Advertising a drive for promoting brands and sales as well
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Advertising a drive for promoting brands and sales as well Advertising a drive for promoting brands and sales as well Document Transcript

  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well Before going directly towards the core concept of how advertising can be a drive for promoting brands, we would love to make you aware of the term Brand. 1. Brand 1.1. Meaning and definition The original meaning of the word “brand” seems to derive from an Old Norse word ―brandr‖ which meant ―to burn‖ (Interbrand Group, 1992). Yet in the etymology of the word, this idea of branding as a ―permanent mark deliberately made with hot iron‖ now takes second place to ―goods of particular name or trade mark‖ (Oxford English Dictionary, 1990). But does this really describe what we understand as a brand? The American Marketing Association describes a brand as a ―name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and differentiate them from those of competitors.‖ The AMA definition reminds us of the reason for a brand: to enable a person to identify one alternative from a competitor. All of this is true, but a brand must be a label in the true sense of that word: something ―attached to an object to give information about it‖ (Oxford English Dictionary, 1990). 1.2. Nature of brand When we think of brands, we usually think of products we buy: Coke, Cadbury, Ford, Hoover, Persil, and Mars. But just about anything can be „branded.‟ Products, services, corporations, retail stores, cities, organizations, even individuals can be seen as „brands.‟ Remember, a brand name is meant to embody information about something, information that represents an added value, differentiating it in a marked way from alternatives. A brand name is meant to trigger in memory positive associations with that brand. Politicians, hospitals, entertainers, football clubs, corporations, all want their name, their brand, to mean something very specific to their market. It is how they wish to be seen, and how they wish to be distinguished from competitive alternatives. 1|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 1.3. Types of Brands Following are the main types of brands we have:  Global or international brands.  National brands.  Government brands.  Non govt. brands.  E-brands.  Non profit brands.  Regional brands. 2. Association of brand with advertising. In 2002, at the Copenhagen Business School, the Center for Marketing Communication organized the First International Conference on Research in Advertising. The purpose of the conference was to create a forum, where people concerned with advertising research in the academic world could meet and exchange views, and where they could meet with practitioners experienced with advertising research in the commercial world. In general, advertising and advertising research may be viewed as covering problems relating to • Determination of the advertising budget • Choice of media group • Development of advertising message • Timing of the campaign. 2.1. Brand Attitude A brand does provide information. But what kind of information does a brand provide, and where does it come from? Think about some brands you know. What comes to mind when you think about them? No doubt a great deal more than the fact that it is a particular product. Perhaps you were thinking about how much you like it, that it is well known, or that it is „one of the best.‟ All of these thoughts reflect what we call brand attitude. A brand name represents everything a person knows about a particular product and what it means to them. It provides a convenient summary of their feelings, knowledge and experience with the brand. It means they 2|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well do not need to spend a great deal of time „researching‟ a product each time they are considering a purchase. A person‟s evaluation of a product is immediately reconstructed from memory, cued by the brand name. But again, where does that brand attitude come from? 2.2. Brand Equity The effect of a positive brand attitude leads to something marketers call brand equity. What exactly is brand equity? Most marketers would agree that it is that „something‟ attached to brand that adds value over and above the objective characteristics of the product or service. Whatever that something is, it is embodied in people’s attitudes towards that brand. It is dynamic, and subject to change over time. It attaches itself to the brand name, providing a current summary of people’s feelings, knowledge and experience with that product or service. Think about chocolate for a minute.  Basically, chocolate is chocolate. Or is it?  Are some brands better than others? Why?  What about washing-up powder?  They all get the job done, and use the same basic ingredients. Or do you think some do a better job than others?  What about toothpaste, or vodka, or underwear?  Where do the differences among brands in these product categories come from?  How much of the difference is „real‟ versus perceived?  Why do you prefer one brand over another, especially if when looked at with a coldly objective eye, there is very little, if any, actual difference in the products? 2.2.1. Measuring Brand Equity Brand equity is a result of brand attitude, and this is what provides the key to its understanding. In many ways, building and ensuring a continuing positive brand attitude is what strategic brand management is all about, because it does lead to strong brand equity. The most important thing to understand when you are trying to measure brand equity is that what is needed is a measure of understanding, not a measure of the results or consequences of a brand‟s equity. Too often, when people „measure‟ brand equity, they are really only tracking summary measures of what is going on in the market as a result of the brand‟s equity. What is needed is a measure of the components that lead to brand equity, and this means measures of how the 3|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well market forms current attitudes towards the brand. If we are to really understand a brand‟s equity, we must understand how it is constructed. It is this understanding that ensures an effective positioning in our marketing communications, and the ability to adjust that positioning over time as needed to continue building and sustaining positive brand equity. We measure brand attitude using an Expectancy-Value model (considered by most researchers in consumer behaviour to be the best model of attitude). Basically, this model states that a person‟s attitude towards something, a brand or product in our case, is the sum of everything they know about it weighted by how important those beliefs are to them. Obviously, we are not able to study „everything‟ about a brand or product, but we can and should consider everything critical to the benefit positioning of the brand. If we are to understand the current equity of a brand, it is necessary to „deconstruct‟ its positioning in order to access the strengths and weaknesses of the belief structure that sustains people‟s attitudes towards it. It should now be clear that to a large extent a brand is not a tangible thing at all, but rather the sum of what someone knows, thinks, and feels about a particular product. In a very real sense, brands only exist in the minds of consumers, but that does not make them any less real. 2.3. Brand Positioning And to a very real extent, brands and the equity attached to them exist as a result of marketing communication, and especially advertising. It is advertising (when successful) that positions a brand in the consumer‟s mind, nurtures salience, and builds positive brand attitude that leads to a strong brand equity. At its most general, a brand position is a supercommunication effect that tells the consumer what the brand is, who it is for, and what it offers. This reflects the relationship between brand positioning and the two core communication effects of brand awareness and brand attitude. It‟s easy to understand that one must have strong awareness if a brand is to be considered when the need for that type of product (however the consumer defines it) occurs. Strong brand awareness (for almost any brand) must be generated and sustained with marketing communication. 4|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well It is marketing communication, and advertising in particular, that builds and maintains brand salience. It is not enough for a brand to be recognized if it is to be successful. A brand must occupy a „salient‟ position within the consumer‟s consideration set. In fact, the strength of a brand‟s salience is one indicator of the brand‟s equity. (A useful measure of this is the ratio of top-of-mind recall to total recall among competitive brands in a category.) Brand attitude, however, is not quite so easy to deal with.  Who exactly is the target audience?  Is everyone looking for the same thing; or the same things all the time?  What is important, and to whom?  How are brands seen to deliver on the things important to the target audience? Answers to these questions are critical if we are to positively affect brand attitude. The role of benefits in effective positioning in communication is of course essential. But benefits must be considered in relationship to brand attitude, which in its turn is the link to purchase motive. Consumers hold what we might think of as an overall summary judgement about a brand, following the Expectancy-Value notion of attitude: ―Hush Puppies makes great shoes‖ is an attitude about Hush Puppies that connects the brand in the consumer’s mind with what is the likely purchase motive, sensory gratification (i.e. they buy Hush Puppies to enjoy them). This brand attitude, however, which we might think of as a superbelief, doesn’t just spring from nowhere, but is the result of one or more beliefs about the specific benefits the brand is thought by the consumer to offer in support of that overall attitude. Effective communication strategy requires an understanding of what that belief structure is, and how it builds brand attitude. Within the overall positioning that results from this understanding, one we must determine what the benefit emphasis and focus should be (cf. Percy, Rossiter, and Elliott, 2001). To begin with, it is important to remember that purchase motive is really the underlying basis of benefit. Purchase motives are, after all, the fundamental „energizers‟ of buyer behavior. These same motives also energize the usage of products. Motive-based positioning requires a correct answer to the question of why consumers in the category are really buying particular brands. Unfortunately, most benefits tend to be motivationally ambiguous. 5|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well One must also be careful to distinguish between motives that drive product category decisions rather than brand decisions. People may buy (say) active casual footwear because they are comfortable (a negative motive), but buy particular brands for more „style‟ related reasons (a positive motive). This is an absolutely critical distinction. Benefits like comfort or low price relate to negative motives, and are unlikely to drive specific brand purchases. Yet, someone may be looking for a good price in the category, but not at the expense of „style.‟ The reason this is such an important point is that positive motives suggest marketing communication where the execution itself actually becomes the product benefit. Here more than ever a truly unique execution is required where the brand owns the „feeling‟ created by the advertisers for the brand. You can’t prove you have a more fashionable or popular shoe, but you can make people believe you do. 2.4. I-D-U Benefit Emphasis The benefits a brand emphasizes in marketing communication should be selected according to three major considerations: Importance, Delivery, and Uniqueness (cf. Rossiter and Percy, 1997). Importance refers to the relevance of the benefit to the underlying motivation. A benefit assumes importance only if it is instrumental in helping meet the consumer‟s purchase motivation. Delivery refers to a brand‟s perceived ability to provide the benefit. Uniqueness refers to a brand‟s perceived ability to deliver on the benefit relatively better than other brands. What we are looking for are one or two benefits, relevant to the underlying motive, that can produce a perceived difference between alternative brands. These benefits should then be emphasized in the brand‟s marketing communication. A note in passing. We are talking about perceived delivery and uniqueness. Just because a brand may not now be perceived to provide benefits that could optimize purchase against important motives does not mean this perception cannot be created (unless, of course, it stretches the consumer‟s understanding of the brand, which is one reason we need to fully understand current brand equity). The overall positioning of a brand basically chooses a location for the brand in the consumer‟s mind. The I-D-U analysis helps one decide which benefit(s) to emphasize. After that, one must decide what aspect of the benefit to concentrate on in the execution of marketing communications. 6|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well Up to now we have used the term „benefit‟ in a rather general way. We have considered a benefit as any potential positive or negative rein forcer for a brand, in line with our definition of brand attitude as representing the overall delivery on the underlying motivation. Since a „rein forcer‟ is anything that tends to increase a response, benefits as we have been talking about them underlie and help increase brand attitude. If we think about the underlying motive as „why the consumer wants the brand,‟ we may consider that • Attributes are ―what the product has‖ • Benefits are ―what the consumer wants‖ • Emotions are ―what the consumer feels.‖ A brand, for example may offer attributes that the consumer may or may not think of as a benefit. Benefits, in their turn may have various emotional consequences or antecedents, depending upon the underlying motive. All marketing communication presents or implies a „benefit‟ as either an attribute, benefit, or emotion as defined above. The key to effective communication is using the appropriate benefit focus. At this point it must seem we are overly complicating things, but this really is a powerful way of „fine-tuning‟ a positioning, and not nearly as confusing as it may appear. When the benefit focus is not consistent with the underlying purchase motivation, the logic of the message breaks down, and the effectiveness of the communication breaks down. 2.5. Benefit Focus To effectively position a brand, it is necessary to understand what brand attitudes link the brand to the purchase motivation in the consumer‟s mind, the proper benefit to emphasize, and how to focus the consumer‟s attention on that benefit. Approaching positioning in this way will have a significantly positive effect on building and sustaining brand equity, and in its turn on the success of the brand. 7|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 3. Advertising 3.1. Meaning and definition The process of delivering a message about ideas goods and services through the media, paid by an identifiable sponsor. Advertising is the way by which companies tell us about the product and brand. According to American Marketing Association: ―Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.‖ Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. 3.2. Why Companies Need Advertising? 1. To make their brand name familiar to the public. 2. To help their sales force to be more effective. 3. To tell the public about the improvement in the product. 4. To give information about the product or service. 3.3. Advertising history Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages. Around 1840, Volney Palmer established a 8|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston. 3.4. Advertising Planning Framework 3.4.1. Setting the Objectives Advertising objective can be classified according to whether their aim is to     Inform Persuade Remind Reinforce 9|Page
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 3.4.2. Deciding the advertising budget. Following are the factors affecting budget decisions: 1. Stage in the product life cycle 2. Market share and consumer base 3. Advertising frequency 4. Competition and clutter 5. Product substitutability 3.4.3. Creating advertising message Just to gain and hold attention, advertising messages must be better planned, more imaginative, more entertaining and more rewarding to consumers.Creativity plays an important role in developing effective message. A creative strategy focus on what the advertising message says or communicate and guides the development of all messages used in the advertising campaign. 3.4.4. Media planning A media planner needs to answer the following question: 1. Which audiences do we want to reach? 2. When & how to reach them? 3. Where to reach them? 4. How many people should be reached? 5. How often do we need to reach them? 6. What will it cost to reach them? 3.5. 10 | P a g e Advertising ways to promote brands
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 3.5.1. Print Advertising Newspapers and Magazines are quite popular modes of advertising for different companies all over the world. The quantity of space, the page of the publication, and the type of paper decide the cost of the advertisement. 3.5.2. Broadcast Advertisement It consists of television, radio, or Internet advertising. The ads on the television have a large audience and are very popular. The cost of the advertisement depends on the length of the ad and the time at which the ad would be appearing. 3.5.3. Outdoor Advertisement Bill-board and message painted on the side of buildings are common forms of out-door advertising, which is often used when quick, simple, ideas are being promoted. 3.5.4. Covert Advertisement Covert advertising is presently a hot trend in promoting products and services. It embeds a product or brand in entertainment and media and uses undercover tactics turning ordinary entertainment into an extended ad. 3.5.5. Public Service Advertisement The same advertisement techniques use to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues such as HIV/AIDS, Political ideology and Energy consveration. 11 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 3.6. How brands are promoted? Brand promotion is a common marketing strategy intended to increase product awareness, customer loyalty, competitiveness, sales and overall company value. Businesses use it not only to show what is different or good about themselves and what's for sale, but also to keep that image alive for consumers. It usually focuses on elements that can stand the test of time, although businesses do adjust promotions based on what is happening in the market. The efforts required to be effective with these techniques require that marketers be passionate about what they're doing. 3.6.1. Making Consumers Aware A primary objective with this strategy is to increase brand awareness, which is a measure of whether people know about a company's products, services and philosophies. The basic idea is that people can't buy what they don't know exists. For a company to expand or compete, it has to put some effort into getting messages out to the public. Businesses can communicate with buyers in different ways, such as using print ads, radio commercials or demonstrations. In many cases, businesses use more than one of these methods to be more effective. The hope is to bombard the public with information about what's for sale and what the company stands for. Repetition is essential for creating awareness. Typically, the average person has to see or hear a company message more than five times before it sticks in the mind. A business therefore has to deliver its advertisements over weeks, months or even years, not all at once. It can take time to see the full effects of a campaign. Eg. Get This IBM White Paper & Connect The Dots For Your Digital Marketing. 3.6.2. KSPs and Competitiveness As a business shows its goods or services to consumers, awareness by itself is not enough to make someone buy. Companies also have to show that they can give the buyer something that isn't available somewhere else. Executives do this by identifying what is special, also known as a key selling point (KSP). A mascara manufacturer, for example, might focus on the fact that its 12 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well product stays on lashes longer. Sometimes, leaders within a marketing team will develop a different campaign based on each of the key selling points, but they might also communicate a handful of KSPs within a single message, depending on their advertising budgets. Emphasizing these selling points often makes a company more competitive overall. Buyers are able to look at these elements and make informed comparisons, eventually making a decision about what service or merchandise to buy. The more aggressive, frequent or clear a business' KSP message is — that is, the better a company promotes itself — the more likely customers may be to choose that brand. A very good product may not sell nearly as many units as a mediocre one if the features that make it different or better aren't emphasized to shoppers. 3.6.3. Building a Loyal Client Base Another reason companies promote brands is to help create customer loyalty. If the business can show off its merchandise or services well and make customers see the value in the KSPs, they will likely have a good purchasing experience. The good feelings that come with that purchase may make the customer want to buy again, and over time, he looks at the brand as his preferred choice. He might even buy the company's products when another cheaper option is available because of the benefits he perceives. 3.6.4. Sales, Profits and Company Value The concepts of awareness, key selling points and customer loyalty connect to the bottom line of profits. When people know about a company's services or goods and prefer them to the alternatives, sales for the business usually go up. That drives up the how much money the company takes in. Bigger financial gains mean that executives can invest in more projects or improvements, and the public often sees this as being innovative. Stock prices, which show the perceived value that a public company has, usually increase as a result. 3.6.5. Maintaining the Image Once executives have created a good image, they cannot assume their job is done. Competitors constantly are putting out new products that can change how people see a brand, so businesses have to assess the market continually. If they see that certain lines aren't ranking as high as 13 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well before, they usually improve whatever is being sold, identify new key selling points and develop new campaigns. Image problems also can come directly from within a company. If executives lie about their practices, for instance, consumers generally see the dishonesty as bad and project their feelings about the situation into their buying decisions. Ethics is always a consideration in brand promotion for this reason. 3.6.6. Looking to the Future As marketing directors focus on brand promotion, they keep in mind that, ideally, even though some minor adjustments to messages might need to happen to keep the company competitive, the overall image will not shift dramatically. Complete reorientation is hard because people don't easily forget their first reactions to or collective experiences with a product or service. Leaders, therefore, have to have a future-oriented approach in brand promotion. They have to find a focus for the image that the company will be happy with for a long period of time. This requires a good sense of vision. 3.6.7. The Element of Passion Effective promotion is a lot of work, and it can be tiring. People who are in marketing must have a true sense of passion about what they're doing to stay energized, focused and efficient. In good campaigns, this passion comes across to consumers and influences what they think. 4. Advertising –a drive to boost sales Following are the benefits provided by advertising to business units and intern provides a force to promote the brand and sales as well. There is a direct relation between brand familiarity and sales of it. Higher the popularity of the brand, higher will be the its sale.  Provide basic information such as your contact details and website address  Increase sales by telling potential customers about your product or service 14 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well  Tell customers about changes to your service, new product launches and improvements  Increase your short-term sales with a specific one-off message - informing people of a special offer or a particular benefit of your product.  Prompt specific action - perhaps getting customers to visit your premises or website, or use a discount voucher by a specified time.  Remind existing customers about your business  Change people's attitudes and perceptions of your business  Help to create or develop a distinctive brand for your business to help you stand out from your competitors  Make your business first choice for customers, ahead of your competitors  Generate awareness of your business  Develop a particular market niche or position Advertising doesn't always need to be about sales and marketing. You can also use it to:  Recruit staff: a recruitment advertisement should also be a chance to promote your business  Source suppliers and contractors: this also helps to position your business as active and expanding.  Target your customers: Decide whether your target audience is local or regional, national or international, or a mixture. Remember that a local business might benefit from national advertising, particularly if it is looking to expand into new territories. You can advertise in a wide range of different media. Using a media mix can help to reinforce the message or information you want to communicate. Before selecting a particular type of media, you should find out from the media business and other independent sources about their circulation or audience figures and what the audience penetration, or 'reach', of their product is. Basically, you need to know how many, where and who to. Figures can normally be broken down into age groups, average income and other useful indicators. 5. Core benefits of advertising to different players 15 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 5.1. Advertising and consumers 1. Advertising helps customers in making purchase decisions. 2. Ensures a better quality 3. Goods at reasonable prices 4. Better standard of living 5. Time saved in shopping 6. Contributes to consumer welfare 7. Makes consumers think 5.2. Advertising and manufacturers 1. It creates customers 2. Increases the sales 3. Helps producer in informing the market about the changes in products and services 4. Advertising controls product prices 5. Advertising acts as a salesman 6. It widens the market. 5.3. Salesman and advertising 1. Creates the colorful background for salesman 2. Makes the job of salesman easier 3. Instills confidence in salesman 5.4. Society and advertising 1. Increases the standard of living 2. Increases employment opportunities 3. Advertising reflects and affects the culture of the society in which it operates. 4. Provides information to the masses 16 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 6. Some extra benefits of advertising. 6.1. Advertising promotes choice Clothes, car insurance, computers, holidays... we have never had so much choice as consumers. Yet we all have different tastes and needs. No single product is right for everyone. Companies use advertising to tell us about the distinct products they offer in response to this diversity. When you see an ad for coffee, for example, it can  Inform you about lower prices (e.g. 'buy one get one free' promotion).  Tell you about differences in quality (e.g. improved packaging that keeps the coffee fresh longer).  Tell you about the options that best fit your individual tastes and values (e.g. coffee certified with the 'Fair Trade' label).  Inform you about the options that best suit your lifestyle (e.g. coffee capsules for instant espresso). Advertising, in other words, allows companies to provide a much broader range of options than would otherwise be the case. By telling us about them, advertising ensures that we don't need to settle for second best. It helps us exercise our right to choose. 6.2. Advertising drives economic growth In helping 17 | P a g e companies succeed,
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well advertising plays a key role in a dynamic economy. Successful companies create more jobs, pay more tax and contribute directly to economic growth. In fact, there is a proven link between advertising and economic growth1:  There is a positive correlation between the rates of investment in advertising and GDP growth in major markets.  Business sectors with the highest rates of investment in advertising are those where competition, a recognized driver of growth, is liveliest.  Countries where relatively little is invested in advertising are also those where economic growth is weakest. The advertising industry itself also contributes in a big way to economic growth. At 6.4% in 2007, the communications industry was the third-fastest growing sector of the US economy – far above the 2.2% growth for the economy as a whole. 6.3. Advertising creates jobs Through its positive effect on economic growth, advertising helps generate jobs. For example in the US advertising plays a key role in generating 18.2 million of the 126.7 million jobs. The wider advertising industry itself also has a positive effect on job creation. The ad industry's contribution to employment growth is two to four times greater than the average for the overall economy. 6.4. Advertising is the lifeblood of the media Advertising funds a diverse, pluralistic media landscape. Without advertising, many of the world’s media as we know them would not exist.  To replace advertising revenues, newspapers would have to double their cover price. 18 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well  On television and radio, the variety of sport, drama, news and children’s programs that we have come to expect would be unthinkable without advertising. An estimated 94% of revenues from children’s TV advertising in the EU are directly reinvested in children’s programs. On the internet, advertising funds new forms of communication which are breaking down borders and barriers across the world by giving a voice to many who were voiceless before. “Advertising is an integral part of the freedom of expression. It is impossible in a democracy to separate the freedom of publishing or broadcasting news, opinions or entertainment, from the freedom of advertising.” (Francisco Pinto Balsemao, Former Prime Minister of Portugal) 6.5. Advertising funds sports and culture Advertising and sponsorship play an essential role in enabling sporting events such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup. The costs of running the 2012 Olympics in London – estimated at £2bn – will be entirely funded through sponsorship and related revenues.1 Companies’ marketing spend also heavily subsidizes the transmission of such events to a global audience. In the arts, sponsorship subsidizes and pays for major exhibitions whether at the Museum of Modern Art or the Guggenheim or for performances at La Scala or the Opéra National de Paris. Sponsorship also supports community sports teams, grassroots cultural events and aspiring artists. Damien Hirst, today one of the most eminent contemporary artists, started his career with a student exhibition made possible through sponsorship by the London Docklands Development Corporation. 19 | P a g e
  • Advertising – a drive for promoting brands and sales as well 6.6. Social marketing for a better society All over the world, public service advertising has proven to be an effective way to increase AIDS awareness, promote energy saving, fight domestic violence, or reduce road deaths by encouraging the use of seat belts. In fact, many national governments are among the largest advertisers. Over the last years, the British government has consistently spent more money on advertising than all but two companies in the country, rising to second place in 2007. Companies too are using advertising to help address societal challenges. They are increasingly conscious that, beyond selling brands and ideas, advertising can be used to show how they can help make a difference. Procter & Gamble's Ariel consumers in the UK reduced their energy use by 41% as a result of the Ariel Cool Clean campaign, which encourages consumers to wash at 30°C without a loss in washing results. For a family of four this results in average savings of around 43 kg of CO2 - the equivalent of driving 240 km - from being released into the atmosphere per year. 7. Local players of jammu who believe in advertising and thus increased their brand equity and sales. 7.1. Kay tee rythms. 7.2. Nidhaan diagnostic center. 7.3. Ace computers. 7.4. Kc residency hotel. 7.5. ASL tutorials. 7.6. Achievers. 7.7. The civils. 7.8. Diva 7.9. Krystal weddings. 7.10. Vaastu solutions. 7.11. Anil communications. 7.12. The horizons. 20 | P a g e