TheModalityPrinciple in Multimedia Learning<br />HectorSegarra<br />EDLT-520<br />March 4, 2010<br />Dr. Jesús H. Trespala...
Review from Previous chapters <br />According to Mayer’s model of meaningful learning, the learnerprocesses a visual infor...
cognitive processes<br />Selecting<br />Organizing<br />Integrating<br />
Selecting<br /> Is applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and is applied to incoming visual informati...
Organizing<br />Is applied to the image base to create a verbally-based model of the to-be explained system and is applied...
Integrating<br />Occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding events (or states or parts) in the verba...
Multiple Representation Principle<br />Establish that its is better to present an explanation in words and pictures that s...
Contiguity Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, present corresponding words and picture contiguously rathe...
Split Attention Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as vi...
Individual Differences Principle<br />The foregoing principles are more important for low-knowledge than high-knowledge le...
Coherence Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, use few rather than any extraneous words and picture.<br />
How Information isPresented<br />“Thereisevidencetoindicatethatthemanner in wichinformationispresentedwillaffecthowwelliti...
Modality Principle<br />Students learn better when the associated statements are narrated rather than presented visually.<...
Cognitive Load Theory and theModalityEffect<br />According to cognitive load theory, many instructional materials and tech...
ways in which extreneous cognitive load can be manipulated<br />Instructional procedures can alleviate extraneous cognitiv...
Split-AttentionEffect<br />Occurs when two or more sources of visual information must be processed simultaneously in order...
Split-Attenttion Effect (Cont.)<br />To obtain the split-attention effect, the two visual separated sources of information...
Modality Effect<br />To obtain the modality effect, verbal material is presented when such dual-mode presentation is super...
The Modality Effect (Cont.)<br />The modality effect can be explained by acribing memory load to each of the treatment con...
conclusions<br />Effectiveworkingmemorycapacitymaybeincreased and thisincrease can beusedto reduce cognitive load and faci...
References<br />Richard E. Mayer (2005). Multimedia Learning. Santa Barbara:CambridgeUniversityPress.<br />http://www.unm....
Video<br />Multimedia Learning Video<br />Questions for Chapter 9:<br />1) What is the modality effect or modality princip...
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The modality principle in multimedia learning edlt 520

  1. 1. TheModalityPrinciple in Multimedia Learning<br />HectorSegarra<br />EDLT-520<br />March 4, 2010<br />Dr. Jesús H. Trespalacios<br />New Mexico State University<br />
  2. 2. Review from Previous chapters <br />According to Mayer’s model of meaningful learning, the learnerprocesses a visual information processing system and a verbal information processing.<br /> Hence narration goes into the verbal system where animation goes into the visual system.<br />
  3. 3. cognitive processes<br />Selecting<br />Organizing<br />Integrating<br />
  4. 4. Selecting<br /> Is applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and is applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base.<br />
  5. 5. Organizing<br />Is applied to the image base to create a verbally-based model of the to-be explained system and is applied to the image base to create a visually-based model of the to-be explained system.<br />
  6. 6. Integrating<br />Occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding events (or states or parts) in the verbally-based model and the visually-based model.<br />
  7. 7. Multiple Representation Principle<br />Establish that its is better to present an explanation in words and pictures that solely in words.<br />
  8. 8. Contiguity Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, present corresponding words and picture contiguously rather than separately.<br />
  9. 9. Split Attention Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as visual on screen text.<br />
  10. 10. Individual Differences Principle<br />The foregoing principles are more important for low-knowledge than high-knowledge learners, and for high-spatial rather than low spatial learners.<br />
  11. 11. Coherence Principle<br />When giving a multimedia explanation, use few rather than any extraneous words and picture.<br />
  12. 12. How Information isPresented<br />“Thereisevidencetoindicatethatthemanner in wichinformationispresentedwillaffecthowwellitislearned and remember”. (Richard E. Mayer, 2005; 147)<br />Presentingsomeinformation in visual mode and information in auditorymode can expandeffectiveworkingmemorycapacity and so reduce theeffects of anexcessivecognotive load.<br />
  13. 13. Modality Principle<br />Students learn better when the associated statements are narrated rather than presented visually.<br />Split- attention effects-the two sources of information are still presented visually but in physically integrate form. <br />Modality effect-written statements are converted to spoken statements. <br />
  14. 14. Cognitive Load Theory and theModalityEffect<br />According to cognitive load theory, many instructional materials and techniques may be ineffectivebecause they ignore the limitations of human working memory and impose a heavy cognitive load.<br />
  15. 15. ways in which extreneous cognitive load can be manipulated<br />Instructional procedures can alleviate extraneous cognitive load by formatting instructional material in such a way that minimizes cognitive activities that are unnecessary to learning so that cognitive resources can be freed to concentrate on essential activities.<br />The consequences of extraneous cognitive load can also be alleviated by increasing effective working memory capacity.<br />
  16. 16. Split-AttentionEffect<br />Occurs when two or more sources of visual information must be processed simultaneously in order to derive meaning from material.<br />
  17. 17. Split-Attenttion Effect (Cont.)<br />To obtain the split-attention effect, the two visual separated sources of information are physically integrated to reduce the need for mental integration.<br />
  18. 18. Modality Effect<br />To obtain the modality effect, verbal material is presented when such dual-mode presentation is superior to a visual-only, split-attention presentation. <br />
  19. 19. The Modality Effect (Cont.)<br />The modality effect can be explained by acribing memory load to each of the treatment condition, the diagram (or picture) with text presentation induces a higher both sources of information are processed in the systems.<br />
  20. 20. conclusions<br />Effectiveworkingmemorycapacitymaybeincreased and thisincrease can beusedto reduce cognitive load and facilitatelearning. <br /> Under split-attention conditions, learning may be facilitated by presenting a written source of information in auditory mode.<br />
  21. 21. References<br />Richard E. Mayer (2005). Multimedia Learning. Santa Barbara:CambridgeUniversityPress.<br />http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf<br />
  22. 22. Video<br />Multimedia Learning Video<br />Questions for Chapter 9:<br />1) What is the modality effect or modality principle?<br />2) Describe the two ways in which extraneous cognitive load can be manipulated.<br />3) Briefly summarize the findings of at least three studies looking at the effectiveness of the modality effect.<br />4) Define the split-attention effect.<br />5) What needs to happen in order for the split-attention effect to occur?<br />6) Summarize the main conclusions of this chapter?<br />
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