  • Personal digital appliances
  • Difference between App and mobile version of website These are examples of university responses to providing mobile content, but without library services represented
  • Google android phone: attributed to flickr user barron Iphone: attributed to flickr user William Hook Blackberry: attributed to flickr user Editor B Kindle: attributed to flickr user TheFemGeek Palm Pre: attributed to O2UKOfficial “ Is 2009 the year of the m-library?” blog post by The Distant Librarian on 01/22/09 says yes (The Distant Librarian is Public Services Systems Librarian (aka webmaster) at the University of Calgary, in Alberta, Canada) Has it been? Yes, so far: Launch of library-specific Apps; more publishers providing content that is mobile-optimized; conferences with mobile focus for libraries: 2 nd Annual M-Libraries Conference, Handheld Librarian 1, LITA National Forum
  • PDA Resources (early efforts) Supporting our users who are managing their information flow by using handheld devices This started with PDAs, but of course handheld devices are so much more than PDAs now. We have expanded to include iPod Touch loaning program – 3 iPod Touches preloaded with licensed and free electronic resources, loaned to users by the medical library.
  • Stanza e-Book Library app on iPhone User can bring in their own catalog of titles as well as those bought through Stanza Stanza e-book iPhone/iPod Touch App: “The built-in Lexcycle Online Catalog contains links to over 100,000 books, from classics to contemporary works. From Austen to Zola, the world’s greatest literature is all at your fingertips.” AIP iResearch iPhone App Recognizes an institutional IP range for authentication, allows a user to download PDFs to the iPhone or iPod Touch for reading off-line Meant to be used in conjunction with library’s licensed content
  • A few examples of libraries providing the mobile user with an optimized experience at the point of the library home page. Public libraries have been out in front in terms of developing library apps as well as making their websites and OPACs mobile-ready.
  • Not just for iPhone but any mobile device - Britannica recognizes that you are coming from a mobile device The library didn’t have to do anything – the user is automatically redirect to a mobile-ready version of the content
  • Vending machines that take payment via cell phone (Japan) (RFID, infrared or QR code) How are our users using their mobile devices? In order to determine how much effort libraries need to spend on developing apps and mobile-ready websites, we need to find out more specifically how users are interacting with the library from their handheld devices. Research should be done: User needs analysis Information seeking behavior of mobile users Pilot projects can be developed to determine current use, and include mass marketing to encourage use
  • Acquisitions Issues: ERs that are downloadable to smartphones vs ERs that are accessible through library authentication – as they usually are – but optimized for smartphone viewing Affects license, price, ordering & activation process Separate fees for mobile-ready resources? Or integrated? Should be integrated – the library is not licensing content for a separate set of users. The same users have access, whether from their handheld device while walking across campus, or from their laptop in the classroom, or from a computer in the library. Are there any issues with rendering the link resolver for the mobile-ready resources? Is the platform upon which the mobile-e-resource provided separate from the platform for non-mobile-ready, and if so will it be necessary to activate separately in the link resolver? Any issues with authenticating your users for remote access, i.e. through the VPN or proxy server? (users are not just mobile, but remote and mobile ) What vendors can do: Make ERs mobile-optimized (new versions of digital content?) Make mobile-optimized ERs device-agnostic (for better migration across devices and for future devices) Work with apps developers to optimize pdfs for mobile devices, ensure added functionality (text markup, emailing, saving, etc) Provide usage stats customized to capture use by mobile devices
  • “ The proxy bookmarklet lets you reload a web page through the U-M Library's proxy server. If the page you are visiting is one that the library has a subscription for, and you're presently off-campus, then you should get you immediate access to the resource once you've logged in with your uniqname and Kerberos password and have been verified to have a valid library account.”
  • If you are going to purchase mobile electronic resources, then you may wish to make them accessible via your catalog. Best practices have yet to be formally established for cataloging mobile electronic resources. A search of the literature showed some older sources regarding cataloging direct access chips for older PDAs. Recent developments in the field of cataloging have made it much more straightforward to catalog mobile versions of electronic resources. The new Provider-Neutral E-Monograph MARC Record Guide ( was approved by the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) and went into effect August 1, 2009. According to this new cataloging practice, all versions of the same electronic monograph can be captured on a single provider-neutral record. The provider-neutral practice had already been established for integrating resources (e.g. databases and websites) in 2008, and had already been the practice for serials years before. Therefore, for all electronic resources, the mobile URL can be attached to the same e-resource record as the original, unless the content differs so much that a separate record is deemed necessary (cataloger’s judgment). So, for the most part we don’t really need to worry about any separate practices for mobile electronic resources cataloging, though individual libraries may choose do approach this in different ways in order to best suit their users. Sources: 1. Cuddy, Colleen. (2005). Using PDAs in libraries. New York: Neal-Schuman. How-to-do-it manuals for libraries no. 142. pp. 64-70 “Cataloging PDA Resources” 2. Koufogiannakis, Denise; Ryan, Pam; Dahl, Susan. (2005). Just another format: Integrating resources for users of personal digital assistants. Acquisitions Librarian 17 (33/34), pp.133-145. 3. Searches of AUTOCAT, OLAC-LIST, OCLC-CAT, etc. 4. AUTOCAT thread “Provider Neutral Questions” Aug.24, 2009, followed up by personal communication with Shana McDanold & Becky Culbertson of the Provider-Neutral E-Monograph Task Force. ___________________________________________ Free application End User License Agreement Downloaded Software (computer file) 856 field – also either local intermediate page in local catalog and/or product information page in 856 42 The library didn’t pay for this app, but as we distribute it pre-downloaded on our iPod touches, we consider it a library resource. Question: What if libraries did pay for apps? Would you want to catalog it? _____________________________________________ Locally licensed (paid resource) Remote access (Internet required) Authentication required (via our network or VPN) Integrating resource (database) Just add the mobile URL to the existing database record. Can qualify any special restrictions or system requirements in 856 $z – special mobile requirements do not need to go into body of the record, as the record is provider-neutral. However, if the mobile version is different enough in content, you might want a separate record, in which you could describe the special mobile features in more detail. Cataloger’s judgment. _______________________________________________ Locally licensed (paid resource) Monograph (mobile version of print ed.) Authentication required (only accessible on registered devices) Interesting twist: When we acquired this resource, it was remote access (internet required), but since then Skyscape has made it accessible via an app (internet no longer required) 856 field: Local intermediate URL for local catalog in 856 40; for OCLC record 856 42 for product page If you had other versions of this you could add additional URLs. The 300 and the 500 identify this record as a provider-neutral e-monograph using the new PN guidelines.
  • Responsibility of library staff, library IT or campus IT? How much responsibility does the Library have if users are accessing content through their own devices? What is expected? Multiple mobile access requirements: pda, blackberry, iphone, Google, Kindle, etc Migration to next-gen smartphone compatible in future? Do we need to prepare now even as we figure out how to support current-gen devices?
  • DISCOVER: Library web site, Subject guides, OPAC, WorldCat, Google Scholar, Link resolver VIEW : HTML, PDF, images (i.e. DELIVERY) INTERACT/USE: Import to citation manager (Zotero, e.g.), Download? Print? Email? Highlight? Copy/Paste?
  • Another way users might discover your electronic resources via their mobile devices is through your library’s OPAC. Do you have a mobile version of your OPAC? This is our OPAC as viewed from an iPhone (not mobile-ready). ______________________________________ One way users might access your electronic resources via their mobile devices is through your library’s subject guides. Does your library have a mobile-ready website? Are your subject guides mobile ready? Note: LibGuides does have a mobile viewing option but it is not easy to find/use – basically the same the print view – not very appealing.
  • Duke iPhone app Note: the app has a built-in browser, so you don’t need to leave the app in order to view the resource Note: in this case takes 4 steps to actually get to resource
  • While authenticated on our UCI network, one can get to library resources from Google Scholar via our link resolver.
  • Also not mobile-ready
  • Growing number of resources that provide ability to interact with text: PDF can be viewed on mobile device Progress is being made in terms of discovery but more needs to be done in terms of delivery Link resolver Content providers IEEE Xplore – all you can do is email a link to yourself, you can’t get to full text – even if authenticated through VPN _________________________________________________ After you get to the content, what do you do with it? Citation mgmt is one thing, also want to mark up text – highlight, make notes, etc. Are we there yet? Is Kindle providing this functionality? The idea is not just to be able to discover and view electronic resources via mobile devices, but also to be able to interact with them. At the very least you might want to save, bookmark, or email either the resources themselves or citations. For example, one may wish to manage citations. Zotero has mobile version (mobile-ready website, not app), but no plug-in that would let you add electronic resources directly from your mobile device. What else might you want to do with an electronic resource on your mobile device? Highlight? Markup? Notate? Personalize? (some of this is not yet ready in the desktop environment, either) Or, is it enough ____________________________________________________ Kindle functionality: text can be brought in from outside sources Kindle requires file converter to read PDF, html, .doc etc (emailed to Kindle email address for a fee) Kindle DX has a built-in PDF reader
  • MOBILE VERSIONS ARE IMPORTANT or how else can people find the electronic resources
  • Location-based mobile services (WolfWalk at NCSU) – uses GPS to show off historical info Layar – augmented reality browser (e.g. book reviews in stacks (Helene Blowers blog); historical photos on campus tour) Mobile device as library card (barcodes) Take a picture, identify a book ( More non-text mobile electronic resources (audio, video, images, etc.) QR Codes “ So, what is a QR Code? A QR Code is a two dimensional bar code which when scanned using your camera phone enables you to access some pre-written content or complete a task. For instance, read some text, access a web site, send an sms or an email. An example is below. If you scan the code it will open this website ( on your phone. “ (e.g. open a book review for a book, open some text about an library exhibit item) More mobile applications built by libraries (DCPL) More platforms (not just iPhones) Use of mobile devices in library instruction (tutorials, clickers, etc.) More mobile-optimized versions from vendors??? 
  • Any questions? Contact us at University of California, Irvine using the emails above.
  • Libraries to Go

    1. 1. Kristine Ferry, Lisa Sibert and Holly Tomren Internet Librarian 2009
    2. 2. Flickr: Schlusselbein2007
    3. 11. Flickr: Nemo’s great uncle
    4. 13. Flickr: nic221
    5. 14. Catalog card courtesy of
    6. 15. Flickr: steve-chippy
    7. 16. Flickr: TopTechWriter.US Flickr: Tambako the Jaguar Flickr: hanaan
    8. 24.
    9. 26. Kristine Ferry [email_address] Holly Tomren [email_address] Lisa Sibert [email_address]