Intro selfTopic: The changes in media production and distribution which have led to thedevelopment of CC licensingPresenta...
Copyright means that certain works cannot be shared, remixed or reused withoutpermission from the copyright holder—usually...
Why protection?Basically, copyright gives a creator – an individual artist or a company - an incentiveto create, and ensur...
For literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, copyright lasts for the lifetime ofthe creator, and then an extra 50 y...
-- 70 years in most countries-- Different for companies-- Realising early work set to expire, Disney did a big lawsuit in ...
When the period of copyright in a work is over, the creator’s work goes into thepublic domain. This means anyone is free t...
Early copyright laws recognised that culture always build on the past.Flick back to last two slides – explain Disney & Cop...
TECHNOLOGY: Gutenberg’s printing press, 1430. Played a large part in theRenaissance, explosion of culture. First assembly ...
200 years ago: slow text based communication - conversation, then real time voiceONE to ONE – Conversational medium       ...
Photography, Film, SoundONE  MANY                           10
Radio and televisionONE  MANY                       11
-- What you need to produce mass media  Go through items on slide (touched on previously)-- Easiest was photography, or t...
-- Each time there was a new technology – particularly one that was capable ofcopying or reproducing a creative work – a p...
But film industry needn’t have worried because it turned out to be a great new wayto make money (In 1986 Disney made US$10...
Around the same time, a genre of music was emerging – a remix of genres fromthe past (show video – should start 4m 40s - a...
Technology evolving - 80s – tape deck - 90s use personal stereos to copy stuff fromCDs onto tapes (e.g. send a mix tape to...
-- Also keep in mind that during this time – late 70s etc – home computers werebeing developed, getting more powerful-- So...
THE INTERNET-- For the first time in history – anyone (with an internet connection) could get amessage out to a large audi...
Internet presented problems for copyright  play video.So trouble for artists > audience breaking law with new technology ...
-- We had was Copyright on one side – and Public Domain on the other-- Copyright – few freedoms, Public domain – few restr...
Launched in 2002-- With a Creative Commons licence, you keep your copyright – so you keep yourownership of the work - but ...
All have attribution                       22
Explain          23
Explain, briefly pros & cons                               24
Explain, examples of what counts as a derivative (translations)                                                           ...
Each licence has different rules and grants a different range of freedoms.All Creative Commons licenses require that you c...
Remix of all CC images used in powerpoint [optional: flick through all images andnote licenses] – except no derivativesExp...
So much to build upon.Make note on referencing                           28
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Slide notes - Changes in media production and distribution which have led to the development of Creative Commons

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Slide notes - Changes in media production and distribution which have led to the development of Creative Commons

  1. 1. Intro selfTopic: The changes in media production and distribution which have led to thedevelopment of CC licensingPresentation outline: Quick basics of copyright , with a little cultural History in the mix Changes in technology: Four major ‘technological revolutions’ (credit to Clay Shirky for way of dividing changes) Digitalisation, the Internet… Creative Commons 1
  2. 2. Copyright means that certain works cannot be shared, remixed or reused withoutpermission from the copyright holder—usually the author.-- Copyright applies to ALL *original* works (huge debates possible)-- including films, songs, images, dramas, sound recordings, TV and radiobroadcasts and Internet publications and transmissions.-- C symbol is unimportant – because as soon as a new work is recorded in materialform – written down or saved on a computer – it automatically receives copyrightprotection-- Original doesn’t always mean “good” (subjective) or professionally made E.g. noone can use my photo of my dog without my permission 2
  3. 3. Why protection?Basically, copyright gives a creator – an individual artist or a company - an incentiveto create, and ensures them that they will be rewarded for what they make.-- Once creative work is out there, it can be copied or reproduced at little or nocost. This means that if the right to duplicate a work is not controlled, its economicvalue would diminish, resulting in a market failure. Copyright corrects this byensuring that those who initially invested in getting the work to market arerewarded for their entrepreneurship and creativity‘.-- The principles of intellectual property, in particular copyright, allow creativeindustries to profit from and sustain cultural production by granting economic andmoral rights. 3
  4. 4. For literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, copyright lasts for the lifetime ofthe creator, and then an extra 50 years following their death.The first copyright law, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was for only 14 years. Statuteof Anne, 1710, “For the encouragement of learning”Or USA Constitution:“To promote the progress of science and useful arts.” 4
  5. 5. -- 70 years in most countries-- Different for companies-- Realising early work set to expire, Disney did a big lawsuit in 90s, managing toextend corporate copyright to 120 years 5
  6. 6. When the period of copyright in a work is over, the creator’s work goes into thepublic domain. This means anyone is free to use and profit from the work as theyplease.But a lot of culture still comes under copyright. 6
  7. 7. Early copyright laws recognised that culture always build on the past.Flick back to last two slides – explain Disney & Copyright, then Shakespeare andPublic Domain 7
  8. 8. TECHNOLOGY: Gutenberg’s printing press, 1430. Played a large part in theRenaissance, explosion of culture. First assembly line style of printing books--- Ask class what the best-selling book of all of history is (Bible)  Previously took a year for a scribe to write, at few pages a day. Press coulddo 3600 pages a day.--- Made possible the mass reproduction of books, newspapers  led to firstcopyright laws--- The Message goes from ONE to MANY 8
  9. 9. 200 years ago: slow text based communication - conversation, then real time voiceONE to ONE – Conversational medium 9
  10. 10. Photography, Film, SoundONE  MANY 10
  11. 11. Radio and televisionONE  MANY 11
  12. 12. -- What you need to produce mass media  Go through items on slide (touched on previously)-- Easiest was photography, or typewriting– but even then mass production wasdifficultTo broadcast radio – still required a certain amount of equipment-- As new consumer technologies introduced.. Professionals got worried, e.g.George Eastman – invention of Kodak camera (continues next slide) 12
  13. 13. -- Each time there was a new technology – particularly one that was capable ofcopying or reproducing a creative work – a professional industry or group wouldget worried / bring out lawsuits-- VCR / Betamax - like the MySky of 80s (was invented some years earlier andused by the TV industry – meaning they no longer had to do a live broadcast)  For the television industry, worries about ads 13
  14. 14. But film industry needn’t have worried because it turned out to be a great new wayto make money (In 1986 Disney made US$100 million of pure profit from homevideo sales)“In a landmark judgement in 1984, the Supreme Court ruled that the homerecording of television programs for later viewing constituted "fair use."1 Animportant factor in the Court’s reasoning was that "time-shifting" – i.e. recording aprogram to watch it at another time – did not represent any substantial harm tothe copyright holder, nor did it diminish the market for the product.” (from:http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2006/06/article_0003.html) 14
  15. 15. Around the same time, a genre of music was emerging – a remix of genres fromthe past (show video – should start 4m 40s - a music industry producer / outsiderlooking in at what was happening in New York. Play clip until breakdancing starts)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwqQQraQ4MI&feature=player_detailpage#t=297s (video should start about 4m 40s) 15
  16. 16. Technology evolving - 80s – tape deck - 90s use personal stereos to copy stuff fromCDs onto tapes (e.g. send a mix tape to your crush on valentines day)Equipment was cheaper, but you still couldn’t mass produce media yourself --- noeasy means of distributionTo go back to copyright: Although there were different -interpretations- of termswithin copyright law to adjust for new technologies, the law itself did not reallyadjust much aside from the length of copyright being slowly extended. 16
  17. 17. -- Also keep in mind that during this time – late 70s etc – home computers werebeing developed, getting more powerful-- So rather than store media on something physical, it could be made digital – sowe had the Compact Disc - or CD , and soon the CDR, then later the DVD.-- Significant change – because once something is digital – it becomes very veryeasy to copy.-- Eventually made a lot professional production a lot easier in terms of theequipment you needed, it drove down prices, consumers electronics becamecheaper, digital cameras, home DVD cameras.-- It also, with tools like Photoshop, and film editing software – it’s made it a loteasier for anyone to make or edit a creative work – and make it look pretty good,without much money or formal training-- But no distribution - digitalisation is just one (key) aspect of the next bigrevolution… 17
  18. 18. THE INTERNET-- For the first time in history – anyone (with an internet connection) could get amessage out to a large audience, who could then talk to each other about thatmessageMany  Many-- On the Internet you can do everything that traditional media can do – read abook, make phone calls, watch a movie, see photos, listen to the radio, watch TV.  Combine that with freely / cheaply available editing software, and you canproduce media like a pro-- Anyone can make an image macro with a popular culture reference and a crazedcat, then have millions of people see it(of course there is a lot that never gets seen) 18
  19. 19. Internet presented problems for copyright  play video.So trouble for artists > audience breaking law with new technology > recordcompanies suing(Since then things have changed, many tend to stream music more than download)REMIX MANIFESTO VIDEOhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=umj9YfZEluo(start at 1.16, end with Cory Doctorow “building biggest library”) 19
  20. 20. -- We had was Copyright on one side – and Public Domain on the other-- Copyright – few freedoms, Public domain – few restrictionsSo in realising that there needed to be a mid point, in the early 2000s a group ofliked minded academics, activists, computer geeks etc, got together and came upwith Creative Commons… which created a series of mid points 20
  21. 21. Launched in 2002-- With a Creative Commons licence, you keep your copyright – so you keep yourownership of the work - but allow people to copy and distribute, and build uponyour work provided they give you credit — though you can specify what exactlypeople can do with your work 21
  22. 22. All have attribution 22
  23. 23. Explain 23
  24. 24. Explain, briefly pros & cons 24
  25. 25. Explain, examples of what counts as a derivative (translations) 25
  26. 26. Each licence has different rules and grants a different range of freedoms.All Creative Commons licenses require that you credit the original creator when re-using their work in any way.The licences share a set of baseline rights, with each licence choice beingexpressed in three ways:Commons Deed: A plain-language summary of the licence, with relevant icons.Legal Code: The full legal terms.Digital Code: A machine-readable translation of the licence that helps searchengines and other applications identify the licensed work by its terms of use. 26
  27. 27. Remix of all CC images used in powerpoint [optional: flick through all images andnote licenses] – except no derivativesExplain why NC (due to SA of tape image, among others)Creative Commons – Culture is a Commons 27
  28. 28. So much to build upon.Make note on referencing 28
  29. 29. 29

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