Principles for reducing extraneous processing edlt 520

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Principles for reducing extraneous processing edlt 520

  1. 1. PrinciplesforReducingExtraneousProcessing in Multimedia Learning: <br />Garadan Al-Amir <br />Hector Segarra<br />April 8, 2010<br />EDLT-520<br />Dr. Jesús H. Trespalacios<br /> New Mexico State University<br />
  2. 2. A majorchallengeforInstructionalDesigners<br />Istocreateinstructionalmessagesthat are sensitivetothecaracteristics of thehumaninformation- processingsystem, so thattheamount of processingrequired in eachchannel of workingmemorydoesnotexceedthelearner’scognitivecapacity.<br />
  3. 3. ExtraneousOverload<br />Occurswhentheamount of cognitive processing requieredbytheessential and extraneous material in a multimedia instructionalmessageexceedsthelearner’scognitivecapacity.<br />
  4. 4. Thefive multimedia designmethodsintendedtominimizeextraneousoverload are:<br />Coherence<br />Signaling<br />Redundancy<br />SpatialContiguity<br />Temporal ContiguityPrinciples<br />
  5. 5. The CoherencePrinciple<br />Statesthat:<br />Peoplelearn more deeplyfrom a mutimediamessagewhenextraneous material isexcludedratherthanincluded.<br />
  6. 6. CoherenceTechniques<br />Toeliminatewords, pictures, and soundsthat are notrelevanttotheinstructionalgoal.<br />
  7. 7. The SignalingPrinciple<br />Statesthat<br />Peoplelearn more deeplyfrom multimedia messageswhencues are addedthathiglighttheorganization of theessential material.<br />
  8. 8. SignalingTechniques<br />Insertcuesthatdirectthelearnerattentiontowardtheessential material.<br />
  9. 9. The RedundancyPrinciple<br />Statesthat:<br />Peoplelearn more deeplyfromgraphics and narrationthanfromgraphics, narration, and on screen text.<br />Accordingtotheredundancyprinciple, studentswilllearn more deeplyfromthenonredundantpresentationthantheredundantpresentationbecausetheredundantpresentation requiere more extraneous processing.<br />
  10. 10. WiththeCoherence and Redundancyprinciple, theextraneous material iseliminated.<br />Withthesignaling and spatialcontiguityprinciple ,typographic and linguisticcuesdrawlearners’ attentiontotheessential material.<br />With temporal contiguity, theneedfor holding material in workingmemoryfor extended periodsiseliminated.<br />
  11. 11. The SpatialContuguityPrinciple<br />Statesthat:<br />Peoplelearn more deeplyfrom a multimedia messagewhencorrespondingwords and picture are presentednearratherthanfarfromeachother on the page screen.<br />
  12. 12. The Temporal ContiguityPrinciple<br />Statesthat:<br />Peoplelearn more deeplyfrom a multimedia messagewhencorrespondinganimation and narration are presentedsimultaneouslyratherthansuccessively.<br />
  13. 13. The Split-AttentionPrinciple<br />Statesthat:<br />Refersto “avoidingformatsthatrequirelearnerstosplittheirattentionbetween, and mentallyintegrate, multiplesources of information” <br />
  14. 14. The Split- AttentionPrinciple (Cont.) <br />Referstotheneedtointegrate material from disparate sources, whichis a broader concept than temporal contiguity.<br />
  15. 15. Questions<br />1) Name and describe the five multimedia design methods to minimize extraneous overload. <br />2) What is the major challenge for an instructional designer? <br />3) There is strong and consistent evidence of the coherence principle that states: “People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when extraneous material is excluded rather than included”. Why you think this is the case? (Mayer, 2009, Multimedia Learning 2nd Ed.)<br />4) What does split- attention refers to? <br />5) What was the research reviewed in this chapter? <br /> <br /> <br />
  16. 16. Reference<br />Mayer, (2009). Multimedia Learning 2nd Ed.<br />

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