Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Cross-‐Cultural Management Welcome
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons A few things about me … The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not haveenough memory to open the image, or the image may havebeen corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the ﬁleagain. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete theimage and then insert it again.Dr. Holger SiemonsAssociate Professor for Professional Practice and Education,University of NorthamptonCross-Cultural Management, International Business, Leadershipdevelopment in global firmsHeading the Global Employability Development Initiative in the UKand in IndiaMBA Program leaderVisiting assignments at National Economics University, Hanoi;National University Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh; University of Jakarta,Leather Institute Addis Ababa, Donau-Universität Krems, MCIInnsbruck, Maxwell AFB, AlabamaWorked as corporate trainer, consultant with Accenture, Siemens,PitneyBowes, Global Marketing Deutsche Telekom
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Some logis>cs and understanding Thursday, 6 June 2013 § 16.00 – 19.00 hrs Friday, 7 June 2013 § 14.15 – 17.30 hrs
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Outline of the lecture by topic § 1. Introduc>on to culture § Building up to cross-‐cultural eﬃciency § Deﬁni>ons of culture § Evolu>on of cultural understanding § Cultural diﬀerences § 2. Culture and thought § 3. Cultural proﬁling -‐ bringing reason to the percep>on of culture § E. T. Hall § Geert Hofstede § Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-‐Turner § 4. Culture in business applica>on § Communica>on § Team building and culture § Virtual communica>on and team building § Leadership across cultures § The use of power across cultures § 5. Wrap up
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.2 Incremental approach to this module Basic understanding Theore>cal founda>on Applica>on of the previous learning content
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.3 The ladder of your cultural progress Acceptance of responsibility high Accep>ng accountability Refusing accountability low Toward environment Cultural ambiguityCultural awarenessApplied culturalcompetenceAdapted from M. Bennett (2004)
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.4 Evolu>on of cultural competence Acceptance of responsibility high Accep>ng accountability Refusing accountability low Denial of a situa>on Blaming others Finding reasons/excuses Wait and hope Acceptance of reality Ownership Finding/crea>ng solu>ons EFFICIENCY Toward environment Ability to fully func>on
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.5 Other [sub]forms of culture National cultureProfessional cultureOrganizational cultureFamily cultureReligious cultureYouth culturePop cultureGender culture
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.6 Socio-‐cogni>ve processes: Self-‐concept Independent self Interdependent self Self Mother Father Sibling Coworker Friend Enemy Self Mother Father Sibling Coworker Friend Enemy Source: Markus and Kitayama, Psychological Review, 1991
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.7 The iceberg model of culture Non-‐visible culture Ar>facts, music, dress, art Behaviors Adtudes Core values Beliefs
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.8 What is cross-‐cultural management? Culture Cross-‐cultural Management Cross-‐cultural management
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9 What are diﬀerences and why do they occur?
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.1 Understanding of “I” Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.2 Lifestyle Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.3 Queing behavior Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.4 Addressing problems Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.5 Status of the boss Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.6 Transport Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.7 The posi>on of a child in the family Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.8 Sundays on the road Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.9 Beauty preferences Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.10 Partying behavior Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.11 Senior’s daily life Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.12 Expression of opinion Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.9.13 Impression of the other Western Eastern
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.10.1 The three stages of the U (or V) curve A. Ini+al adjustment is the op>mis>c or ela>on phase of the adjustment process B. Crisis is the stressful phase, when reality sets in and the sojourner is overwhelmed by his/her own incompetence C. Regained adjustment is seoling-‐in phase, when you learn to cope eﬀec>vely with the new environment Emo>onal state Ini*al adjustment Regained adjustment crisis t In-‐host-‐country Pre-‐departure Post-‐departure
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 1.10.2 The seven stages of the W-‐curve A. Honeymoon individuals are excited about their new cultural environment—wearing “rose colored glasses” B. Hos+lity experience major emo>onal upheavals—reality sets in C. Humorous individuals learn to laugh at their cultural mishaps, and realize there are good and bad in every culture D. In-‐sync sojourners begin to “feel at home” and experience iden>ty security and inclusion E. Ambivalence experience grief, nostalgia and pride, with a mixed sense of relief and sorrow that they are going home F. Reentry culture shock unexpected jolt, typically causes more stress & depression than entry culture shock G. Re-‐socializa+on assimila>on into old roles and culture Emo>onal state Pre-‐departure In-‐host-‐country Post-‐departure t ShortInterventionperiod (in-country)LongInterventionperiod (in-country)ABCDEFG
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 2. Thought across cultures
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 2.1 Some diﬀerences between West and East 1. Visual senses 2. Medicine 3. Art and music 4. Educa>on 5. Others …
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 2.2 Which two go together?
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3. Important cultural researchers § George Peter Murdock (1897-‐1985) § Edward Twitchell Hall, jr. (1914-‐2009) § Edgar Henry Schein (1928-‐) § Geert Hofstede (1928-‐) § Fons Trompenaars (1952-‐) § Fred Strodtbeck (1919-‐2005) HALL HOFSTEDE SCHEIN TROMPENAARS MURDOCK STRODTBECK
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.1 Edward Twitchell Hall, jr. (1914-‐2009) Par+cularly known for his concept of the „Hidden Dimension“ describing the subjec>vity of cultural dimensions that surround mankind Coined the term ‚polychronic‘, describing the ability to aoend to mul>ple events; simultaneoulsy, and opposed to „monochronic“ referring to handling events one at a >me One of his main contribu>ons to cultural research was the concept of ‚extension transferrence‘, meaning humanity‘s rate of evolu>on increases with innova>on and crea>on of technology His most noted contribu>on, however, is the concept of high-‐ vs. low-‐context culture He is considered the founding father of intercultural communica>on studies He was the ﬁrst considering ‚proxemics‘ as one element of cultural diﬀerence, and, thus, forming a dimension HALL
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.1.2 Hall’s three dimensions 1. Monochroma>sm vs. polychroma>sm 2. Personal space (proxemics) 3. Low-‐ vs. high context
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 126.96.36.199 Monochroma>sm vs. polychroma>sm Monochroma+c >me-‐oriented cultures are more comfortable with doing one thing at a >me. • Interrup>ons are to be avoided • Everything has its own speciﬁc >me • Examples are USA, Germany, Switzerland Polychroma+c >me-‐oriented cultures schedule many things at one >me, and >me is considered in a more ﬂuid sense. • Going with the ﬂow means that interrup>ons are tolerated as they ozen lead to a beoer atmosphere of doing business • Time may formally be scheduled, it unfolds with ﬂexibility and realloca>on of priority • Examples are: Greece, Italy, Chile, and Saudi Arabia
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 188.8.131.52 Proxemics The term ‘proxemics’ was coined by researcher Edward T. Hall during the 1950s and 1960s and has to do with the study of our use of space and how various diﬀerences in that use can make us feel more relaxed or anxious. Proxemics diﬀeren>ates between • Physical space (the constructed built environment that makes us comfortable) • Personal space, also knows as ‘personal territory’ (the distance between us and other people that we need to feel comfortable)
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 184.108.40.206 Low-‐ vs. high context Low-‐context cultures assign primary meaning to the objec>ve communica>on message and secondary meaning to the context. Low-‐context cultures emphasize speed, accuracy, and eﬃciency in communica>on. • “just the facts please” • “give me the booom line” High-‐context cultures assign primary importance to the s>muli surrounding a message and secondary importance to the message itself. High-‐context cultures need more >me to make decisions and perform transac>ons than low-‐context cultures. • “What maoers isnt what is said but who said it” • “Its not what you say but how you say it” • Read between the lines The essen>al diﬀerence between the two is the importance that each culture places on the context versus the actual message itself.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2 Geert Hofstede (1928 -‐) Inves>gated the interac>ons between na>onal and organiza>onal cultures Hofstede is very famous for his four cultural dimensions (concept later expanded): • Individualism vs. Collec>vism • Power distance • Masculinity vs. Feminity • High vs. Low uncertainty avoidance • A ﬁLh dimension was later added with the contribu>on of Michael Harris Bond (1985): Long-‐ vs. short-‐term orienta>on • A sixth dimension was added in 2010 (inspired by Minkov): Indulgence vs. restraint These classiﬁca>ons describe societal averages or tendencies, but not characteris+cs of individuals „level of analysis“; it is about gardens, not ﬂowers“ IBM; 117,000 ques>onnaires; 1967 -‐ 1973 HOFSTEDE
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.x Hofstede’s six dimensions 1. Individualism vs. collec>vism 2. Low vs. high power distance 3. Masculinity vs. femininity 4. High-‐ vs. low uncertainty avoidance 5. Short-‐ vs. long-‐term orienta>on Indulgence vs. restraint
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Countries as per Index D 67 B 75 F 71 CH 68 A 55 CZ 58 PL 60 DK 74 IND 48 CHN 20 PAK 14 BANG 20 THA 20 INDO 14 US 91 CAN 80 UK 89 IRL 70 AUS 90 NZ 79 220.127.116.11 Individualism vs. collec>vism INDIVIDUALISM People more focus on themselves/self-‐orienta>on/individual iden>ty Guilt culture Decisions based on individual needs „I“-‐mentality Emphasis on individual ini>a>ve and achievement Everyone has the right to private life COLLECTIVISM Expect high group loyalty (family, organiza>on), and favorable decisions Iden>ty based on social aﬁlia>on Shame culture „We“-‐mentality Emphasis on belonging to the group Private life ‚invaded‘ by ins>tu>onal/ organiza>onal aﬃlia>on INDIVIDUALISM COLLECTIVISM 0 100 US AUS CAN D A IND PAK BANG, CHN UK
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 18.104.22.168 An alterna>ve visualiza>on of the dimension
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.2 Low vs. high power distance LOW POWER DISTANCE Society makes liole diﬀerence of status and power among its ci>zens Power inequality is mediated by the group, ozen reﬂected through legisla>on Wealth, although unequality distributed, is partly transferred from the rich to the poor Regula>on (law, rights, rules) tend to be in favour of the less powerful HIGH POWER DISTANCE Society greatly diﬀeren>ates between its ci>zens regarding power and status Power inequality is fully aﬀec>ng the less powerful Wealth is strongly and unequally distributed, and liole eﬀort is made to support the poor Regula>on, if existent, that may protect the less powerful is either ambiguous or non-‐enforceable LOW PD HIGH PD 0 100 Countries as per Index D 35 B 65 F 68 CH 34 A 11 CZ 57 PL 57 DK 18 IND 77 CHN 80 PAK 55 BANG 80 THA 64 INDO 78 US 40 CAN 39 UK 35 IRL 28 AUS 36 NZ 22
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.3 Masculinity vs. femininity MASCULINITY Society in which social gender roles are clearly dis>nct Men are asser>ve, tough and focused on material success Women are to be more modest, tender, and about quality life A society that ozen expresses values through non-‐codiﬁed regula>ons Strong conﬁning pressures from within society to conform to values FEMININITY Society in which social gender roles overlap Both, man and women, are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with quality of life A society that expresses its values through codiﬁed regula>ons Less conﬁning and restraining pressures from within society MASCULINITY FEMININITY 0 100 Countries as per Index D 66 B 54 F 86 CH 70 A 79 CZ 57 PL 64 DK 16 IND 56 CHN 66 PAK 50 BANG 55 THA 34 INDO 46 US 62 CAN 52 UK 66 IRL 68 AUS 61 NZ 58
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.4 High vs. low uncertainty avoidance HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE Socie>es experience challenges when exposed to uncertainty Socie>es strongly seek to obtain clarity for future happenings Regula>ons ozen support the necessity of planning and certainty for the popula>on Society feels threatened by experienced uncertainty Aﬀekts risk taking behavior à lower risk taking LOW UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE Society have liole challenges when confronted with uncertainty Socie>es liole seek to obtain clarity for future happenings Regula>ons leave room for interpreta>on regarding obtaining clarity for future events Society feels anxious by experienced uncertainty Aﬀects risk-‐taking behavior à high risk taking HIGH UA LOW UA 0 Countries as per Index D 65 B 94 F 86 CH 58 A 70 CZ 74 PL 93 DK 23 IND 40 CHN 30 PAK 70 BANG 60 THA 64 INDO 48 US 46 CAN 48 UK 35 IRL 35 AUS 51 NZ 49 100
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.5 Short-‐ vs. long-‐term orienta>on SHORT-‐TERM ORIENTATION Socie>es with a short-‐term orienta>on are considered: Personally steady Stable/liole change Respect for tradi>on LONG-‐TERM ORIENTATION Socie>es with a long-‐term orienta>on are considered: Persistant Status-‐ and power-‐oriented, andme>culously obeying this order Thrizy Shame oriented SHORT-‐TERM ORIENTATION LONG-‐TERM ORIENTATION 0 Countries as per Index D 31 B -‐ F -‐ CH -‐ A -‐ CZ -‐ PL -‐ DK -‐ IND 61 CHN 118 PAK -‐ BANG -‐ THA 56 INDO -‐ US 29 CAN -‐ UK 25 IRL -‐ AUS 31 NZ 30
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.6 Indulgence vs. restraint INDULGENCE A percep>on of personal life control Freedom of speech seen as important More likely to remember posi>ve emo>ons More people ac>vely involved in sports and value for leisure In countries with enough food, higher percentages of obese people Rich countries: lenient sexual norms RESTRAINED Fewer very happy people A percep>on of helplessness: what happens to me is not my own doing Freedom of speech not a big concern Less likely to remember posi>ve emo>ons Lower importance of leisure Fewer people ac>vely involved in sports, Fewer obese people Rich countries, stricter sexual norms Indulgence Restraint 0
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.2.7 Hofstede’s proﬁling Individualism Low power distance Masculinity High uncertainty avoidance Short term-‐orienta+on Indulgence Collec+vism/group orienta+on High power distance Femininity Low uncertainty avoidance Long term-‐orienta+on Restraint
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3 Fons Trompenaars/Hampden-‐Turner Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-‐Turner have collected the largest cross-‐cultural data base in the world, compiling key business issues that relate to cultural diﬀerences Trompennars‘ work focuses on top-‐management and thus remained within a dis>nct social class • 30,000 top managers • 30 countries Trompenaars and Hampden-‐Turner developed a seven-‐dimensional model of culture: Trompenaars‘/Hampden-‐Turner‘s work is an extension to the work of Geert Hofstede, and reﬂec>ng E.T. Hall‘s three dimensins as well as Hofstede‘s ﬁve dimension Trompenaars work focuses more on cultural diﬀerences at the workplace TROMPENAARS
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.x Trompenaars’/Hampden-‐Turner’s 7 dimensions 1. Individualism vs. communi-‐tarianism 2. Universalism vs. par>cularism 3. Neutral vs. aﬀec>ve 4. Speciﬁc vs. diﬀuse 5. Achievement vs. ascrip>on 6. Sequen>al vs. synchronic 7. Internal-‐ vs. external direc>on control
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.1 Individualism vs. communitarianism Individualism People believe in personal freedom and achievement. They believe that you make your own decisions, and that you must take care of yourself. Praise and reward individual performance. Give people autonomy to make their own decisions and to use their own ini>a>ve. Allow people to involve others in decision making Allow people to be crea>ve and to learn from their mistakes. Communitarianism People believe that the group is more important than the individual and provides help and safety, in exchange for loyalty. The group always comes ﬁrst. Praise and reward group performance. Dont praise individuals publically. Link peoples needs with those of the group or organiza>on. Avoid showing favori>sm.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.2 Universalism vs. par>cularism Universalism People place high importance on laws, rules, values, and obliga>ons. They try to deal fairly with people, but rules come before rela>onships. Help people understand how their work >es into their values and beliefs. Clear instruc>ons, processes, and procedures. Keep promises and be consistent. Give people >me to make decisions. Use objec>ve processes to make decisions yourself, and explain your decisions if others are involved. Par+cularism Each circumstance, and each rela>onship dictates rules. Their response to a situa>on may change, based on whats happening in the moment, and whos involved. Give people autonomy to make their own decisions. Respect others needs when you make decisions. Be ﬂexible in how you make decisions. Take >me to build rela>onships and get to know people for a beoer understanding of needs. Highlight important rules and policies that need to be followed.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.3 Neutral vs. aﬀec>ve (emo>onal) Neutral People make a great eﬀort to control their emo>ons. Reason inﬂuences their ac>ons far more than their feelings. People dont reveal what theyre thinking or how theyre feeling. Manage emo>ons eﬀec>vely. Watch that body language doesnt convey nega>ve emo>ons. "S>ck to the point" in mee>ngs and interac>ons. Watch peoples reac>ons carefully, as they may be reluctant to show their true emo>ons. Emo+onal People want to ﬁnd ways to express their emo>ons, even spontaneously, at work. In these cultures, its welcome and accepted to show emo>on. Open up to people to build trust and rapport. Use emo>on to communicate your objec>ves. Learn to manage conﬂict eﬀec>vely, before it becomes personal. Use posi>ve body language. Have a posi>ve adtude.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.4 Speciﬁc vs. diﬀuse Speciﬁc People keep work and personal lives separate. As a result, they believe that rela>onships dont have much of an impact on work objec>ves. Although good rela>onships are important, they believe that people can work together without having a good rela>onship. Be direct and to the point. Focus on peoples objec>ves before you focus on strengthening rela>onships. Provide clear instruc>ons, processes, and procedures. Allow people to keep their work and home lives separate. Diﬀuse People see an overlap between their work and personal/private life. People believe good rela>onships are vital to mee>ng business objec>ves whether they are at work or mee>ng socially. People spend >me with colleagues and clients outside work hours Building good rela>onships before focusing on business objec>ves. Find out as much as you can about the people that you work with and the organiza>ons that you do business with. Be prepared to discuss business on social occasions, and to have personal discussions at work. Try to avoid turning down invita>ons to social func>ons.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.5 Achievement vs. ascrip>on Achievement People believe that you are what you do, and base their value accordingly. These cultures value performance, no maoer who you are. Reward and recognize good performance appropriately. Use >tles only when relevant. Be a good role model. Ascrip+on People believe that you should be valued for who you are. Power, >tle, and posi>on maoer in these cultures, and these roles deﬁne behavior. Use >tles, especially when these clarify peoples status in an organiza>on. Show respect to people in authority, especially when challenging decisions. Dont "show up" people in authority. Dont let your authority prevent you from performing well in your role.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.6 Sequen>al vs. synchronous >me Sequen+al Time/mono-‐tasking People like events to happen in order. They place a high value on punctuality, planning (and s>cking to your plans), and staying on schedule. “Time is money," and people dont appreciate it when their schedule is thrown oﬀ. Focus on one ac>vity or project at a >me. Keep to deadlines. Set clear deadlines. Synchronous Time/mul+-‐taksing People see the past, present, and future as interwoven periods. They ozen work on several projects at once, and view plans and commitments as ﬂexible. Be ﬂexible in how you approach work. Allow people to be ﬂexible on tasks and projects, where possible. Highlight the importance of punctuality and deadlines if these are key to mee>ng objec>ves.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.3.7 Internal vs. external control Internal Direc+on/Control (This also known as having an internal locus of control.) People believe that they can control nature or their environment to achieve goals. This includes how they work with teams and within organiza>ons. Allow people to develop their skills and take control of their learning. Set clear objec>ves that people agree with. Be open about conﬂict and disagreement, and allow people to engage in construc>ve conﬂict. External Direc+on/Control (This also known as having an external locus of control.) People believe that nature, or their environment, controls them. People ozen need reassurance that theyre doing a good job. Give people direc>on and regular feedback, so that they know how their ac>ons are aﬀec>ng their environment. Manage conﬂict quickly and quietly. Balance nega>ve and posi>ve feedback. Encourage people to take responsibility for their work.
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 3.4 The Hall, Hofstede and Trompenaars dimensions E. T. Hall G. Hofstede F. Trompenaars Low vs. high context Proxemics/ personal space Monochroma>c vs. polychroma>c >me Individualism vs. collec>vism Low vs. high power distance Masculinity vs. femininity High vs. low uncertainty avoidance Short-‐ vs. long-‐term orienta>on Individualism vs. communitarianism Universal vs. par>cular Neutral vs. aﬀec>ve Speciﬁc vs. diﬀuse Achievement vs. ascrip>on Sequen>al vs. synchronic Internal vs. external
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4. Business-‐relevant applica>on of culture
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.1.1 A cross-‐cultural communica>on model Sender Receiver Message CULTURE Noise Encodes meaning Decodes meaning Medium [Some kind of] feedback Decodes meaning Encodes meaning Feedback Message Receiver Sender Message nature Importance level Context/expecta>ons Timing Personal interac>ons
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.2.1 Team/group development stages - TuckmanForming:• Confusion• Orientation• Testing• Dependence• Testing the groundStorming:• Resistance togroup influence• Resistance totask requirements• DisagreementNorming:• Openness to othergroup members• Establish trust• Define rolesPerforming:• Constructiveaction• Helpfulness• OpennessAdjourning:• DisengagementPerformancelevelSource: Tuckman, 1965?Different management/leadership for different tasks
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Group members§ learn about eachother§ Discover tasksActivities in thisstage are:§ Determineobjectives§ Become involved§ Showcommitment§ Work towardclarity§ Discover groupmorale§ Handle surfacingfeelingsGroup members§ Discuss structureof the group§ Work for statusActivities in thisstage are:§ Identify cohesion§ Subjectivity§ Hidden agendas§ Discover conflict/confrontation§ Volatility shows§ Resentment§ Anger surfaces§ Inconsistency§ Experiencespersonal failureGroup members§ Establish im-/explicit rules toachieve task§ Identify type ofcommunicationActivities in thisstage are:§ Questionperformance§ Review/clarifyobjectives§ Change/confirmroles§ Opening risks§ Assertiveness§ Feel Strength/WeaknessGroup members§ Reachconclusion/implementationof solutionActivities in thisstage are:§ Show creativity,initiative andflexibility§ Relationshipsopen up§ Becoming proud§ Show concernfor people§ Learning§ Confidence rises§ Level of moraleGroupdissolvesForming Storming Norming Performing Adjour-ning4.2.2 Tuckman’s (1965) team development model
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.2.3 Team deﬁni>ons Team • “A group of individual organized to work together in order to achieve a speciﬁc objec>ve” (American Heritage Dic*onary) • “A collec>on of individuals who are independent in their tasks, who share responsibility for outcomes, who see themselves and are seen by others as an intact social en>ty embedded in one or more larger social systems , and who manage their rela>onship across organiza>onal boundaries” (Cohen and Baily, 1997) Tradi>onal (face-‐to-‐face) team • The above, limited to one shared work place with the predominant form of non-‐electronic communica>on Virtual team • “A group of geographically, organiza>onally and >me dispersed workers brought together by informa>on technologies to accomplish one or more objec>ves of the organiza>on (DeSanc>s & Poole, 1997; Powell et al., 2004)
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.2.4 The spectrum of e-‐communica>on in team work Tradi>onal team • Exclusive use of non-‐electronic communica>on for communica>on • Single loca>on Matrixed, remote team • Members in many loca>ons • Collabora>on exclusively by electronic media Team members are oLen not aware/do not fully understand the exis+ng diﬀerence between face-‐to-‐face and virtual teams and the impact on team work processes Degree/extent of use of electronic communication
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.2.5 Trust in teams/virtual teams Trust is not sta>c, but dynamic and needs to be managed Trust is role and context speciﬁc The forma>on of trust is signiﬁcantly diﬀerent between face-‐to-‐face and virtual teams … … and diﬀerent based on the cultural background 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 US GER IND
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.2.6 Barriers to communica>on in teams Language: Degree of proﬁciency Level of detail of required interac>on • High-‐ vs. low context • Urgency • Individualis>c vs. collec>vis>c orienta>on • Individual vs. shared responsibility Ambiguity Lack of visibility Informa>on sharing (extent, form, >me, circle of addressees) Time zone diﬀerences
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.1 Leadership -‐ Some faces
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.3 Meaning of a manager “Management is the process of reaching organiza>onal goals by working with and through people and other organiza>onal resources” (Management Innova>ons, 2008). Three major characteris>cs: • Process or series of con>nuing and related ac>vi>es • Involves and concentrates on reaching organiza>onal goals • Reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organiza>onal resources Four basis management func>ons: • Planning • Organizing • Inﬂuencing • Controlling
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.4 Leadership deﬁned Leadership is a process of inﬂuence Directed at the ac>vi>es of an organized group Directed toward achieving goals and the sedng thereof (Stodgil, 1950: 3) • Leadership is an interpersonal process in which one person seeks to inﬂuence another person(s) • It iden>ﬁes the group to be inﬂuenced • Seeks to achieve goals and thereby improve organiza>onal performance
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.5 Manager vs. leader Managers tend to adopt impersonal or passive adtudes towards goals Managers tend to co-‐ordinate and compromise Managers tend to maintain low levels of emo>onal involvement Managers tend to iden>fy with and belong to an organisa>on -‐ part of the hierarchy Managers tend to see themselves as regulators Leaders tend to adopt a more personal and ac>ve adtude towards goals Leaders tend to create excitement Leaders tend to show empathy and get involved Leaders tend to work in but do not belong to an organisa>on -‐ not necessarily part of the hierarchical structure Leaders tend to see themselves as innovators
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.6 Beginning of leadership = end of management? The diﬀerent stages of management and leadership and their evolu>on (to be completed in the lecture/seminar) OnlymanagementOnlyleadership
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.7 End of management = Beginning of leadership? • Plans and budgets • Decides ac>ons and >metables • Allocates resources• Organizes staffing• Decides structures andallocates staff, developspolicies, procedures andmonitoring• Controlling, problem solving• Monitoring of results againstplan and taking of correctiveactions • Produce order, consistencyand predictability• Establishes direc>on • Creates vision for the future• Develops strategies forchange to achieve goals• Aligning people• Communication of visionand strategy• Influencing the creation ofteams that accept validity ofgoals• Motivation and inspiration• Energizing people toovercome obstacles andsatisfy human needs• Produces positive andsometimes dramatic change?Adopted from: John Kotter A force for change: How leadership differs frommanagement. Free Press. New York. 1990OnlymanagementOnlyleadership
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.3.8 Diﬀeren>a>on reality: Management/leadership Manager LeaderWhat do we do with that informa>on?
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.4.2 Sources of power/inﬂuence Personal Expert Legi>mate/posi>on Reward Coercive Informa>on 196
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.4.3 Accessing power across cultures http://ipac.kacst.edu.sa/eDoc/eBook/4477.pdf Based on: Alanaziand Rodrigues, 20031. Referent/personal 2. Expert 3. Legi>mate/posi>on 4. Reward 5. Coercive 6. Informa>on 0 1 2 3 4 5 6USABrazilSaudi Arabia
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons 4.4.4 Power visibility 2021. Visible power- Control over resources (i.e.determining other people’s budget)2. Less visible power- Control over resource allocation bymeans of having access to otherdeciders through influencing3. Invisible power- ‘Gatekeeper’ function with thepower to filter, summarize, analyzeand shaping information inaccordance with their self-interest
Prof. Dr. Holger Siemons Thank you very much for your kind aoen>on. How was your workshop experience, please share with us.EncouragementsAreas for improvement