Taiwan’s Environmental Movement: the Case of Anti-Kuokuang Movement  and Anti-Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island
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Taiwan’s Environmental Movement: the Case of Anti-Kuokuang Movement and Anti-Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island



The goal of this ppt is to answer how AKKPIM succeed in changing the policy of the Taiwanese government. The research was based on historical research and the application of social theories of ...

The goal of this ppt is to answer how AKKPIM succeed in changing the policy of the Taiwanese government. The research was based on historical research and the application of social theories of Collective Action, Resource Mobilization and Political Opportunity.

This paper has been presented at the 19th Annual Conference of the North American Taiwan Studies Association, June 21-22, 2013 at the University of California-Santa Barbara.



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Taiwan’s Environmental Movement: the Case of Anti-Kuokuang Movement  and Anti-Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island Taiwan’s Environmental Movement: the Case of Anti-Kuokuang Movement and Anti-Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island Presentation Transcript

  • Taiwan’s Environmental Movement: the Case of Anti- Kuokuang Movement and Anti-Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island Hsiang Yuan Wu ( 吳象元 ) MA in China Studies, Jackson School, University of Washington, Seattle Source: http://4fun.tw/CcDv
  • I. Theoretical Frameworks
  • A. Mancur Olson's Theory of Collective Action 1) Each group coheres because of shared interests rather than spontaneous cooperation. 2) The purpose of collective action is dominated by selective incentive, based on deliberation of benefits, and the goal is to achieve public good. 3) social movements are a process of rational choice, and it is the decision made by individual consideration of cost and benefits. 4) Public good and free rider
  • B. Political opportunity theory 1) In Peter K. Eisinger’s definition, as political environments changed, the social movement would bring about “political opportunity.” 2) The political opportunity involves the nature of the chief executive, the pattern of aldermanic election, the degree of social disintegration, distribution of social skill and status. 3) Sidney Tarrow generalizes the political opportunity as the degree of openness of polity, the stability of political environment, the role of elite, the capacity of government’s policymaking and whether there are support groups for social movements.
  • C. Resource Mobilization Theory 1) In McCarthy and Zald’s argument, resources bring opportunities to let participants take action, playing the role of building for each community a platform to express their demands. 2) Money, facilities and labor/ Mobilizing supporters, transforming mass and elite publics into sympathizers, and inter-organizational cooperation /Communication media, levels of affluence, degree of access to institutional centers, preexisting networks and occupational structure and growth as the infrastructure for social movement to utilize.
  • II. Anti-Kuokuang Movement (反國光石化運動) from 2010 to 2012
  • A. Background 1) The Kuokuang Petrochemical Project (KKPP) was originally a large investment development project proposed by the Kuokuang Petrochemical Company ( 國光石化公司 ) in 2005. 2) During the administration of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in 2006, Premier Tseng-Chang Su ( 蘇貞昌 ) made KKPP become one of the representative cases in the “Big Investment, Great Warmth” Project ( 大投資、大溫暖計畫 ). 3) It was originally expected to be built in the Offshore Industrial Zone at Yunlin ( 雲 林 離 島 工 業 區 ). But because it did not meet standards during environmental assessments, the government proposed it be built in Da Chen village ( 大成鄉 ) at Chang Hua. And the KKPP became a “National Major Investment Project” after the Kuomintang (KMT) won the presidential election of 2008.
  • B. Conflict 1) Historical Background 2) Tie-Chih Chang, “Visit the Wetlands – the Notes of the Arts and Cultural Community of Wetlands Travel” 3) Yu-Chen Liu, “Say a Few Words for Kuokuang Petrochemical Project”
  • *Proposed area for Kuokuang Industry Project
  • C. Response of Taiwanese Government 1) 2010/7/10, Taiwan Premier Den-YihWu( 吳敦義 ) claimed “white dolphins can turn away.” 2) 2011/4/23, President Ma declared Kuokuang industrial plant had to be suspended.
  • III. Anti- Nuclear Waste Movement in Orchid Island since 1988
  • A. Background In 1982, Taiwan Power Company (TPC) built a nuclear waste plant to bury the first batch of nuclear in Orchid Island. It is a smaller island off the east coast of Taiwan with 3000 residents, and it is the habitat of Tau( 達 梧 ), which is one tribe of aborigine decent in Taiwan.
  • *Geographical Position of Orchid Island
  • B. Conflict During ANWM, it experienced two major protests, one was Held in 1988 and another was happened in 2012. Evaluating These two protests, they both had not been the mainstream voices to form enough force to impact on the Taiwanese government.
  • C. Response of Taiwanese Government 1) Late 1980s 2) 2012 3) After the big scale of demonstration of Anti-Nuclear on March 9 of 2013 on March 19, Premier Yi- Hua Jiang( 江宜樺 ) expressed government feel guilt about the Orchid Island have to bear the consequence of nuclear waste.
  • IV. Analysis
  • AKKM and Collective Action Theory Public Good Selective Incentive Dilemma of Free Rider Clean water and food Ensuring the safety of daily meals National food crisis decrease the phenomenon of free rider Health Guarding hometown from destruction of scenery Better Environment Support from celebrities Public Good Selective incentive Dilemma of Free Rider Better Environment and Health Compensate payment and material profit reduce the force of residential mobilization in Orchid Island Off Taiwan decrease the motivation to take action ANWM and Collective Action Theory
  • Organization of AKKM 1) Role of leader: Cheng Wu ( 吳晟 ) 2) Promoters: Arts Community and Organizations
  • Cooperated Organizations in AKKM Laiho Culture Foundation& Museum( 賴和文教基金會 ), Oyster Printing Life ( 王功蚵藝文化協會 ), The Union of Conservation of Taiwan Sousa Chinensis( 台灣媽祖魚保育聯盟 ), The Fronts of Taiwan Village ( 台灣農村陣線 ), The Society of Wildness ( 荒野保 護協會 ), Trail of Thousands of miles ( 千里步道 ), National Youth Alliance Against Kuokuang Petrochemical Project ( 全國青年反國 光石化聯盟 ), Green Party ( 綠黨 ), Youth Synergy Taiwan Foundation ( 青平台基金會 ), Alliance of Chang Hua Environmental Protest ( 彰化環境保護聯盟 ), and Wild at Heart Legal Defense Association ( 台灣蠻野心足生態協會 ).
  • Chronology of Arts and Community Activities related to the Anti-Kuokuang Movement Time Activity Place 2010/6/24 Cheng Wu read “All I Can Do Is to Write A Poem For You” publicly. Taipei 2010/09/11 The Arts and Cultural Society signs the petition against the petrochemical industry in Chang Hua. Taipei 2010/9/15 The Arts and Cultural Society held a news conference entitled “The Arts and Cultural Society Against Exploiting Antrochemical Industry in the Estuary of Jhuoshuei River” (藝文界反對濁水溪口開發石化 業) in Legislative Yuan Taipei 2010/11/13 First official street protest Taipei 2011/1/07 Wetland, Petrochemical, Island of the Imaginary published. Taipei
  • 2011/1/10 Cheng Wu read “The Kingdom of Smokestacks” publicly. Taipei 2011/1/26 The Evening Party of the Anti- Kuokuang Petrochemical Project Taipei 2011/3/9 Visiting the Wetlands Chang Hua 2011/4/21 Battle of the Environmental Protection Administration Taipei, Hsinchu( 新竹 ), Chang Hua, Taichung ( 台中 ), Tainan ( 台南 ), Kao Hsiung ( 高雄 ) 2011/5/7 The Poetry Seminar and concert of Guarding the Wetlands-“Sing a song for you.” Taipei 2011/5/28 Day of Ho Lai ( 賴和 ) Chang Hua
  • Songs written for the Anti-Kuokuang Movement Singer Song Chih-Ning Wu Love You Whole-heartedly( 全心全意 的愛你 ) Sheng Chen Grandma is Mazuyu ( 阿嬤是媽祖魚 ) Ming-Chang Chen Sunshine hidden and cry in Jhuoshuei River ( 濁水溪的日頭覕佇咧哮 ) Armed Youth of the Countryside Solemn Song of Seaside, The Song of the White Dolphin( 白海豚之歌 ) Kou Chou Chin( 烤秋勤 ) Official Drives the people to revolt ( 官逼民反 )
  • Wetland, Petrochemical, Island of the Imaginary
  • AKKM and Resource Mobilization Theory Mass media Publisher Social Network Academic Circle China Times, United Times, Liberty Times Wetland, Petrochemical, Island of the Imaginary FACEBOOK, Twitter, PTT, Plurk, Blog Academia Sinica
  • Political Opportunity 2009/11 2010.03 2010/7/7 2010/7/25 Phosgene leaked in Sixth Naphtha, Yulin County Government imposes a fine and order shit down Poisonous chemical substances leaked in Sixth Naphtha, and being fine Five million NT (0.17 million US) Sixth Naphtha’s olefin factory breaks out fire Sixth Naphtha’s Oil refinery have Gas explosion because of petroleum leaked Anti-Kuokuang Movement(AKKM) Anti- Nuclear waste Movement in Orchid Island (ANWM) Mayoral and Presidential Election during 2010-2011 After Anti-Nuclear demonstration on March 9 2013, the political environment created opportunities for ANWM Industrial Safety Incidents at Six Naphtha
  • Conclusion social capital external resources political opportunities creative tactics