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Portfolio 1 the modality principle in multimedia learning 520
 

Portfolio 1 the modality principle in multimedia learning 520

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    Portfolio 1 the modality principle in multimedia learning 520 Portfolio 1 the modality principle in multimedia learning 520 Presentation Transcript

    • TheModalityPrinciple in Multimedia Learning
      HectorSegarra
      EDLT-520
      March 4, 2010
      Dr. Jesús H. Trespalacios
      New Mexico State University
    • Review from Previous chapters
      According to Mayer’s model of meaningful learning, the learnerprocesses a visual information processing system and a verbal information processing.
      Hence narration goes into the verbal system where animation goes into the visual system.
    • cognitive processes
      Selecting
      Organizing
      Integrating
    • Selecting
      Is applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and is applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base.
    • Organizing
      Is applied to the image base to create a verbally-based model of the to-be explained system and is applied to the image base to create a visually-based model of the to-be explained system.
    • Integrating
      Occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding events (or states or parts) in the verbally-based model and the visually-based model.
    • Multiple Representation Principle
      Establish that its is better to present an explanation in words and pictures that solely in words.
    • Contiguity Principle
      When giving a multimedia explanation, present corresponding words and picture contiguously rather than separately.
    • Split Attention Principle
      When giving a multimedia explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as visual on screen text.
    • Individual Differences Principle
      The foregoing principles are more important for low-knowledge than high-knowledge learners, and for high-spatial rather than low spatial learners.
    • Coherence Principle
      When giving a multimedia explanation, use few rather than any extraneous words and picture.
    • How Information isPresented
      “Thereisevidencetoindicatethatthemanner in wichinformationispresentedwillaffecthowwellitislearned and remember”. (Richard E. Mayer, 2005; 147)
      Presentingsomeinformation in visual mode and information in auditorymode can expandeffectiveworkingmemorycapacity and so reduce theeffects of anexcessivecognotive load.
    • Modality Principle
      Students learn better when the associated statements are narrated rather than presented visually.
      Split- attention effects-the two sources of information are still presented visually but in physically integrate form.
      Modality effect-written statements are converted to spoken statements.
    • Cognitive Load Theory and theModalityEffect
      According to cognitive load theory, many instructional materials and techniques may be ineffectivebecause they ignore the limitations of human working memory and impose a heavy cognitive load.
    • ways in which extreneous cognitive load can be manipulated
      Instructional procedures can alleviate extraneous cognitive load by formatting instructional material in such a way that minimizes cognitive activities that are unnecessary to learning so that cognitive resources can be freed to concentrate on essential activities.
      The consequences of extraneous cognitive load can also be alleviated by increasing effective working memory capacity.
    • Split-AttentionEffect
      Occurs when two or more sources of visual information must be processed simultaneously in order to derive meaning from material.
    • Split-Attenttion Effect (Cont.)
      To obtain the split-attention effect, the two visual separated sources of information are physically integrated to reduce the need for mental integration.
    • Modality Effect
      To obtain the modality effect, verbal material is presented when such dual-mode presentation is superior to a visual-only, split-attention presentation.
    • The Modality Effect (Cont.)
      The modality effect can be explained by acribing memory load to each of the treatment condition, the diagram (or picture) with text presentation induces a higher both sources of information are processed in the systems.
    • conclusions
      Effectiveworkingmemorycapacitymaybeincreased and thisincrease can beusedto reduce cognitive load and facilitatelearning.
      Under split-attention conditions, learning may be facilitated by presenting a written source of information in auditory mode.
    • References
      Richard E. Mayer (2005). Multimedia Learning. Santa Barbara:CambridgeUniversityPress.
      http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf
    • Video
      Multimedia Learning Video
      Questions for Chapter 9:
      1) What is the modality effect or modality principle?
      2) Describe the two ways in which extraneous cognitive load can be manipulated.
      3) Briefly summarize the findings of at least three studies looking at the effectiveness of the modality effect.
      4) Define the split-attention effect.
      5) What needs to happen in order for the split-attention effect to occur?
      6) Summarize the main conclusions of this chapter?