FDR<br />Full Depth Rehabilitation<br />By: Donatas Greb, PE<br />       Richard Haro <br />HSI Engineering, Inc.<br />
OUTLINE<br />What is FDR?<br />Challenges of traditional design<br />Benefits of using FDR?<br /><ul><li>Low cost
Sustainability
Constructability
Performance</li></ul>4. Design of FDR<br />5. Construction of FDR <br />6. Questions & Answers<br />
TYPICAL CALIFORNIA STREET <br />
FDR Definition<br />FDR is a process in which the existing asphalt surface is <br />Pulverized in place and blended with t...
FDR SHOULD BE USED WHEN:<br />■  SERIOUSLY DAMAGED PAVEMENT<br />■  BASE OR SUB-BASE FAILURE<br />■  PATCHING OVER 15%-20%...
WHEN TO USE FDR ?<br />
PAVEMENT RECYCLING OPTIONS<br />Hot In-Place Recycling  ( 0.6 to 4 inches)<br />(2-4 years design life)  <br />Cold In-Pla...
BENEFITS <br /><ul><li>Increased Strength Spreads Loads
  Bound Base Material Section
  Reduced Moisture Susceptibility
  Faster & Easier to Construct
  Thinner AC Pavement Section
  Longer Pavement Life Cycle
 30%-50% lower cost</li></li></ul><li>AGGREGATE SHORTAGE CHALLENGE<br />(Caltrans Warning)<br />“…tremendous amount of agg...
ECONOMIC CHALLENGE<br />-”Best First Approach” doesn’t address all roads<br />-Projected funding can not keep up <br />-In...
Project Profile<br />Bancroft Avenue, San Leandro<br />2-lane Major Collector, 136,000sft.<br />4” AC over 12” FDR using 5...
ENVIRONMENTAL & ECONOMIC SAVINGS<br />FDR VS. REMOVE/REPLACE  (50,000 sft. , 12-in Deep )<br />120 Loads Export<br />Numbe...
ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS<br />1 Cement Truck = <br />40 Gravel Trucks<br />
IMPROVED LOAD DISBURSEMENT <br />100 psi<br />100 psi<br />NON-STABILIZED BASE<br />STABILIZED BASE<br />20 psi<br />5 psi...
FDR CREATES AN <br />“Inverted Pavement”<br />
        MAINTAINS PERFORMANCE UNDER        SATURATED CONDITIONS<br />MOISTURE INFLUENCE ON PAVEMENT SECTIONS<br />LANDSCAP...
Trench leaching
Landscape irrigation
Capillary action</li></ul>Stabilization:<br /><ul><li>Reduces Permeability
Reduces moisture influences
Maintains strength and stiffness</li></li></ul><li>LOCAL FDR CLIENTS<br />Public Works Projects<br />    City of San Leand...
HSI FDR SERVICES<br />Coring/Sampling <br />Lab Analysis<br />Mix Design<br />Strength Determination<br />Contract Documen...
A standardized structural value is given to the stabilized base:<br />Caltrans Design Equation: <br />Gf = 0.9 + (UCCS/100...
 1. CORING / SAMPLING<br />
2. LAB ANALYSIS                                      3. MIX DESIGN<br /><ul><li>Determine moisture density relationships (...
Add between 3 to 7 percent cement
Prepare Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCCS) test  samples </li></li></ul><li>4. STRENGTH DETERMINATION<br /><ul><li>UCS...
7-day strength targets from  300 psi to 650 psi
Use accelerated cure
Test performance (durability) in wet-dry environments</li></li></ul><li>5. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS<br />
REMEMBER! - FDR IS A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT <br />300 psi = Gf 1.2<br />Typical Strength Curves for Cement Treated Bases and So...
FDR CONSTRUCTION STEPS<br />Pulverize <br />Regrade / Shape<br />Spread cement<br />Mix & Hydrate<br />Compact<br />Apply ...
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  • Add $5.50 per ton for every 20 miles transported
  • PRIOR TO STARTING:Confirm location of UtilitiesLower all Structures if possibleNotify all impacted Residence &amp; BusinessesJob Walk-throughPULVERIZE EXISTING SECTION
  • Presentation on Full Depth Rehabilitation

    1. 1. FDR<br />Full Depth Rehabilitation<br />By: Donatas Greb, PE<br /> Richard Haro <br />HSI Engineering, Inc.<br />
    2. 2. OUTLINE<br />What is FDR?<br />Challenges of traditional design<br />Benefits of using FDR?<br /><ul><li>Low cost
    3. 3. Sustainability
    4. 4. Constructability
    5. 5. Performance</li></ul>4. Design of FDR<br />5. Construction of FDR <br />6. Questions & Answers<br />
    6. 6. TYPICAL CALIFORNIA STREET <br />
    7. 7. FDR Definition<br />FDR is a process in which the existing asphalt surface is <br />Pulverized in place and blended with the underlying base, sub-base, and/or subgrade materials, mixed with Portland Cement, and compacted to provide a new stabilized base that is high strength, non-plastic, and less permeable.<br />A new surface course is then applied, which completes the FDR process.<br />
    8. 8. FDR SHOULD BE USED WHEN:<br />■ SERIOUSLY DAMAGED PAVEMENT<br />■ BASE OR SUB-BASE FAILURE<br />■ PATCHING OVER 15%-20% of PROJECT AREA<br />■ TRAFFIC LOADING EXCEEDS DESIGN<br />
    9. 9. WHEN TO USE FDR ?<br />
    10. 10. PAVEMENT RECYCLING OPTIONS<br />Hot In-Place Recycling ( 0.6 to 4 inches)<br />(2-4 years design life) <br />Cold In-Place Recycling ( 2 to 9 inches)<br /> (8-10 years design life) <br />Full-Depth Rehabilitation ( 6 to 18 inches)<br /> (20+ years design life) <br />
    11. 11. BENEFITS <br /><ul><li>Increased Strength Spreads Loads
    12. 12. Bound Base Material Section
    13. 13. Reduced Moisture Susceptibility
    14. 14. Faster & Easier to Construct
    15. 15. Thinner AC Pavement Section
    16. 16. Longer Pavement Life Cycle
    17. 17. 30%-50% lower cost</li></li></ul><li>AGGREGATE SHORTAGE CHALLENGE<br />(Caltrans Warning)<br />“…tremendous amount of aggregate needed…”<br />“…concern about the availability of aggregate…”<br />“…encourage the development of new material sources…”<br />SOLUTION: RECYCLE FIRST<br />
    18. 18. ECONOMIC CHALLENGE<br />-”Best First Approach” doesn’t address all roads<br />-Projected funding can not keep up <br />-Increasing rehab costs <br />
    19. 19. Project Profile<br />Bancroft Avenue, San Leandro<br />2-lane Major Collector, 136,000sft.<br />4” AC over 12” FDR using 5% cement<br />$4.05/sft. - FDR Cost <br />$7.36/sft. - Traditional Pavement Cost<br />HSI Engr’g & Inspection Services Fee= 3% const.<br />
    20. 20. ENVIRONMENTAL & ECONOMIC SAVINGS<br />FDR VS. REMOVE/REPLACE (50,000 sft. , 12-in Deep )<br />120 Loads Export<br />Number of Trucks Required<br />146 Loads of Aggregate Import<br /> 4 Loads of Cement <br />Material Required (Tons)<br /> 3,650 Tons New Aggregate <br /> 108 Tons of Cement<br />Diesel Fuel Consumed (Gal)<br /> 3,920 Gallons<br /> 480 Gallons<br />FDR Process<br />Remove/ Replace Process<br />
    21. 21. ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS<br />1 Cement Truck = <br />40 Gravel Trucks<br />
    22. 22. IMPROVED LOAD DISBURSEMENT <br />100 psi<br />100 psi<br />NON-STABILIZED BASE<br />STABILIZED BASE<br />20 psi<br />5 psi<br />Stabilized Bound Base<br />Non-Stabilized Unbound Base<br />
    23. 23. FDR CREATES AN <br />“Inverted Pavement”<br />
    24. 24. MAINTAINS PERFORMANCE UNDER SATURATED CONDITIONS<br />MOISTURE INFLUENCE ON PAVEMENT SECTIONS<br />LANDSCAPE AREA<br />NON-STABILIZED BASE<br />STABILIZED BASE<br />Moisture infiltrates base:<br /><ul><li>High water table
    25. 25. Trench leaching
    26. 26. Landscape irrigation
    27. 27. Capillary action</li></ul>Stabilization:<br /><ul><li>Reduces Permeability
    28. 28. Reduces moisture influences
    29. 29. Maintains strength and stiffness</li></li></ul><li>LOCAL FDR CLIENTS<br />Public Works Projects<br /> City of San Leandro City of Oakland<br /> City of Santa Clara City of Marysville<br /> City of Hayward City of San Carlos<br /> City of Watsonville Yolo County<br /> City of Tracy Santa Cruz County<br />Private Projects<br /> Stockton Lockeford<br /> Port of Oakland Campbell<br /> Palo Alto Dublin<br /> Mountain View Gilroy<br /> San Jose Pleasanton<br /> Hayward San Benito<br /> Carmel Valley San Mateo County<br /> Danville San Carlos<br />
    30. 30. HSI FDR SERVICES<br />Coring/Sampling <br />Lab Analysis<br />Mix Design<br />Strength Determination<br />Contract Documents<br />Construction Inspection / Support<br />
    31. 31. A standardized structural value is given to the stabilized base:<br />Caltrans Design Equation: <br />Gf = 0.9 + (UCCS/1000) UCCS in psi<br />Minimum Unconfined Strength = 300 psi <br />Minimum Thickness = 10 inches<br />Maximum Thickness = 18 inches<br />FDR DESIGN<br />“Making a Better Aggregate Base”<br />
    32. 32. 1. CORING / SAMPLING<br />
    33. 33. 2. LAB ANALYSIS 3. MIX DESIGN<br /><ul><li>Determine moisture density relationships (ASTM D1557)
    34. 34. Add between 3 to 7 percent cement
    35. 35. Prepare Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCCS) test samples </li></li></ul><li>4. STRENGTH DETERMINATION<br /><ul><li>UCS Testing per ASTM D1633 (Method A)
    36. 36. 7-day strength targets from 300 psi to 650 psi
    37. 37. Use accelerated cure
    38. 38. Test performance (durability) in wet-dry environments</li></li></ul><li>5. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS<br />
    39. 39. REMEMBER! - FDR IS A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT <br />300 psi = Gf 1.2<br />Typical Strength Curves for Cement Treated Bases and Soils<br />
    40. 40. FDR CONSTRUCTION STEPS<br />Pulverize <br />Regrade / Shape<br />Spread cement<br />Mix & Hydrate<br />Compact<br />Apply Surface<br />
    41. 41. THE PROCESS<br />Start to Finish in about 3-5 Days<br />START<br />1. Before Full-Depth Rehabilitation<br />2. Pulverize Pavement<br />3. Re-Shape Grade<br />4. Apply Cement<br />5. Mix & Hydrate Cement<br />6. Initial Compaction<br />FINISH<br />7. Final Grading<br />9. Pave FDR<br />8. Final Compaction & Curing<br />
    42. 42. STEP 1: PULVERIZE<br />EXISTING BASE<br />SUBGRADE<br />PULVERIZED<br />EXISTING BASE<br />SUBGRADE<br />
    43. 43. STEP 2: REGRADING AND SHAPING <br />RE-ESTABLISHING GRADE:<br /><ul><li>Allows room for new AC section
    44. 44. Observe conditions for instability
    45. 45. Allows for temporary traffic </li></ul>PULVERIZED<br />EXISTING BASE<br />SUBGRADE<br />
    46. 46. STEP 2: REGRADING AND SHAPING<br />
    47. 47. IS OFFHAUL REQUIRED? <br />100% Recycle In-Place <br />No grade restraints allows for 100% In-place recycling<br />Re-establish Crown allows for additional use of recycled material<br />75% to 100% Recycle In-Place<br />Remove existing AC to allow for new AC section<br />65% to 80% Recycle In-Place<br />Curb & Gutter Conform to established grades<br />
    48. 48. STEP 3: SPREAD CEMENT <br />Spreading of Stabilizer<br />PULVERIZED<br />SUBGRADE<br /> On-board controls provide for ametered material application.<br /> Mechanical vane spreader allows for uniformdistribution.<br />
    49. 49. STEP 4: MIX & HYDRATE <br />Complete mixing, hydration and compaction within 2 hours.<br />
    50. 50. STEP 5: COMPACTION <br />
    51. 51. FINAL GRADING<br /><ul><li>Finish grade after initial compaction achieved
    52. 52. Final Compaction with smooth drum roller</li></ul>Moisture Cure<br /><ul><li>Keeps section from drying
    53. 53. Allows for continued hydration and even curing</li></li></ul><li>STEP 6: APPLY SURFACE<br />Chip Seal<br />HMA Overlay<br />
    54. 54. CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL<br />Moisture<br />Gradation<br />Density<br />Compact between 93% and 95% modified proctor (ASTM D1557).<br /> -100% pass 2-inch sieve<br />-minimum 95% pass 1-inch sieve, and a minimum of 55% passing No. 4 sieve<br />Add moisture for Compaction and moisture for Cement Hydration for minimal shrinkage.<br />
    55. 55. MOISTURE CONSIDERATION <br />Allowable Moisture Range @ 95%<br />Required Moisture for Cement Hydration @ 2 cement to 1 water Relationship<br />Maximum Density<br />Moisture Content Relationships<br />Cement - Allow for cement hydration prior to compacting (Approx.. 30 min from final mixing) <br />95% of Maximum<br />Optimum Cure Moisture Range<br />Optimum Moisture<br />
    56. 56. HSI ENGINEERING INC. <br />SERVICES <br /><ul><li> VALUE ENGINEERING
    57. 57. EVALUATION OF EXISTING PAVEMENTS
    58. 58. ASSESSING REHABILITATION OPTIONS
    59. 59. ENGINEERING AND DESIGN
    60. 60. FORENSICS, REFEREE TESTING
    61. 61. INSPECTION & QUALITY CONTROL</li></li></ul><li>ALTERNATIVES<br />
    62. 62. FULL-DEPTH REHABILITATION<br />QUESTIONS ?<br />www.fulldepthrehabilitation.com<br />SOLUTIONS IN CEMENT STABILIZATION<br />

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