Women in the workplace We’ve come a long way, but sexism is still a very real problem.
Women in the workplace “Sexism is not a glass ceiling; it’s a labyrinth of microinequities that add up over a lifetime.” -Professor Cuddy
Women in the workplace Female (55%) and male (57%) senior managers aspire equally to the most senior role (CEO or equivalent), regardless of whether they have children under 18 living at home with them. (Catalyst Research)
Barriers But women face more barriers than their male counterparts: Limited access to informal networks 60% percent of women feel excluded from formal and informal networking opportunities, compared to 4% of men Gender-based stereotyping Lack of role models 1/3 of women cite a lack of influential mentors as a major barrier to advancement Motherhood Women suffer a per child wage penalty of 5%, after controlling for human capital and occupational factors (Budig & England, 2001; Anderson et al., 2003)
Gender Stereotypes: Competence Despite considerable progress over the last quarter century, women workers are still frequently perceived as less competent than men. Resumes are evaluated more favorably when they carry male rather than female names People more readily credit men with leadership ability and accept men as leaders. In one study where subjects were shown slides of a man seated at the head of a table for a meeting, they assumed that he was the leader. They did not make the same assumption when the person in that seat was a woman. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law
Gender Stereotypes: Competence Stereotypes particularly strong in settings where women are underrepresented (banking, technology) and too few counterexamples are present to challenge conventional assumptions. These settings often yield polarized assessment. Of average and below employees, women get disproportionately lower evaluations than their male counterparts.
Gender Stereotypes Femininity: Mismatch between the qualities traditionally associated with women and those associated with professional success. BUT… women are punished when they adopt “masculine” styles of leadership. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law.
Gender Stereotypes Women are rated lower as leaders when they adopt authoritative, "masculine" styles, particularly when the evaluators are men, or when the role is one typically occupied by men. Women often internalize these stereotypes, which creates a psychological glass ceiling.
Case in point: Heidi vs. Howard NYU Stern students were given a case about a VC who maintains an extensive personal and professional network. The VC leverages this network to benefit both themselves and others. One section is given the case with protagonist as Howard Roizen, the other section given case with Heidi Roizen.
How power-hungry, self-promoting, and disingenuous was Roizen?
Would you like, hire, enjoy working with Roizen?
Sexism at Harvard Business School HBS around since 1908, but only open to women since 1965 Women make up <40% students 30% of section B first year professors Women only represented 6% 2009 Baker Scholars (highest honors) Of the students in the class of 2010 asked to leave at the end of their first year, 55% were women even though women only make up 38% of the class
A meritocratic world? Not so much. People want to believe that in the absence of special treatment, individuals generally get what they deserve. So if women are underrepresented in powerful positions, the “meritocratic worldview” explanation is that they lack the necessary qualifications. In turn, this prevents women from getting assignments that would demonstrate their capabilities, establishing a self-fulfilling cycle.
The Good News: We’re Better Off Than Our Mothers
Wage Gap by Age The earnings difference between women and men varies with age, with younger women more closely approaching pay equity than older women. Catalyst Research, 2008
Wage Gap Globally Catalyst Research
Female CEOs Ursula Burns Xerox IndraNooyi PepsiCo Carol Bartz, Yahoo! As of January 2010, only15 FORTUNE 500 companies were run by women, and only 14 FORTUNE 501-1000 companies had women CEOs Janet Robinson The New York Times Irene Rosenfeld Kraft
Female CEOs Some worry that progress has slowed…
Females on Boards Some worry that progress has slowed…
How can we make sure that our daughters are better off than us?
What can you do? Men: Awareness Showcase the successes of women leaders –especially in stereotypically masculine fields Avoid making comments that objectify or demean women Support reversals of the traditional allocation of domestic roles Encourage your employer to offer paid parental leave for fathers
What can you do? Women: Serve as a role-model and mentor to other women Negotiate your salary Graduating masters students: 57% of men, 7% of women negotiated above initial offer. Negotiators received $4000 more (Babcock and Laschever, 2003). Encourage female-friendly policy