Prokon manual

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Prokon manual

  1. 1. Installing PROKON 1-1 Chapter Installing PROKON This explains the procedures for installing PROKON. step-by-step to help new users avoid pitfalls. The minimum and recommended system requirements are also given.
  2. 2. Installing PROKON1-2 Quick Reference System Requirements 3 Program Installation 5 Precautionary measures 18
  3. 3. System Requirements 1-3 System Requirements The minimum system requirements and recommended specification to run the 32-bit Windows version of PROKON are: Required Recommended PC with Pentium II or higher processor running Windows 98 second edition, Windows 2000 or Windows XP Pentium IV or higher 128 MB RAM, 100 MB free disk space 256 MB RAM or more CD-Rom drive or access to one over a network VGA adapter displaying 800x600 resolution in 256 colours Super VGA adapter displaying 1024x768 resolution in High Colour The suite often needs to save temporary information on your hard disk. For this purpose, the Windows temporary folder, typically ’C:WindowsTemp’ or C:WinNTTemp’, is used. Especially when analysing large structures, a significant amount of error-free disk space may be required. Tip: To check your hard disk for errors, it is recommended that you use Scandisk, or similar program, on a regular basis.
  4. 4. System Requirements1-4
  5. 5. Program Installation 1-5 Program Installation Wait for the auto-run function or browse your CD’s content for the SETUP.EXE file. Run the SETUP.EXE file and the following window will appear. Welcome to PROKON Structural Analysis and Design!
  6. 6. Program Installation1-6 Installed folders Before installing PROKON, we recommend you take a moment to study the folder tree that will be created during installation. The main components are: • The main suite folder: This is the folder enclosing all program folders and is always called ’Prokon’. • The main program folder: The folder that contains all the executable programs and other files that make up the system. The folder has a child folder where the Dos components of the suite reside. • The default data folder: This is the folder used for data storage. Directly after installation, the working folder is set to ’ProkonDataDemo’. When you start to use the suite, you will be creating new working folders where input and output data will be stored. Working folders can be created anywhere on your computer, or even on your network. • User folders: Each user’s preferences, e.g. favourite design codes and on-screen layout of each program, are automatically stored in a dedicated folder. Note: The default data folder, ’ProkonDataDemo’, is the only data folder created during installation. Other data folders are created only when you define new working folders while using PROKON. The installation procedure is discussed in the following text. Please follow all instructions carefully to ensure error-free installation.
  7. 7. Program Installation 1-7 Installing on a standalone computer The procedure to install and activate PROKON on a stand-alone PC can be broken into two steps: 1. Installing the programs to your hard disk. 2. Activating the programs for use. Installing the program files to your hard disk. To copy the program files, follow the steps below: • Check the PC’s date and time and adjust if necessary. To adjust the date or time, double-click the clock displayed on the Task Bar. Alternatively open the Control Panel and double-click Date/Time. • Insert the CD-Rom and wait for the PROKON Structural Analysis and Design Setup utility to start. If the utility does not start automatically, then run ’Setup.exe’ on the CD- Rom. You can read the latest Newsletter by selecting the Release Notes button. Click next to proceed. • The location of the Destination Folder where the PROKON suite will reside, i.e. the main suite folder will default to ‘C:Prokon’. Optionally use ‘Browse’ to choose a parent folder. If you browse to 'C:Program Files', for example, the suite will be installed in 'C:Program FilesProkon'. The ‘Disk Usage’ button will show you a summary of the available space on all your local and mapped physical drives. Use the Reset button only if you want to go back to the default settings. Click ‘Next’ to proceed. • Click Install to begin installation. If you want to review or change any of your installation settings, press ‘Back’. Click ‘Cancel’ to exit the installation wizard at any time. • Click ‘Finish’ to complete the installation process.
  8. 8. Program Installation1-8 Activating the programs The above installation procedure copies all necessary program files to your PC. You will, however, be unable to use the programs until you activate them. The licensing method of PROKON has changed from the pervious versions. Terminology: License (Seat): A collection of PROKON modules installed on a stand alone or network computer. A user can have more than one license installed to enable network users to access more than one PROKON package at the same time. One license can be split into two sets, i.e. collection of steel and a collection of concrete modules. Two network users can run one license of PROKON if it is split into two sets. Sets: One license of PROKON can be ordered in two different sets. In this case two users can each access one set of PROKON. It is important to note that both users will then be limited to the modules within their own set. Sets can be exchanged by selecting the relevant setting on the ‘Settings’ Æ ‘User name’ menu in Calcpad. To activate the programs: After completing the above installation steps, run the PROKON for the first time. The following window will appear: You can also find this window at the ‘Tools’ menu in Calcpad under ‘Activate programs’ . Various activation options are available for the user. • Activate through internet: Make sure that your computer is connected to the internet. The activation program will use the following ports to access the PROKON web server: Port 80, 20 and 21. (Normal browsing and FTP ports). The local PROKON software will then communicate with the remote PROKON web server. The following information will appear in the Activate stations’ window: • Number of sets: This indicates the number of sets ordered. • Number available: The number of sets available for the user to activate. • Number to activate: The user can specify the number
  9. 9. Program Installation 1-9 of sets (Set1 and Set2) to be activated. • Activate through E-mail: PROKON will use the default e-mail program; such as Microsoft Outlook to generate an encrypted e-mail. The user has to enter the number of sets to activate on Set 1 or/and Set 2. Click on ‘Send E-mail’ and the default e-mail program will open with a new e-mail window. It is very important to note that the user shouldn’ t change the contents of the e-mail. The web server at PROKON will reply within minutes (depending on the user’ s e-mail poll interval time) with the return code. Click on the ‘Enter Return code'button and type in the user specific random return code. • Activate by phoning PROKON: If the above mentioned methods fails or is unavailable, the user can contact the nearest PROKON dealer. • Run PROKON in demo mode: This mode will allow the user to evaluate the software. All the modules will run in a restricted mode until activation. The activation window is located under the ‘Tools’ menu in PROKON Calcpad. Note: You can install PROKON on any number of PCs. Activation of the suite will however be limited to the number of available workstations. You can however at any time deactivate an active workstation to restore the set on the web server, and then activate the suite on another PC. Deactivating an active workstation You can at any time deactivate an active workstation, e.g. to move it to another PC: • Check the PC's date and time and adjust if necessary. • Click on the tools menu in PROKON ‘calcpad’ . • Select deactivate programs form the ‘Tools’ menu: • Deactivate through internet: As discussed above, use this option only if you have an active internet connection. Select the amount of licences to deactivate from the window. The active licenses will be clearly indicated in the number available row. Click on the ‘Ok’ button, and all your modules will return to demo mode.
  10. 10. Program Installation1-10 • Deactivate through E-mail: Type in the number of licenses to deactivate. Click on ‘Send E-mail’ and PROKON will generate an encrypted e-mail message with your default e-mail program. Send the message and the PROKON web server will credit you your licenses. • Deactivate by phoning PROKON: If the above mentioned methods fails or is unavailable, the user can contact the nearest PROKON dealer. Note: Deactivating does not delete any files. Instead, all program and data files are left in position to enable you to later activate the workstation again. To completely remove PROKON from a PC, use the Uninstall procedure described on page 1-17
  11. 11. Program Installation 1-11 Activating a deactivated workstation To reactivate a deactivated workstation: • Check the PC’s date and time and adjust if necessary. • Run PROKON Structural analysis and design software. • Click on the ‘Tools’ dropdown menu, and select Activate programs. Follow the same procedure discussed on page 1-8.
  12. 12. Program Installation1-12 Installing on a network PROKON can be installed on a network for simultaneous use by more than one person. The number of simultaneous users will be limited to the number of sets ordered, i.e. number of licences. The network installation procedure has three steps: 1. Copying the program files to the server. 2. Activating the programs for simultaneous use. 3. Configuring each workstation that will use PROKON. Note: You do not need a dedicated file server to be able to install PROKON on your network. Any PC on the network, even an ordinary PC connected to a peer-to-peer network, can be identified as the ’server’for the purpose of sharing PROKON. In the explanation of the network installation procedure that follows below, the following terminology is used: • Server: The computer on to which the suite will be installed. • Local PC: The computer where you are seated when you install the suite. • Workstation: A computer that will access PROKON over the network. Note: To install PROKON on a server running Windows NT Server software, you may need to first log in as an administrator. Copying the program files to the server The network installation procedure may be performed from any of the connected network PCs, i.e. a workstation or the server itself. You may however find it easiest to perform the procedure while seated at the server itself: • Check the server PC’s date, time and time zone settings and adjust if necessary. To adjust the date, time or time zone, double-click the clock displayed on the Task Bar. Alternatively open the Control Panel and double-click Date/Time. • Insert the CD-Rom and wait for the PROKON Setup Wizard utility to start. If the utility does not start automatically, then run ’Setup.exe’on the CD-Rom. • The location of the Destination Folder where the PROKON suite will reside, i.e. the main suite folder will default to ‘C:Prokon’ . Optionally use Browse to choose a parent folder. You are free to also browse the Network Neighbourhood for an appropriate folder. If you browse to 'ServerShared Applications', for example, the suite will be installed in 'ServerShared ApplicationsProkon'. The ‘Disk Usage’ button will show you a summary
  13. 13. Program Installation 1-13 of the available space on all your local and mapped physical drives. Use the Reset button only if you want to go back to the default settings. Click ‘Next’ to proceed. • Click ‘Install’ to begin installation. If you want to review or change any of your installation settings, press ‘Back’ . Click ‘Cancel’ to exit the installation wizard at any time. • Click ‘Finish’ to complete the installation process. Activating the programs for simultaneous use over the network The above installation steps will have copied all the necessary files to the server. You will, however, be unable to use the programs until you activate them. To allow simultaneous use of PROKON on your network, you only need to activate the programs on the server. All connected workstations will then automatically be allowed access to the system. To activate the programs on the server: • After completing the above steps and still seated at the same computer, i.e. workstation or server, run PROKON for the first time. The following window will appear: You can also find this window at the tools menu in PROKON Calcad under Activate programs. Various activation options are available for the user. • Activate through internet: Make sure that your computer is connected to the internet. The activation program will use the following ports to access the PROKON web server: Port 80, 20 and 21. (Normal browsing and FTP ports). The local PROKON software will then communicate with the remote PROKON web server. The following information will appear in the Activate stations’ window: • Number of sets: This indicates the number of sets ordered. • Number available: The number of sets available for the user to activate.
  14. 14. Program Installation1-14 • Number to activate: The user can specify the number of sets (Set1 and Set2) to be activated. • Activate through E-mail: PROKON will use the default e-mail program; such as Microsoft Outlook to generate an encrypted e-mail. The user has to enter the number of sets to activate on Set 1 or/and Set 2. Click on ‘Send E-mail’ and the default e-mail program will open with a new e-mail window. It is very important to note that the user shouldn’ t change the contents of the e-mail. The web server at PROKON will reply within minuets (depending on the user’ s e-mail poll interval time) with the return code. Click on ‘Enter Return code’ button and type in the user specific random return code. • Activate by phoning PROKON: If the above mentioned methods fails or is unavailable, the user can contact the nearest PROKON dealer. • Run PROKON in demo mode: This mode will allow the user to evaluate the software. All the modules will run in a restricted mode until activation. The activation window is located under the tools menu in PROKON calcpad. Note: The number of simultaneous network users will be limited to the number of sets selected when you activate the suite. Assigning network user privileges User permissions on your server need be configured correctly to ensure error-free performance. All installed folders may have read-only access except for the following folders that require full control: • User folder and sub-folders where each user's preferences are saved. • The Prolock folder contains the PROKON installation status and keeps a log of users accessing the system. • The Dos folder under the main program folder, Bin, contains configuration files for the Dos modules. Read-only access is sufficient for the Bin folder itself. • Data folder with sub-folders for different jobs. Refer to page 6 for more details regarding the installed folders.
  15. 15. Program Installation 1-15 Configuring the network workstations to use PROKON After successfully installing and activating PROKON on your server, configuring the workstations is a simple case of creating a shortcut on each station. To prevent unnecessary copy-protection errors and for the sake of accurate record keeping on your network, it is essential that the date and time of each workstation should be correct. Because Windows intelligently manages file creation times on networks across different time zone, each workstation should also be using the correct time zone setting. To check or adjust a PC’s date, time and time zone settings double-click the clock displayed on the Task Bar. Alternatively open the Control Panel and double-click Date/Time. If you change the PC’s time zone, you need to restart the PC to make the change take effect. To create a shortcut on a workstation: • Seated at the workstation, browse the Network Neighbourhood to the main program folder on the server, e.g. serverprokonbin • Locate the file, ‘Prokon32.exe’ within the main program folder. • Single click on the file to select it. Single click the right mouse button on the file and select send to from the menu. Another menu will appear. Select Desktop (create shortcut). The icon displayed on the Desktop of the workstation will run the PROKON package. Note: For a network installation it is not necessary to install the PROKON CD on each individual workstation. If you are using multiple sets More than one set of programs can be activated on the server using the procedure described on the previous page. On running PROKON, a user can select the set to use when setting his User name. The set selected is saved as part of the user preferences. In other words, using the example of separate steel design and concrete design sets, a steel designer needs to select the steel design set only the first time he uses PROKON.
  16. 16. Program Installation1-16 The next time he uses the system, he will automatically be presented with the steel design set. More details regarding the setting of a user name are in given in Chapter 2. Deactivating a network installation You can deactivate a network installation: • Check the server PC’s date and time and adjust if necessary. • Click on the ‘Tools’ Æ ‘Deactivate’ menu in Calcpad. • Deactivate through internet: Make sure that your computer is connected to the internet. The deactivation program will use the following ports to access the PROKON web server: Port 80, 20 and 21. (Normal browsing and FTP ports). The local PROKON software will then communicate with the remote PROKON web server. The following information will appear in the deactivate stations’ window: • Number of sets: This indicates the number of sets ordered. • Number active: The number of sets available for deactivation. • Number to deactivate: The user can specify the number of sets (Set1 and Set2) to be deactivated. • Deactivate through E-mail: PROKON will use the default e-mail program; such as Microsoft Outlook to generate an encrypted e-mail. The user has to enter the number of sets to activate on Set 1 or/and Set 2. Click on ‘Send E-mail’ and the default e-mail program will open with a new e-mail window. It is very important to note that the user shouldn’ t change the contents of the e-mail. The web server at PROKON will then credit your account with the relevant amount of licences. • Deactivate by phoning PROKON: If the above-mentioned methods fails or is unavailable, the user can contact the nearest PROKON dealer.
  17. 17. Program Installation 1-17 Uninstalling PROKON To remove PROKON from a PC or network, follow the steps below: • Seated at the PC where PROKON is installed or at the server in the case of a network installation: • Insert the CD-Rom and wait for the Setup utility to start. If the utility does not start automatically, then run ’Setup.exe’on the CD-Rom. • Click Remove to remove the program files. Note: Some files or folders may not be removed during the uninstall procedure. Folders containing data, for example, will not be removed automatically and will need to deleted manually. Remember to deactivate the software first as discussed on page 1-9.
  18. 18. Precautionary measures1-18 Precautionary measures The activation status of your PROKON programs may be damaged in some instances. The following situations require the programs to be deactivated first and activated again afterwards: • Moving the programs to another folder on a local or network drive. Unlike the DOS version of PROKON, you are free to move or copy data folders. • Compacting the hard disk using Drivespace or similar disk compression utility. • Converting the hard disk file structure to FAT32 under Windows 98. • Upgrading of hardware, e.g. replacement of the hard disk. Note: Disk defragmenting utilities such as Defrag can be used safely with PROKON. To deactivate the PROKON suite, follow the procedures described on the previous pages. The importance of dates and times Dates are recorded as part of the suite’s copy protection system. To prevent unnecessary errors, it is important that all relevant computers should have the correct date and time. Windows has a built-in feature that intelligently adjusts the date and time on networks spanning across different time zones. This means that you should also ensure that all computers use the correct time zone settings. To check or adjust a PC’s date, time or time zone settings, double-click the clock displayed on the Task Bar. Alternatively open the Control Panel and double-click Date/Time. If you change the PC’s time zone, you need to restart the PC for the change to take effect.
  19. 19. The PROKON Basics 2-1 Chapter The PROKON Basics The basic principles of using PROKON are discussed in this chapter. Starting with the issues you need to address when using the program for the first time, e.g. setting up a working folder, the text progresses to everyday tasks like running analysis and design modules. The chapter ends with explaining advanced procedures like creating an equation library and customising the page layout for your projects.
  20. 20. The PROKON Basics2-2 Quick Reference Using PROKON for the First Time 3 Using the Analysis and Design Modules 11 Using the Table Editor 19 Using the PROKON Calculator 27 Working with Pictures 29 Adding Text and Graphics 35 Working with Equations 41 Customising the Page Layout 51 Configuring the Section Database 57 Configuring the Material Database 60
  21. 21. Using PROKON for the First Time 2-3 Using PROKON for the First Time Depending on the shortcut options chosen during the installation procedure, you will be able to run PROKON by double-clicking the shortcut on the Desktop or selecting it from the Start Menu.
  22. 22. Using PROKON for the First Time2-4 Configuring PROKON On launching PROKON, the main program, called Calcpad, is displayed. From here, you are able to launch the individual analysis and design modules. Calcpad is also the application that you will use to collect analysis and design results and save them in project files. Some aspects are best attended to immediately when using PROKON for the first time: • Creating a user folder. • Setting the preferred design codes, design parameters and units of measurement. • Setting up a working folder. • Selecting a wallpaper. • Customising your project’s appearance. Note: When running PROKON for the very first time, the default design codes and units of measurement are automatically set to match your current Windows Regional Settings. To check or change your settings, open Control Panel and double-click Regional Settings. Once you start using the PROKON analysis and design modules, you will want to progress to working with project files: • Entering a header for a project. • Working with more than one project at a time. • File management. Setting your user name The PROKON suite can be made to adapt to your style of working by automatically saving your preferences in a user folder. Information recorded include: • Preferences: Design codes, units of measurement and custom sections. • Display properties: Size and position of each module on the screen. To select your user folder or create a new one, open the Settings menu and choose User. The user folder resides under the main PROKON program folder. If you use the system on a network, you will be able to select your user folder regardless of which workstation on the network you use.
  23. 23. Using PROKON for the First Time 2-5 If you are using multiple sets on a network If more than one set of programs has can be activated on your network, e.g. a set with mainly steel design modules and another with mainly concrete design modules, each user can select a set to use. The sets are identified by the relevant Key Disk numbers. The set selected is saved as part of the user preferences. In other words, using the example of separate steel design and concrete design sets, a steel designer needs to select the steel design set only the first time he uses PROKON. The next time he uses the system, he will automatically be presented with the steel design set. More details regarding the setting of a user name are in given in Chapter 2. Selecting your preferences During program installation, the default design codes and units of measurement are automatically set according to your PC’s regional settings, i.e. the information recorded in the Regional settings function of the Windows Control Panel. To change your preferred design code and parameters, use the General preferences command on the Settings menu. The design modules use the selected preferences to determine the default values for design codes and relevant design parameters. You can however temporarily override these setting using the Design code, Units or Preferences command on a design module’s File menu. If a particular preference is not available in module, e.g. the preferred design code is not supported, the module will automatically make a next-best selection. Note: The preferences for the Dos modules are set separately using the Design codes (Dos) command. Refer to page 2-15 for detail.
  24. 24. Using PROKON for the First Time2-6 Setting up a working folder By default, all input and output data is saved in the working folder. The first time you use PROKON, the working folder will be set to ’. . .ProkonDataDemo’. Once you get accustomed to using the suite, it is recommended that you create a new working folder for each project you are working on. Working folders can be created in any convenient location, be it on you own hard disk or on the network. To create a new working folder or select another existing folder, open the Settings menu and choose Working Folder. When naming a new working folder, you should use a valid Windows folder name: • A folder name may contain up to 255 characters, including spaces. • A folder name cannot contain the following characters: / : * ? " < > |. Note: The Dos modules also use the working folder to save data files. This effectively removes the eight plus three character limitation imposed by Dos. Selecting a wallpaper To personalise your PROKON workstation, you may want to display a wallpaper in Calcpad. To load a wallpaper, open the Settings menu and choose Wallpaper. The following limitations apply to wallpapers: • Supported graphics formats include: Windows Bitmap (.bmp), Icon (.ico), Metafile (.wmf) and Enhanced Metafile (.emf). • The wallpaper image is scaled to fit the Calcpad working area. Therefore, not all images will necessarily look well. Customising your project’s appearance Once you get accustomed to using PROKON, it is recommended that you use the procedures explained from page 2-51 to load another page template or create your own template.
  25. 25. Using PROKON for the First Time 2-7 Working with project files Apart from acting as a launch platform for the analysis and design modules, you can use Calcpad to group analysis results and design calculations and then save all the information in a project file. You can use project files to keep a complete record of all your analysis and design calculations: • In an analysis or design module, the input data and results are typically collected on the module’s Calcsheets page from where you send it to Calcpad. For an explanation of the procedure, refer to page 2-13 and 2-17. • Results obtained from the various analysis and design modules are then saved together in a project file. • You can then use Calcpad to supplement the results from the analysis and design modules with additional design notes and pictures. Refer to page 2-35 for more detail. • Links are retained with each individual analysis via data file objects. These objects are visible in the right-hand margin as yellow folders. Double-clicking a data file object recalls the original input data in the relevant analysis or design module. • To perform calculations not covered in the scope of the design modules, you can use equations – a feature built into Calcpad. The use of the Equation Editor is explained on page 2-41. Entering a header for a project The information at the top each page should be completed to reflect the designers name, the date etc. To edit the header information: • Select the Header command from the Edit menu or double- click the header in Calcpad. • Type the information for each field. • To insert the current date, click Insert date. If you use similar headers for your different projects, you can save retyping information by saving the header information. Click Save as default to save the information and Load default to retrieve it.
  26. 26. Using PROKON for the First Time2-8 Click OK to apply the new header to the active project. The new header will apply to the current and following pages. This allows you, for example, to use different people’s names in the Designed by field if more than one person is working on the same project file. The composition of the header can be changed to suit your own needs by customising the page template. For more details, refer to the customisation procedures explained from page 2-51. Working with more than one project at a time You can open more than one project in Calcpad at a time. The current selected project is referred to as the active project. All results sent to Calcpad from the analysis and design modules are placed in the active project. To select an open project and make it the active project, click its tab with the mouse. File management Use the File menu commands to open and save project files in the working folder or any other location on your own computer or on a network drive that you have write access to: • To create a new project file, select New Project. • To open an existing project file, use the Open Project command. • Use Save Project to save the active project. • To save a new, unnamed project file, use Save Project as. • To close the active projects or all open projects, use Close Project or Close All. • To open a recently used project file, click the file name at the bottom of the File menu. PROKON Project files as saved with the extension ’.PPF’for easy recognition. To open a project file on your hard disk or network 1. On the File menu, click Open Project. 2. In the Look in box, click the drive and folder that contains the document. 3. In the folder list, double-click folders until you locate the folder that contains the document you want. By default, the file list is filtered to show only project files created by Calcpad. You can change this by selecting All files in the Files of type box, e.g. when wanting to open a text file. You can also type a filter File name box; for example, type ’p*.*’ to find all files starting with the letter p. 4. To change the appearance of the file list, click List or Details. With Details selected, you can click a column heading to sort the data files by name, size, date or type.
  27. 27. Using PROKON for the First Time 2-9 5. Double-click the document you want to open. Saving a new, unnamed project file 1. On the File menu, click Save Project. 2. To save the project in a different folder, click a different drive in the Save Project in box, or double-click a different folder in the folder list. 3. To save the document in a new folder, click Create New Folder. 4. In the File name box, type a name for the document. You can use long, descriptive file names if you want. The program will automatically add an appropriate file extension. 5. Click Save.
  28. 28. Using PROKON for the First Time2-10
  29. 29. Using the Analysis and Design Modules 2-11 Using the Analysis and Design Modules To run a PROKON analysis or design module, click its icon on the shortcut bar or select it from the Program Menu. If a particular module’s shortcut icon or menu item is dimmed, it means that the module is not included in your workstation. When you run a module by clicking its icon or choosing it from the Programs menu, the best available version of that module is launched. If the Windows version of a module is not available, the Dos version will be launched instead. Where available, the Dos version of each module is also included in the suite. To run the Dos version of a module, right-click its icon on the shortcut bar.
  30. 30. Using the Analysis and Design Modules2-12 Using the Windows modules The analysis and design modules follow a similar pattern. By familiarising yourself with a few concepts, you should find using the PROKON suite relatively simple and intuitive. Setting the preferred design codes Use the General preferences command on the Settings menu to select the design codes and parameters to use. More detail of the procedure is given on page 2-5. Similar layout All modules present you with a number of tabbed pages or menus: • The File menu: Standard Windows commands are provided for opening and saving data files. The commands are similar to those described on page 2-8. • The Input page: All input data is entered on this page. In the case of some of the larger analysis modules, e.g. the frame analysis modules, this page will itself contain a number of tabbed input pages. Some modules also allow specialised input trough a separate Settings page or button. • The Analysis or Design page: Selecting this page typically starts the analysis and displays the results. • The Calcsheets page: Analysis and design results can be accumulated in a single calcsheet. You can choose between printing or sending the information to Calcpad. • The Drawings or Bending Schedules page: Most design modules are capable of generating a detailed drawing or bending schedule of the designed element. Drawings and bending schedules can be edited and printed using Padds. • The Help menu: Access is provided to on-line Help topics and built-in Examples. To display a particular page or menu, click it with the mouse. Alternatively use F11 and F12 to move forward and back between the pages.
  31. 31. Using the Analysis and Design Modules 2-13 Data input Except when using Padds for graphical input, e.g. for frames, all data is entered in tables. Data is normally evaluated immediately as entered. If invalid input is detected, a list of errors is normally displayed. Entered data is typically shown in Pictures that interact with the Table Editor to automatically update with every entry in the tables. Pictures can be zoomed and panned for more detail. Some pictures have visible zoom buttons, others not. However, all pictures can be zoomed by right-clicking it and using the pop-up menu. Pictures can also be saved as drawings. The use of the Table Editor is explained in detail on page 2-19 and the manipulation of Pictures on page 2-29. Sending analysis results to Calcpad After a successful analysis or design, you can group the results in a calcsheet. You can then choose to print or send the information to Calcpad. To send results to Calcpad: • Access the relevant module’s Calcsheets page. • Use the Settings function to select the components to include in the calcsheet. You can optionally select the Data File to have the input data saved as part of the Calcpad project. Note: In the case of some of the larger modules, e.g. the frame analysis modules, you need to first view the results and select individual components to be included in the calcsheet. • Click Send to Calcpad to append the results to the active project in Calcpad. Saving input You can use the File menu of a module to save and open input data files. However, if you enable the Data File option before sending a calcsheet to Calcpad, you can later recall the input data by double-clicking the relevant object in Calcpad. A data file embedded in Calcpad is saved as part of a project and does not need to be saved in the relevant module as well. If you do save a data file in an analysis or design module, the file name extension will automatically be set to the program number for easy recognition, e.g. ’.A03’ for Frame Analysis.
  32. 32. Using the Analysis and Design Modules2-14 Using the online help You can access context-sensitive help by pressing F1. Alternatively use the Help menu to display an overview of the program. It is easier to update electronic information than printed manuals. Therefore, you may occasionally find that the on-line help is more up to date that the manual. Updated help files are published regularly on the PROKON Support Web. Additional information not given in either the manual or Help, e.g. answers to frequently asked questions and details of program revisions, is also available on the PROKON Support Web. Refer to the introduction of this manual to read more about support service included with your purchase of PROKON software.
  33. 33. Using the Analysis and Design Modules 2-15 Using the Dos modules The Dos modules all have a similar look and feel, making their use relatively simple. A few important topics are briefly explained in the following text. For a more detailed explanation, consult the Dos Version User’s Guide. Setting your preference Use the following commands on the Settings menu to select your preferences: • Colour screen prints (Dos): If selected, all screens sent to Calcpad will be in colour. If you are using black-and-white printer, you will get better printing results if you de-select the option. • Design codes (Dos): Display the Dos version’s configuration utility. Change the design codes and parameters to suit your requirements. Note: The Dos modules support British Standards and equivalent SABS design codes only. The design codes and parameters can be saved for later re-use, e.g. for projects requiring special design parameters.
  34. 34. Using the Analysis and Design Modules2-16 Data input Input is done on a module’s main screen or on a series of input screens that are typically accessed by pressing I. Data entry is done using a table editor, as explained in Chapter 2 of the Dos Version User’s Guide. All input screens display the input data graphically and the graphics are updated automatically as you enter data. Some input screens also allow sketches to be zoomed for more detail. Saving input data Input data is normally saved using F2 and existing files retrieved using F3. In addition, the current input data is saved automatically to a last file whenever you leave a program. To allow you to continue where you ended your last session, the last file is automatically read the next time you run a program. Last files are named after the respective applications, e.g. Continuous Beam and Slab Design saves a file called ’LASTCB’. Note: The last files get saved independently from files saved using F2:Save. Since the last files get overwritten from time to time, the F2:Save option should be used to name files and save them permanently.
  35. 35. Using the Analysis and Design Modules 2-17 Analysis and design The buttons to analyse, design or generate a bending schedule or drawing are always easily recognisable. Sending design output to Calcpad Output can be viewed graphically or in tabular format. Output is normally displayed directly after an analysis or by pressing V or L. Output can be sent to Calcpad and used together with the output from the Windows modules: • To send the current screen images to Calcpad, press PrtSc. You can also send more than one screen image by pressing PrtSc while each of the screens is displayed. Screens can be captured in colour or black- and-white. Refer to page 2- 15 for detail on setting your preference. • Use the normal Print functions to display input tables and output files in the PROKON Preview utility. From here you can either print the information or send it to Calcpad. Using on-line help Context-sensitive help is always available by pressing F1. The help facilities are typically organised to include a table of contents at the top, followed by the various topics. More information is given in Chapter 2 of the Dos Version User’s Guide.
  36. 36. Using the Analysis and Design Modules2-18
  37. 37. Using the Table Editor 2-19 Using the Table Editor You can edit text in tables using the standard Windows functions, i.e. as employed by most spreadsheet applications. The standard Windows functions are supplemented with a number of special functions that speed up table editing. For information on tabular input in the Dos modules, refer to Chapter 2 of the Dos Version User’s Guide.
  38. 38. Using the Table Editor2-20 Moving around and editing text You can move around in tables and edit cells in very much the same way as you do in your favourite spreadsheet program. Moving the cursor in a table Use the arrow keys to move between cells. Press Enter to jump to the left-most cell in the next row. Pressing Tab moves one cell to the right and Shift+Tab one cell to the left. If you press Tab at the end of a row, the cursor will jump to the left-most cell in the next row. Home jumps to the first cell in the row and End to the last. PgUp and PgDn moves one screen up or down. To jump to the top left or bottom right corner of the table, press Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End. Tip: Click a cell with the mouse to quickly move the cursor to that cell. Entering and editing text To enter text into a cell, position the cursor on the cell and start typing. Press Enter or one of the arrow keys to accept the new text and move to a next cell. Depending on the key pressed, the cursor will move to a specific cell: • Pressing Enter accepts the entry and moves the cursor to the left-most cell in the next row. • If you press the right, up or down arrow key, the cursor will move one cell right, up or down. • If you wish to move one cell to the left, use Shift+Tab. Note: Some cells have special drop-down lists for selecting values. Depending on the specific application, you may be able to select common values from the list or optionally type values. While entering or editing text, you can move left and right using the left and right arrow keys. To jump to the left-most or right-most positions, press Home or End. To move one word to the left or right, use Ctrl with the left and right arrows. To edit text in a cell, move the cursor to the cell and press F2 or double-click it. If you want to replace the text in the cell rather than change it, simply retype the text without first pressing F2.
  39. 39. Using the Table Editor 2-21 Deleting text Press Del or Backspace to clear the current cell’s contents. While entering or editing text in a cell, Del and Backspace will delete one character to the right or left respectively. Inserting lines Press Enter to move to the first cell on the next line. To insert a blank line at the cursor, press Ctrl+I. Finding and replacing text You can search for and replace text in a table by pressing Ctrl+F. This feature can be especially handy when working with large tables, e.g. when entering nodes for a frame analysis. To repeat the last search without first opening the dialog box, press F3.
  40. 40. Using the Table Editor2-22 Working with blocks You can copy, move or delete cells using the block commands. These actions typically require two steps: • Marking a cell or block of cells – you can choose between using the normal Windows methods of selecting cells or the extended PROKON functions. • Using a block command to manipulate the block. Marking blocks When marking blocks, you can choose between using the standard Windows functions and the extended PROKON block functions – the behaviour of the resulting blocks are different. Using the standard Windows functions To select a cell or block of cells using standard Windows commands, use any of the following procedures: • Click and drag the mouse to select a rectangular block of cells. • Position the cursor on one of the corner cells. Press and hold Shift and then use the arrow keys to move to the opposite corner. Note: When marking a block this way, moving the cursor will undo the selection. Marking persistent blocks The extended functions allow you to mark persistent blocks, i.e. blocks that remain selected even if you move the cursor. Persistent blocks are marked as follows: • To select one or more rows, move the cursor to the first row and press Ctrl+L. Then move to the last row and press Ctrl+L again. • To select one or more columns, move the cursor to the first column and press Ctrl+K and then move to the last column and press Ctrl+K again. • To mark a rectangular block of cells, position the cursor on the top left cell and then press Ctrl+B. To end the selection, move to the bottom right cell and press Ctrl+E. Note: A persistent selection will remain active until unmarked with Ctrl+U. While the cells are selected, you are free to move the cursor without the block being de-selected.
  41. 41. Using the Table Editor 2-23 Copying, moving or deleting cells A selected cell or group of cells can be copied, moved or deleted using the standard Windows functions or the extended PROKON block functions. Using the Windows clipboard functions You can use the normal Windows clipboard Cut, Copy and Paste functions: • To copy a cell or block to the clipboard, press Ctrl+C. Alternatively right-click it and choose Copy. • To cut a block, i.e. remove it from the table and copy it to the clipboard, press Ctrl+X. Alternatively right-click it and choose Cut. • To paste the clipboard contents into the table at the cursor position, press Ctrl+V. alternatively right-click and choose Paste. If you are pasting a block of cells, the current cursor position will be taken as the top left corner of the block. Examples: • To copy cells in the table, first select the cell or block of cells and Copy the information to the clipboard. Then position the cursor to the new position and Paste the text. • To move one or more selected cells, Cut them to the clipboard and Paste them at the new position. • To delete one or more selected cells, select and Cut them. Alternatively press Del to delete the selected cells. Copying, moving and deleting cells using persistent blocks You can use the extended functions to mark persistent blocks and then copy and move text without using the Windows clipboard. • To copy one or more cells, first mark a persistent block, move to the new position and then press Ctrl+V. • To move a persistent block, use Ctrl+M. • To delete a persistent block selection, use Ctrl+D.
  42. 42. Using the Table Editor2-24 Advantages of using persistent blocks The normal block selection functionality offered by Windows allows you to quickly mark an area with the mouse or keyboard. However, the selection is cancelled as soon as you move the cursor. In contrast, persistent blocks offer the following advantages: • You are allowed to move the cursor while defining the selection, without cancelling the selection. You could, for example, move up or down in the table without undoing the selection. • You do not need to first Copy or Cut information to the Windows clipboard - while a persistent block is selected, you can Paste or Move it directly. • You can quickly mark persistent blocks using the keyboard. Copying text from another program You may sometimes find it easier to generate tables of values using another application, e.g. your favourite spreadsheet program. Relevant information can then be copied to a PROKON table (or from PROKON to the other program) using the Windows clipboard: • Select relevant text and Copy it to the clipboard. • Press Alt-Tab to swap to the destination program or click it on the Windows Task Bar. • Position the cursor and Paste the information from the clipboard.
  43. 43. Using the Table Editor 2-25 Summary of commands Moving around: Arrows : Move one cell up, down, left or right. Enter : Jump to the first cell in the next row. Tab : Move one cell right. Shift+Tab : Move one cell left. Home : Jump to the first cell of the current row. End : Jump to the last cell of the current row. Ctrl+Home : Jump to the top left corner of the table. Ctrl+End : Jump to the bottom left corner of the table. Del : Delete the cell at the cursor. Ctrl+Y : Delete the line at the cursor (irrespective of any block selected). Backspace : Delete the cell at the cursor and open it for editing. Ctrl+I : Insert a blank line. Ctrl+F : Find or replace text Editing cells: F2 : Edit the cell at the cursor. Left/right : Move the cursor inside the text. Ctrl+left/right : Move the cursor left or right one word. Up/down : Accept the changed text and moves to the adjacent cell. Enter : Accept the changed text and jumps to the first cell in the next row. Del : Delete the character to the right. Backspace : Delete the character to the left. Marking persistent blocks: Ctrl+A : Select all cells. Ctrl+B : Mark the top left corner of a rectangular block. Ctrl+E : Mark the bottom right corner of a rectangular block. Ctrl+K : Mark the first or last column of a block.
  44. 44. Using the Table Editor2-26 Ctrl+L : Mark the first or last line of a block. Ctrl+U : Unmark the current block. Clipboard commands Ctrl+C : Copy the block to the clipboard. Ctrl+X : Cut the block to the clipboard. Ctrl+V : Paste the clipboard to the cursor position. Persistent block commands Ctrl+V : Copy the persistent block to the cursor position Ctrl+M : Move the persistent block to the cursor position. Ctrl+D : Delete the block.
  45. 45. Using the PROKON Calculator 2-27 Using the PROKON Calculator Use the PROKON calculator for basic calculations. You can copy a result to the Windows clipboard and then paste it into Calcpad or an input table of a design module.
  46. 46. Using the PROKON Calculator2-28 Using the Calculator Use the PROKON calculator for basic calculations. You can copy a result to the Windows clipboard and then paste it into Calcpad or an input table of a design module. During installation, the calculator can be configured to automatically load when Windows starts. If so, the calculator will be visible in the Windows system tray that is typically located in the bottom right corner of the screen, i.e. next to the clock. Clicking its icon or pressing Ctrl+1 can display the calculator. To close the calculator, click Exit or press Esc. On closing, the calculator will return to its idle status in the system tray. To close the calculator and remove it from memory, right-click its icon and choose Close. Doing calculations Operation is similar to a conventional hand-held calculator: • Enter an equation using the normal mathematical operators. • To enter a mathematical function, click the relevant button or write out the function. • Simplify complex equations by enclosing portions in brackets. • Press Enter to display the result. • To remove the displayed equation and continue working with the result, press Clear left. Sending calculation results to other programs The result of a calculation can be copied to the Windows clipboard for reuse in another program: • Click Copy or press Alt-C to copy the result to the clipboard and close the calculator. • In the relevant application, e.g. Calcpad or an input table of a design module, use the Paste command or press Ctrl+V to paste the value. Tip: When using a Dos module, press Ctrl+Z to display a calculator. Use F10 to send the result back to the module’s input table.
  47. 47. Working with Pictures 2-29 Working with Pictures The analysis and design modules often have pictures linked to the input tables to make data entry interactive and more intuitive. Pictures are also often used to present analysis results.
  48. 48. Working with Pictures2-30 Zooming and panning pictures You can ’zoom in’ to get a close-up view of a picture. Some pictures have Zoom buttons for this purpose. If a picture does not have such buttons, you can still zoom it by right-clicking the picture and choosing a command from the pup-up menu. The following zoom commands are normally available for all pictures: • Window: Indicate a rectangular area to zoom into. • All: Display the whole picture, based on the size defined internally for the background. • Last: Revert to the last zoom setting. • Extents: Display the whole picture, based on the drawn entities. • In: Zoom in by 50%. • Out: Zoom out by 50%. • Pan: Drag the project in any direction to view an adjoining portion. • Print: Send the picture to the printer. Saving pictures In addition to the Zoom button commands, the right-click pop-up menu also allows you to save the picture in the following file formats: • PAD: Fully editable Padds drawing. • PIC: Prokon picture file. • EMF: Enhanced Windows metafile, readable by many graphics and presentation packages. • DXF: 2D or 3D DXF drawings for use in other CAD systems. In some modules, e.g. the frame analysis modules, a special button may is available for adding a picture to the Calcsheets.
  49. 49. Working with Pictures 2-31 Working with 3D pictures Because of their nature, some analysis and design modules need to display 3D pictures. The commands available for 3D pictures are: • Window: Indicate a rectangular area to zoom into. • All: Display the visible portion of structure from the current view point. • Last: Revert to the last zoom setting. • Extents: Display the complete structure, moving forward or back if necessary. • In: Zoom in by 50%. • Out: Zoom out by 50%. • Pan: Drag the project in any direction to view an adjoining portion. • Print: Print the current view of the structure. • Viewpoint: Display the View Point Control dialog box for defining the view point and other view characteristics. • View plane: Display the View Plane Control dialog box for defining a view plane. • Rotate left: Rotate the structure to the left about the Y-axis. The rotation angle is defined in the View Point Control dialog box. • Rotate right: Rotate the structure to the right about the Y-axis. • Rotate up: Rotate the structure backward. • Rotate down: Rotate the structure forward. Detailed settings Some modules allow detailed configuration of pictures. In the frame analysis modules, for example, you can access the Graphics Options to enable or disable display of node numbers, global axes etc. Pictures can also be rendered in 3D or shown as simple line diagrams.
  50. 50. Working with Pictures2-32 View point control Use the view Point Control Dialog function to define the viewpoint and other view properties: • View point: Imagine viewing the structure through a camera lens. The view point is then defined as the position of the camera. Enter the view point coordinates or use the Walk function to move the camera by the distance defined as the Step size. • View direction: The direction in which the camera is aimed. The default position is the centre of the structure. Enter the view direction or use the Turn function to rotate the camera through the angle defined as the Turn angle. • View angle: The lens angle. A larger angle will show more of the structure in a close-up situation. • Projection: Choose between using an orthogonal or perspective projection. The latter gives a more realistic view of the structure. However, you may get a distorted picture when using a large view angle in a close-up situation. • Elevations: For a quick view from the top or one of the sides, choose a positive or negative X, Y or Z-elevation. Tip: The default view angle of 50° works well with perspective projections of structures. If you cannot see the complete structure, the view point is probably to near to the structure. Use the Zoom extents function to move back far enough to view the complete structure. The View Point Control dialog box can be left open while you work in the program. You can also use the zoom and pan functions while the dialog box is open.
  51. 51. Working with Pictures 2-33 View plane control When viewing a complicated 3D structure, you may often find it difficult to identify points in the structure. Use the View Plane Control function to define only certain planes to be viewed. View planes can be defined in three ways: • Nodes: Enter or use the mouse to indicate three nodes that describe a plane. The plane does not need to vertical or horizontal. • Axis: Define a view plane perpendicular to the X, Y, or Z-axis. Enter the position along the indicated axis. • Coordinates: Enter three 3D coordinates to describe a plane. • Enter a view plane thickness to define how much of the structure should be visible. Click Clear to restore the settings to displaying the whole structure. Click Apply to make the entered view plane take effect. Click Close to close the dialog box The View Plane Control dialog box can be left open while you work in the program. You can also use the zoom and pan functions and the View Point Control while the dialog box is open. Tip: If your PC’s screen resolution permits, you may move the View Point Control and View Plane Control dialog boxes to one side so as not to clutter the display of the underlying program.
  52. 52. Working with Pictures2-34 Saving and recalling views You can use viewpoints and view planes to display the whole structure or portions of it in convenient ways, e.g. a plan view of a floor of a multi-storey building. You can save each combination of view point and view plane as a view for later re-use. Some pictures display the name of the current view and allow you to select another saved view by clicking the view name.
  53. 53. Adding Text and Graphics 2-35 Adding Text and Graphics The analysis output generated by the various analysis and design modules will provide normally sufficient detail of your designs. However, you may want to enhance your project files by adding additional design notes, pictures and even additional calculations. The procedure to write and edit text and to insert and manipulate pictures in Calcpad is described in the following text. Equation writing is explained from page 2-41.
  54. 54. Adding Text and Graphics2-36 Writing and editing text You can use Calcpad as a simple word processor to write and edit text. You may possibly find that you can use the exact same or similar editing and formatting commands as in your favourite word processor. Typing text Type text as you would in any other word processor or text editor. Typing over existing text Press the Ins key to toggle between overtype and insert modes. In overtype mode, you will replace existing text as you type, one character at a time. Replacing selected text Select the text to be replaced and start typing to replace it. Inserting symbols or special characters You can insert Greek symbols and other special characters using the Symbol command on the Insert menu. You can also insert a character or symbol by typing the character code on the numeric keypad, e.g. ’Alt-225'inserts the ß character. Insert the date and time in a project You can insert the current date or time in a project using the Date command on the Insert menu. Insert a text file To insert a complete text file, use the Text File command on the Insert menu. To insert only a portion of a text file instead: 1. Open the text file using the Open Project command on the File menu. Change the Files of type field to 'All files'and select the file. 2. Select and copy the relevant text using the procedures described on page 2-39. Deleting text Use Del and Backspace to delete a character to the left or right. To delete words or paragraphs, select the text and press Del.
  55. 55. Adding Text and Graphics 2-37 Changing the appearance of text To change the appearance of text, e.g. underline text or numbers: 1. Select the text you want to change. 2. On the formatting toolbar, select a font or click a style or point size. The change will be applied to the selected text only or, if you did not select any text, to new text from the cursor position and further. You can also use the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+B, Ctrl+I and Ctrl+U to make text bold, italic or underlined. When changing font style of text with mixed style, the style will toggle between normal, formatted and mixed, e.g. all normal, all bold and mixed normal and bold. Moving around in a project You can scroll through a project by using the mouse or shortcut keys. To scroll through a project by using the mouse: • Scroll up one line: Click the up arrow on the scroll bar. • Scroll down one line: Click the down arrow on the scroll bar. • Scroll up one screen: Click above the scroll box. • Scroll down one screen: Click below the scroll box. • Scroll left: Click the left arrow on the horizontal scroll bar (if displayed). • Scroll right: Click the right arrow on the horizontal scroll bar (if displayed). After scrolling, click where you want to start typing. To move the cursor using the keyboard: • Move up or down one line: Press the Up or Down arrow. • Move up or down one screen: Press PgUp or PgDn. • Move left or right one word: Press Ctrl+Left or Ctrl+Right. • To jump to the beginning or end of the current line: Press Home or End. • To jump to the first or last lines in the project: Press Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End. • To move to the reference column on the far right: Press Ctrl+Tab.
  56. 56. Adding Text and Graphics2-38 Using graphics in your project Graphics can be used to supplement text and serve to enhance your projects. Inserted graphics can be moved, copied and resized. Inserting a graphic Use the commands on the Insert menu to insert graphics: • To insert a Windows Bitmap or Metafile: Click Picture and select the file. • To insert a Padds drawing: Click Drawing and select the file. Moving and resizing graphics To move a graphic: 1. Select the graphic by clicking it. 2. Drag it to the new position. To resize a graphic: 1. Select the graphic. 2. Drag the graphic’s edge to change its horizontal or vertical size. 3. Drag one of the graphic’s corners to proportionally change its horizontal or vertical size.
  57. 57. Adding Text and Graphics 2-39 Moving and copying text and graphics You can move or copy text and graphics within a project, between projects, or between Calcpad and another program. Selecting text and graphics to move or copy You can select text and graphics by using the mouse or shortcut keys. To select text and graphics using the mouse: • To select any amount of text, drag over the text. • To select a graphic, click it. • To select a whole word, double-click the word. Using the keyboard, select text by holding down Shift and pressing the same key that moves the cursor. To extend a selection: • One character to the left or right: Shift+Left or Right arrow. • To the beginning or end of a word: Ctrl+Shift+Left or Right arrow. • To the beginning or end of a line: Shift+Home or End. • One line up or down: Shift+Up or Down arrow. • One screen up or down: Shift+PgUp or PgDn. • To the beginning or end of the project: Ctrl+Shift+Home or End. • To select all the words in a line: Ctrl+L. • To select the entire project: Ctrl+A. Moving or copying text and graphics To move or copy text and graphics: 1. Select the text or graphics you want to move or copy. 2. To move the selection, click Cut or press Ctrl+X. 3. To copy the selection, click Copy or enter Ctrl+V. 4. If you want to move or copy the text or graphics to another document, switch to it. 5. Click where you want your text or graphics to appear. 6. Click Paste or press Ctrl+V.
  58. 58. Adding Text and Graphics2-40 Zooming a text and graphics You can ’zoom in’to get a close-up view of a project or ’zoom out’to see more of the page at a reduced size. Use the Zoom buttons or right-click the project for a pop-up menu with zoom commands: • Window: Indicate a rectangular area to zoom into. • Margin: Display the whole page width between the left and right margins. • Page: Display the whole page. • Last: Revert to the last zoom setting. • In: Zoom in by 50%. • Out: Zoom out by 50%. • Pan: Drag the project in any direction to view an adjoining portion. • Page up: Scroll one page up. Same as pressing PgUp. • Page down: Scroll one page down. Same as pressing PgDn.
  59. 59. Working with Equations 2-41 Working with Equations You can use the Equation Editor to create your own equations in Calcpad. The Equation Editor is also used to edit existing equations or save equation objects for re-use in future, e.g. create a library of equations
  60. 60. Working with Equations2-42 Inserting and editing equations To open the Equation Editor for inserting or editing an existing equation: • To insert a new equation: Choose Equation from the Insert menu. • To edit an existing equation: Select and right-click the equation. Then choose Edit from the pop-up menu. To create or edit an equation, work through the different pages to create an equation object: • Equations: Use one or more lines to enter equations. When creating a new equation, this page is displayed first. • Variables: Assign a value to each variable used on the Equations page. When editing an exiting equation, this page is displayed by default. • Settings: Choose how the equations should be displayed and optionally attach a picture. Note: When sending a series of equations to Calcpad, the equations are grouped together as a unit, called an equation object.
  61. 61. Working with Equations 2-43 Entering equations Enter one or more lines of equations on the Equations page. Equations are written in ’normal English’and then automatically displayed in the correct mathematical format. Writing equations A few simple rules apply when writing equations: • Like when using a simple calculator, use ’normal English’ to write an equation – the equation is automatically formatted for you. For example, if you want to enter the equation y = a · x2 + b · x + c, enter ’y=a∗x^2+b∗x+c’. • The mathematical operators that can be used include +, –, /, ∗ and ^. • Use parenthesis to simplify an equation, e.g. for ( ) ( )dc ba + + enter 'y=(a+b)/(c+d)'.Use multiple lines for a sequence of equations. Variable values are inherited by equations that follow. Refer to page 2-48 for more detail on using a series of equations.
  62. 62. Working with Equations2-44 Defining variables A variable can be a single letter or several letters and/or numbers, e.g. a, a2 and ab. The program intelligently takes care of formatting variables with sub-scripting and italic characters. The following simple rules apply: • Enter numbers using normal or scientific notation. Example, ’0.002’ and ’2E-3’ has the same meaning. • When entering a variable, the second and following characters are used as sub-scripts, e.g. enter ’abc’to get abc. • Variables are case sensitive, e.g. ’a’and ’A’are seen as two different variables. • A variable cannot start with a number. Using ’1’ and ’a’ separately yields a valid number and variable respectively, but entering ’1a’is not allowed. Using Greek symbols Greek symbols are treated exactly like normal letters. To create a Greek symbol, enter a hash before the equivalent Roman letter, e.g. enter ’#S’and ’#s’to get and respectively. The following rules apply: • Greek symbols are case sensitive, e.g. and are seen as two different variables. • You may mix Greek symbols with normal characters. Note: The Greek symbols and are reserved and cannot be used as variable. Their values are fixed at 3.141593 etc. You may however use the symbol e as a normal variable. Entering normal text Normal text entries, e.g. headings and comments, are distinguished from equations by enclosing or preceding them in double quotes, e.g. "Comments" or "Comments without a trailing quote.
  63. 63. Working with Equations 2-45 Using mathematical functions You can use the built-in mathematical functions as necessary, e.g. ’sqrt(...)’ to determine the square root of an expression. Built-in functions include: Trigonometry Normal functions Arc functions sin, cos, tan asin, acos, atan Logarithmic functions ln, log Other functions Square root Absolute value sqrt abs Additional functions can be derived using the standard mathematical operators and functions. A few simple examples include: • Instead of using the built-in square root function, you may determine the square root and other roots as follows: cba += can be entered as ’a=sqrt(b+c)’ or ’a=(b+c)^(1/2)’ • If a = log(b), then b = 10a , which is entered as ’b=10^a’. • Trigonometric functions are inter-dependent, e.g. ( ) ( )θ θ tan 1 cot = . To enter the equation a = FRW
  64. 64. WSH a=1/tan(#h)’or ’a=(tan(#h))^(-1)’.
  65. 65. Working with Equations2-46 Assigning values to variables Assign values to variables on the Variables page. A list of all variables used on the Equations page is displayed: • Assigned variables: Variables that are not calculated but require values to be assigned to them are listed first. • Calculated variables: Variables denoting equation results are listed last. The values for these items are typically shown as ’EqX:Y’, where X is the relevant row number in the table on the Equations page and Y is the equation result. • To explain the symbols, an image can be displayed alongside the list of variables. Refer to page 2-46 for more information on using images with equations.
  66. 66. Working with Equations 2-47 Equation settings The Settings page is used to configure the display properties of an equation object: • Title: You can enter a title for an equation object. When inserting the equation in Calcpad, the title can optionally be displayed above it. • Image: An image can be loaded and optionally displayed when inserting the equation in Calcpad. The image is also displayed on the Variables page. • Numeric format: You can choose to display equation results in decimal, scientific or engineering format. • Font: Select a font, style and height to use for the equation.
  67. 67. Working with Equations2-48 Advanced techniques Once you have mastered the basic functions of the Equation Editor, you may want to proceed to creating more sophisticated equation objects. Using units of measurement You may enhance your equations by adding units of measurement. Units are designated by enclosing them in curly brackets. The following rules apply: • The unit should be written in curly brackets immediately after the variable. • You may use a mathematical operator to create derivatives of units, e.g. use ’m^2’for m2 . • You may use either Metric or Imperial units. Examples: • To determine the circumference of a circle in feet, you may enter ’Circ{ft}=#p*r{ft}’. The result in Calcpad will be: • To calculate the area of a circle in square meter, you may enter ’A{m^2}=#p*r{m}^2’. The result will be: r = 2.5m =A π r2. = 19.635 m2 Note: The program does not evaluate the consistancy of units within equations. Using a series of equations When entering multiple lines of equations, all assigned and calculated values of variables are carried over to equations down the list – a characteristic referred to as inheritance. This allows you to break complex equations into smaller pieces, making them a lot easier to write and verify. It also allows you to use multiple inter-dependent equations in a complex calculation.
  68. 68. Working with Equations 2-49 Conditional branching You can use the inheritance characteristic of equations to your further advantage. By combining inheritance with conditional branching, you can create equation objects that can intelligently adjust for different values of the variables. To create a conditional branch: • Define the condition using the ’if’statement, e.g. ’if ab’ will do something only if a is greater than b. For comparison, you may use the operators , , =, = and =. • In the lines following the ’if’statement, enter one or more equations to be evaluated if the condition is met. Use the ’end’ or ’else’ statement to terminate such a series of equations and continue with the normal flow. • If a condition is not met, an alternative series of equations can be entered after an ’else’ statement. Terminate the series of equations with an ’end’. In the following example, taken from the Help menu of the Equation Editor, the area of reinforcement in a rectangular beam is calculated using the formulae in BS 8110 - 1997: #bb=(100-%RD)/100 if %RD10 then (first conditional branch) K’=0.156 else (if condition is not met) K’=0.402*(#bb-0.4) - 0.18*(#bb-0.4)^2 end (end of first branch) K=M{kNm}*1e6/(b{mm}*d{mm}^2*fcu{MPa}) if K=K’ then (second conditional branch) Compression reinforcement not required because K=K’ z=d*(0.5+sqrt(0.25-K/0.9)) x=(d-z)/0.45 As{mm^2}=M*1e6/(0.95*fy{MPa}*z) else (if condition is not met) Compression reinforcement required because KK’ z=d*(0.5+sqrt(0.25-K’/0.9)) x=(d-z)/0.45 A’s{mm^2}=(K-K’)*fcu*b*d^2/(0.95*fy*(d-d’{mm}) As{mm^2}=(K’*fcu*b*d^2)/(0.95*fy*z) + A’s (end of second branch) In the example, the first conditional branch causes K’ to determined differently for different values of the percentage of redistribution, %RD. Further, by comparing the values of K and K’, additional compression reinforcement is calculated when necessary.
  69. 69. Working with Equations2-50 Creating an equation library You can use the File menu commands to save and recall all useful equations. The advantages of saving equation objects in a library will become obvious once you have created a number of intelligent equation objects comprising multiple equations and conditional branching. You are free to save your equations in any folder on your PC or on the network. Using a dedicated and well-structured folder is recommended to ensure easy access to a large library of equations. Use the Open command on the File menu to retrieve an equation object from disk. When working with an existing equation, the Variables page is displayed automatically, i.e. the program assumes that you want to reuse the equations with new values. The usability of an equation library can be greatly enhanced by using titles and pictures with equations, even if you do plan on displaying them when inserting equations in Calcpad. Equation objects with descriptive titles and explanatory pictures are easier to use, especially in a multi-user environment. Refer to page 2-46 for information on equation titles and pictures.
  70. 70. Customising the Page Layout 2-51 Customising the Page Layout By default, projects are displayed on a framed page with the PROKON logo. The top portion of the page, called the header, also includes a number of pre-defined fields like ’Designed by’, ’Date’etc. The page layout and header items are collectively referred to as a template.
  71. 71. Customising the Page Layout2-52 Selecting another template or creating a new template You can select one of the other pre-defined templates or create your own using the Page Setup command on the File menu: • To select a template, click Select template. • To modify an existing template or create a new one, click Edit template. • Click OK to close the Page Setup dialog box. The following templates are available when you run PROKON for the first time: • Default: The default template with frame and PROKON logo. For a start, you may want to replace the PROKON logo and contact details with your own. • Frame: No-frills template with a frame only. This template offers a larger workspace. • Nothing: A blank template, in case you prefer printing on blank sheets.
  72. 72. Customising the Page Layout 2-53 Creating your own template A template is defined using a simple scripting language that has been derived from the Padds macro language. In essence, the script is a series of two-letter commands similar to the keyboard shortcuts used in Padds. Several new commands have been introduced to for special effects like setting margins. To create a new template, it may be easiest to modify an existing template: 1. Click Edit template to open the template script in the Text Editor. 2. Use the Save As command on the File menu to save the template with a new name. 3. Edit the script as necessary. 4. Choose Save on the File menu to save the script. 5. To preview your new template, press Alt-Tab to swap back to the Page Setup dialog box or select it from the task bar. 6. Click Select template and open the new template. 7. To make further modifications, swap back to the Text Editor. Repeat steps 3 to 7 until you are satisfied with the new template. 8. Finally close the Text Editor and the Page Setup dialog box to return to Calcpad. Script commands A number of script commands are available to draw lnes, write text and define special items. All commands use parameters, i.e. values, to define certain entities. Parameters are separated with spaces or commas. The template script commands can be categorised as follows: Global page layout: • XO Xleft and YO Ybot : Define the origin, or reference point, from where all entities are measured, e.g. ’XO 5’ and ’YO 7.5’ . The position of the origin is measured from the bottom left corner of the page. In fact, if you do not enter an origin the bottom left corner of the page will be used. You may repeatedly redefine the origin – the last definition is used for subsequent lines in the script. • MA Mleft,Mbot,Mright,Mtop : Set the left, bottom, right and top margins in millimetres, e.g. ’MA 15,15,285,195'. The margins define the workspace in Calcpad and the values are measured from the origin rather than the edges of the page. The margin command does not draw any lines.
  73. 73. Customising the Page Layout2-54 • RT colpos : Right column tab stop, measured in millimetres from the origin, e.g. ’RT 170’. The design modules use the right column for code references and other comments. Graphics: • BM Xleft,Ybot,Xright,Ytop,filename : Insert a Bitmap image and stretch it between the coordinates Xleft,Ybot and Xright,Ytop , e.g. ’BM 5,261,34.6.5,2779.5,LOGO.BMP’. The Bitmap is assumed to reside in the same folder as the template file. For the best printing results, the bitmap should be sized so that it can be placed at true size, e.g. an image of 700 pixels wide by 300 pixels high, placed 29.6mm wide by 12.7mm high should print well at 600 dpi. Line drawing: • LT thickness: Set the line thickness in millimetres, e.g. ’LT 0.25’. • LL X1,Y1,X2,Y2: Draw a line from the coordinate X1,Y1 to X2,Y2, e.g. ’LL 5,10,5,110’ to draw a vertical line 100mm long. Text: • TF font,style: Set the font and style, e.g.’TF Times New Roman, Normal’ • TS size: Set the text height in points, e.g. ’TS 11’. • TT Xleft,Ybot,text: Write text at the coordinate Xleft,Ybot , e.g. ’TT 5,10,Project No’. Header items: • HI Xleft,Ybot,Xright,Ytop,description: Insert a header item in the rectangle defined by the coordinates Xleft,Ybot and Xright,Ytop, e.g. ’HI 150,270,Designed by’. In Calcpad, the header item is later referenced by its description. See page 2-7 for details on entering header information. Other: • Comments can be written after two slashes, e.g. ’//comment’.
  74. 74. Customising the Page Layout 2-55 Example Below is an abstract from the Default template script: XO 15 // X Origin YO 15 // Y Origin BM 1,260, 41,267 PROKON.BMP // Load Bitmap x1,y1,x2,y2 LT 0.3 // Line Thickness mm LL 0, 0,186, 0 // Line x1,y1,x2,y2 LL 0,248,186,248 LL 0,268,186,268 LL 0, 0, 0,268 . . . . . . . . . LL 166, 0,166,248 TF Arial Italic // Text Font TS 8 // Text Size Points TT 156.5,267.8, Sheet // Text x,y,text TT 42.5,267.8, Job Number TT 42.5,262.8, Job Title TT 42.5,257.8, Client TT 42.5,252.8, Calcs by TT 90.5,252.8, Checked by TT 138.5,252.8, Date TT 3,259 , Software Consultants Pty Ltd TT 3,255.5, Internet: http://www.prokon.com TT 3,252 , E-Mail : mail@prokon.com MA 1, 1, 185, 247 // Margins left, b, r, t RT 166.5 // Right column tab stop TS 10 // Text Size Points HI 165.0,267.2, First Sheet No // Header Item HI 60.0,267.2, Job Number // x,y,Description HI 55.0,262.2, Job Title HI 55.0,257.2, Client HI 55.0,252.2, Calcs by HI 106.0,252.2, Checked by HI 150.0,252.2, Date
  75. 75. Customising the Page Layout2-56
  76. 76. Configuring the Section Database 2-57 Configuring the Section Database The Section Database utility is a base component for all steel member and connection design modules. The module contains several listings international section databases and can be expanded to include custom sections. Use the Section database command on the Tools menu to edit the database or select another international database.
  77. 77. Configuring the Section Database2-58 Using the section database The section database is accessible from all the steel member and connection design modules. Before using any of these modules, you may wish to first configure the database to your requirements. Selecting a database Depending on the Windows Regional Settings, PROKON will automatically select an appropriate section database when you run it for the first time. You can load another country’s database using at any time using F3: • Australia and New Zealand: Load ’Sectable.aus’. • United States: Choose ’Sectable.us’. • Southern Africa: Choose ’’Sectable.za’. • United Kingdom: Choose ’’Sectable.uk’. Once you have localised the database by added some additional sections using the procedure below, you may wish to backup your work using F2. Adding your own sections The database may be expanded to include welded and other non-standard sections. If a section conforms to the basic definition of one of the standard shapes, it may be added as a standard section. Non-standard shapes can be added to the ’user-defined’group of sections. Adding a standard section To add a new I-section, for example, press I to access the current list of I-sections. Enter the section dimensions and then press F2 to have the section properties calculated and added to the database. Typical examples include: • I-shaped plate girders can be added with the other standard I-sections. • Older steel structures built with imperial sections can be checked after first adding the relevant sections to the database. • A haunch in a portal can be conservatively modelled as an I-section with an increased depth. Tip: The normal text editing commands apply when entering sections. Refer to Chapter 2 for detail on copying, deleting and inserting lines.
  78. 78. Configuring the Section Database 2-59 Adding a non-standard section Sections with non-standard shapes should be entered as ’User-defined’ sections. Press U to enter the section’s properties. These properties can be calculated manually or using Prosec. Tip: Some modules, e.g. Steel Member Design for Combined Stress, support certain section types only. Therefore, it may in some cases be better to simplify a non-standard section and then add it as a standard shape. That way, the simplified version of the section will be available to the relevant design modules.
  79. 79. Configuring the Section Database2-60 Configuring the Material Database Use the Material database command on the Tools menu to edit the database. The Material Database utility is a base component for all frame analysis modules. The database initially lists the properties of a number of typical building materials. These can be expanded to include more materials.
  80. 80. Configuring the Section Database 2-61 Using the material database The material database is accessible from all the frame analysis modules. Before using any uncommon materials, you may wish to first configure the database to your requirements. Adding your own materials Materials in the database are organised in categories for steel, concrete aluminium and all other types. If you frequently use material that are not listed, you can add them to the database for easy reference from the frame analysis modules. The following properties are required for all material types: • Grade: Strength classification. • E: Modulus of elasticity. • Poisson: Poisson’s ratio. • Density: Unit weight. • Expansion coefficient: Thermal expansion coefficient Additional properties for steel and aluminium: • fy: Yield strength • fu: Ultimate strength. Special properties for concrete: • fcu/f’ci: Concrete cube strength or, in the case of ACI 318-95, cylinder strength. Copying and deleting materials The normal table editor functions apply. You can thus mark blocks of materials to copy and delete. Refer to the beginning of Chapter 2 for detail. Opening and saving the material database Use the File menu commands (refer to beginning of Chapter 2 for detail) to save your changes to the database or open another database. The default database is called ’Defaults.mtl’ and resides in the User folder.
  81. 81. 3-1 Chapter Structural Analysis The structural analysis collection includes frame analysis and also some specialised finite element and beam analysis modules.
  82. 82. Structural Analysis using PROKON3-2 Quick Reference Structural Analysis using PROKON 3-3 Frame Analysis 3-5 Plane Stress/Strain Analysis 3-78 Single Span Beam Analysis 3-78 Beam on Elastic Support Analysis 3-78
  83. 83. 3-3 Structural Analysis using PROKON The accent of the analysis modules falls on user friendliness, speed and efficiency. The frame analysis module is ideally suited for the analysis of small to medium sized structures, not to say that the analyses of large structures are not possible. Frame has a comprehensive array of static and dynamic analysis modes. Extensive use is made of interactive graphic representations during both the input and output phases. The input modules incorporate error checking to help eliminate input errors as they occur. Frame analysis Frame can take account of own weight, temperature changes, prescribed displacements and elastic supports. Loads are entered as load cases and grouped in load combinations at ultimate and serviceability limit states. The following static analysis modes are available: • Linear analysis: Normal elastic frame analysis. • Second order analysis: Models sway behaviour by incorporating P-delta effects. The solution is obtained by iterative analysis, thereby allowing for options like tension elements. • Non – linear analysis. This takes the second order analysis a bit further. The load is applied in steps and the deflected structure at the end of each step is used to apply the next step. Material non – linearity is not yet supported. • Buckling analysis: For calculating safety factors for structural instability due to buckling. • Dynamic analysis modes available include: • Modal analysis: Calculation of a frame’s natural modes of vibration. • Harmonic analysis: For determining a frame’s response to harmonic loading. • Earthquake analysis: Quasi-dynamic analysis of a frame subjected to ground acceleration.
  84. 84. Structural Analysis using PROKON3-4 Finite element analysis Frame allows you to use finite shell elements and solid elements alongside normal beam elements. The shell elements enables you to model the combination of plate bending and membrane action in 3D. To model plate bending in concrete slabs, you may prefer using the Finite Element Slab Design – see Chapter 6 for details. You can also use the Plane Stress/Strain Analysis module to perform a finite element analysis of any general plane geometry subjected to plane stress or strain. The module features an automated element grid generation facility to help speed up the input and analysis processes. Beam analysis Modules are available for the analysis of simple beams and beams on elastic supports. Post-processing of analysis results Linear and second-order analysis output can be post-processed by the steel member design modules, Strut and Com, to evaluate and optimise section profiles. The Space Frame Analysis module can also design finite shell elements as reinforced concrete members.
  85. 85. 3-5 Frame Analysis Frame can be used for the analysis of the following types of structures by selecting a domain on the ‘General’ input tab: • Plane Frames: Analysis of a frames in a vertical (X-Y) plane. • Grillages: Analysis of a structure in a horizontal (X-Z) plane. • Space Frames: Analysis of three-dimensional structures made up of beam and/or shell elements and design of concrete shells. • Space Trusses: Analysis of three-dimensional trusses where only axial forces are considered. Frame analysis results can be post-processed using the steel member design modules for axial and combined stress, namely Strut and Com.
  86. 86. Frame Analysis3-6
  87. 87. 3-7 Theory and application The following text explains the sign conventions used and gives a brief background of the analysis techniques. Sign conventions Frame input and output uses a mixture of global axis and local axes values. Global axes The global axis system is nearly exclusively used when entering frame geometry and loading. Global axes are also used in the analysis output for deflections and reactions. The global axes are defined as follows: • For the sake of this definition, the X-axis is chosen to the right. • The Y-axis always points vertically upward. • Using a right-hand rule, the Z-axis points out of the screen. Note: Unlike some other 3D programs that put the Z-axis vertical, Frame take the Y-axis as being vertical. Beam element local axes Local axes are used in the output for element forces. You can also apply loads in the direction of a beam element’s local y-axis.
  88. 88. Frame Analysis3-8 The local axes for beam elements are defined as follows: • The local z-axis and axial force is chosen in the direction from the smaller node number to the larger node number. • The y-axis is taken in a vertical plane perpendicular to the z-axis. The y and z-axes thus describe a vertical plane with the y-axis pointing vertically or diagonally upward. • The x-axis is taken perpendicular to the y and z-axes, using a left-hand rule. • One special case exists: • In the case of a vertical member, the z-axis is taken parallel to the global Y-axis. A unique definition of the y-axis is obtained by taking it parallel to the global X-axis. Shell element local axes For shell elements, the local axes are defined as follows: • The local x and y-axes are chosen in the plane of the shell in such a way that the x-axis is horizontal and the y-axis lies perpendicular to and upward from the x-axis. • Using a right-hand rule the z-axis is taken perpendicular to the shell element to point diagonally upward. • Two special cases exist: • Horizontal elements: The local x is chosen parallel to the global X-axis and the y-axis parallel to the negative Z-axis. The z-axis is then taken parallel to the Y-axis. • Vertical elements: The y-axis is taken vertically upward, i.e. parallel to the global Y-axis. The x-axis is taken horizontal in the plane of the shell and z-axis is taken horizontal perpendicular to the shell. The z-axis points towards you if the shell’s nodes are defined in an anti-clockwise direction and away if defined clockwise. To simplify the analysis output, the orientation of the local shell axes can sometimes be manipulated by slight rotation of the shell elements. In the case of horizontal slab, for example, the local x and y-axes (and stresses) are taken parallel to the global X and Z-axes. In the case of a circular slab, radial and concentric stresses may often be more desirable. By generating the shell elements at a slight slope towards the centre, they will not be considered as horizontal
  89. 89. 3-9 anymore. As a result, local y-axes will point (upward) towards the centre and the x-axes taken perpendicular to that, i.e. radial and concentric respectively. The small inclination will normally have no significant effect on the analysis. Note: Rotating elements (for the sake of manipulating the local axes) can induce additional support conditions in some cases. Such manipulation should thus be performed with great care. Beam element forcesThe sign conventions are as follows: • The axial force, Pz, is taken in the z-direction. • The shear forces, Vx and Vy, are given in the x and y-directions respectively. • Torsional moment, T, is taken about the z-axis using a right-hand rule. • The moments, Mxx and Myy, are about the x and y-axes respectively. Note: In this manual, the global and local axes are written in uppercase and lowercase respectively. Shell element stresses Shell element stresses are given using the local axes: • Bending stresses: The entities Mx and My are moment per unit width about the local x and y-axes. Mxy represents a torsional moment in the local x-y plane. The principal bending moments per unit width are represented as Mmax and Mmin. • Plane stresses: The stresses in the plane of a shell, Sx and Sy, are given in the directions of the local x- and y-axes. Sxy represents the shear stress in the plane of the element. Values are also given for the principal plane stresses, Smax and Smin. Note: To assist you in evaluating shell element stresses, stress contour diagrams show orientation lines at the centre of each shell element. An orientation line indicates the direction (not axis) of bending or plane stress. In a concrete shell, the orientation line would indicate the direction of reinforcement resisting the particular stress.
  90. 90. Frame Analysis3-10 Shell reinforcement axes Reinforcement is calculated in the user-defined x’ and y’-directions. Refer to page 3-64 for detail. Solid element stresses Shell element stresses are given using the global axes: Direct stresses, Sx , Sy and Sz, are given in the directions of the global X-, Y- and Z-axes. Sxy represents the shear stress in the XY-plane of the element. Sxz represents the shear stress in the XZ-plane of the element. Syz represents the shear stress in the YZ-plane of the element. Values are also given for the principal plane stresses, S1, S2, and S3. Von Mises stresses are also calculated. Units of measurement The following units of measurement are supported: Units Metric Imperial Distance mm, m ft, inch Force N, kN lb, kip Use the Convert Units button on the Settings page to change the units for the current analysis: • Convert Units: Changes the units and converts all numeric data from the old to the new units of measurement. Analysis modes The following types of analysis are possible: • Linear analysis: Basic linear elastic analysis. A linear analysis is normally sufficient for the static analysis of a frame or truss with negligible sway. • Second order analysis: Choose this mode to include p-delta effects in the analysis. This option is recommended for structures where sway may have a marked effect on the member forces, e.g. portal frames. The second order analysis is an iterative procedure. The total strain energy of the frame is calculated after each iteration. The analysis is deemed to have converged once the total strain energy of two sequential iterations differs by less than the specified tolerance. If convergence was not possible, e.g. structural instability due to buckling of critical members, a message to that effect will be displayed. • Non Linear analysis: Choose this mode where non-linear effects and large deflections may be expected or where second order analysis might not provide sufficient accuracy.
  91. 91. 3-11 Loading is applied in a series of steps and an iterative analysis is carried out at each step so that the forces in the deflected structure at that point balance with the applied loading. • Modal analysis: For calculating the natural modes of vibration. The modal analysis is an iterative procedure during which several sets of trial vectors are selected and evaluated. The process takes relatively long to complete and it is therefore recommended that the structure size be limited to a few hundred nodes. You can specify the number of mode shapes to be calculated and other dynamic analysis parameters. • Harmonic analysis: Choose harmonic analysis to determine the response of the frame to harmonic loading. Load amplitudes are entered exactly like static nodal and element loads. You can enter a load frequency and phase angle for each harmonic load case. The first step of a harmonic analysis is the calculation of the frame’s natural modes of vibration. Therefore, if preceded by a modal analysis, the results of that analysis are re-used and only the harmonic response calculated. The harmonic response is taken as the sum of the square (SSRS) of the maximum modal responses, a method that is considered fundamentally sound when modal frequencies are well separated. When frequencies of major contributing modes are very close together, the SSRS method can give poor results. • Earthquake analysis: Use this option to calculate the response of the frame to the specified a seismic acceleration parameters. Nodal and element loads entered are treated as static loads. The analysis procedure starts by calculating the frame’s natural modes of vibration. Therefore, if preceded by a modal analysis, the results of the modal analysis are re-used and only the seismic response calculated. • Buckling analysis: Use this option to determine the buckling load factors and mode shapes for each load case or combination. Being the critical case, the first buckling mode shape is normally the only one of interest. Finite element shells Frame allows you to use finite shell elements alongside normal beam elements. For this purpose the program uses four-node quadrilateral and three-node triangular isoparametric shell elements with plate bending and membrane behaviour. Element formulation The bending formulation of the quadrilateral shell element was derived from the Discrete Kirchoff-Midlin Quadrilateral. The membrane behaviour of the element was improved by introducing the drilling degree of freedom using an interpolation technique by Alman. The result is a shell finite element that shows good plate and membrane performance characteristics. Accuracy of triangular elements Both the quadrilateral and triangular elements yield accurate stiffness modelling. However, stress recovery from the triangular elements is not as accurate as is the case for quadrilateral

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