HR & Technology: Developing a
Winning Approach to Change
Professor Adrian Furnham
Department of Psychology
University Coll...
Optimist or Pessimist
How many psychologists do you need to change a light-bulb? Just
the one will do…..but the light-bulb...
Change on various levels
•  To what extent, through specific
interventions (training, therapy,
coaching) can and do indivi...
Plastic or Plaster
•  James (1890/ 1960) hypotheses’ on personality change:
–  Plasticity Hypothesis – Personality is chan...
Change Can Be:
•  Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary
•  Discontinuous vs. Continuous
•  Strategic vs. Operational
•  Total Sys...
The	
  Four	
  Major	
  Entry	
  Points	
  for	
  Change	
  in	
  Organisa8onal	
  
Tasks	
  	
  
People	
  
Structure	
  ...
Change
targets
Purpose
Clarify or create mission
and objectives
People
Update recruiting and
selection practices;
improve ...
People in Transition
1.  Ending and Letting Go
-  Stop identifying with the ‘old organisation’-title, role, position
& lan...
CURRENT
STATE
+
-
P
E
R L
F E
O V
R E
M L
A
N
C
E
FUTURE
STATE
Surprise
What?
Rejection
I don’t believe you
Grudging accep...
Phases of Planned Change
1.  Development of a need for change (unfreezing)
2.  Establishment of a change relationship betw...
•  The prelaunch phase:
–  Leader self-examination
–  Gathering information from the external environment
–  Establishing ...
Change at Work
•  Changes in the workforce in terms of cultural diversity, skill, experience
and expectations, which proba...
What has Changed I
1. The way we think about:
–  Ourselves at work
–  Our boss, colleagues
–  Our customers
–  Our shareho...
What has Changed II
4.  The cost, shelf-life, size and portability of
technology.
5.  Our use of time.
6.  The working lif...
HR change is driven by:
•  Technology
•  Legislation/regulation
•  Global/economic trends
•  Demographics
•  Social change...
Current Responses to Current Problems
1.  Continual reorganization of various divisions.
2.  Subcontracting non-core servi...
11.  Acknowledging the end of the era.
12.  ‘Empowering’ people at work.
13.  Promoting the concept of the manager as a fa...
Pressures and challenges facing individuals
•  No more jobs for life
•  Change of emphasis
From being employed to being em...
If HR does not change, it will face:
•  Internal marginalisation as ‘people advocates’.
•  Downgrading as finance/administ...
Type of Change
  Love psychological, human
resource programmes aimed
at changing attitudes,
beliefs, behaviour & values
...
Individuals don’t change by themselves
They are changed by others. They tend to be more
accepting of change when:
  it is...
Change
Strategies
Confrontational
strategy
Engineering
strategy
Academic
strategy
Economic
strategy
Political
strategy
Mil...
Fellowship Strategy
•  Seminars, dinners, discussions: warm & fuzzy
•  Everyone can and should have a say
BUT. . .
•  Conf...
Political Strategy
•  Identify targets & influence official leaders
•  Flatter, bargain & compromise with those with
large...
Economic Strategy
•  “Homo Economicus” Buy people out, use money to
induce
BUT. . .
•  Can be costly with only short term ...
Military/Confrontational Strategy
•  Use of brute force and mobilization of anger
•  Forces people to confront things they...
Academic Strategy
•  People are rational: present the evidence and they
will change
•  Commission studies from consultancy...
Engineering Strategy
•  Change how people do their jobs: place, time,
technology
•  Reengineering the whole process
BUT. ....
Group Responses to Organisational
Change
•  Fight back mustering every fact, guilt-
inducing behaviour and rationale to
su...
Responses to Organisation Change According to
Organisational Level
Organisa(onal	
  Level	
   Resistance	
   Coping	
  wit...
Coopera8ve 	
  Apathe8c 	
   	
  Slowing 	
   	
  Making	
  inten8onal	
  
	
   	
   	
   	
  learning 	
   	
   	
  mista...
No End to Change
•  HR is in the midst of a changing business
and the business of change.
•  Change & Adaptation is a join...
Mastering Politics
•  Change is about getting people on side
•  It is about knowing who, and when,
and how to do things
• ...
Beliefs About
Organisation Politics
•  Manipulation
•  “I’ll scratch your back if
you scratch mine”
•  Looking out for #1
...
When you think of
“organisational politics”, what
words come to mind?
•  Backstabbing
•  Brown-nosing
•  Bootlicking
•  St...
Why are some organizations
more political?
Organizations at the high end of the
scale (and probably the ones with
problems...
Four styles of Political Behaviour
Clever Wise
Inept Innocent
POLITICAL
UNAWARENESS
POLITICAL
AWARENESS
Plays
Games
Acts w...
Savvy Checklist Part 1
•  Are you confident that, if you identify negative
behaviours in the workplace – evidence of
Machi...
Savvy Checklist Part 2
•  Are you skilful when it comes to
managing up the line: your boss, your
boss’s boss and maybe eve...
Characteristics of a Politically
Savvy Individual
•  Chooses to become an active, ethical, effective
player
•  Puts the or...
What distinguishes savvy
players?
•  Puts the company first
•  Keeps career as an outcome versus goal
•  Plays above board...
Can we measure political
astuteness
•  What are the dimensions
•  Can and will people respond honestly
•  What is the evid...
1. Social Astuteness
•  This is about being perceptive,
insightful, attuned to all the vagaries
and nuances of everyday in...
2. Interpersonal Influence
•  This is about being persuasive in different
contexts.
•  It inevitably means being adaptable...
3. Networking Ability
•  This is more than having a good address book or
being vivacious at dinner parties.
•  It is under...
4. “Apparent” Sincerity
•  Ah yes, that great oxymoron. It is about being
able to look authentic and genuine on all
occasi...
Six Secrets of Politically
Savvy People
1. Partner with your boss
•  Unless you have unique and
irreplaceable knowledge or skills (or are
related to the CEO), you...
2. Be a 360° team player
•  With a wide network of relationships,
you will have more information about
what’s going on.
• ...
3. Understand the “power map”
•  Organisations are power hierarchies.
And from time to time, that power shifts.
•  To succ...
4. Practise subtle self-
promotion
•  No-one can appreciate you if they don’t
know what you’re doing. But that doesn’t
mea...
5. Connect with the power
people
•  The big decisions about your career will
be made (or endorsed) by people above
your bo...
6. Commit to the business
•  An indifferent, apathetic attitude never
impressed anyone.
•  If you want decision-makers to ...
Savvy strategy 1
When building support for a new idea, a politically
savvy person would:
a)  Set up meetings with as many ...
Savvy strategy 2
You’ve proposed a radical new idea for the business, and
your boss is intrigued by it. He says he is goin...
Savvy strategy 3
A key meeting to decide on an important project is
coming up in two weeks. The first action a
politically...
Savvy strategy 4
When implementing a strategy to
influence others, a politically savvy person
will start with:
a)  One who...
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HR & Technology: Understanding Change Management in Organisations - Adrian Furnham

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HR & Technology: Understanding Change Management in Organisations - Adrian Furnham Writer, Broadcaster & Expert on Organizational CultureUniversity College London

Following on from his morning Keynote Adrian Furnham explores in more depth and detail how to approach and successfully effect the change in organizations that is being driven by technology.

Workshop Outline:
• Change or die: What has changed & is changing. Change vs. Technological Progress
• Individual Reactions to change: who opposes change and why
• Why change initiatives succeed and fail
• Changing people vs. changing things
• Six winning change strategies

Discussion & Activities will include:
• Case studies of successful change initiatives
• Revolutionary vs Evolutionary change
• Examining different models of change
• Changing people vs changing processes
• How to sustaining change

At the conclusion you will be equipped with practical tools to implement change. You will have a deeper understanding of the change process and how to manage resistance to it. You will better understand what needs to be done in the pre and post change launch period, and importantly, learn how to avoid the costly failures of technology change programmes and investments that backfire.

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HR & Technology: Understanding Change Management in Organisations - Adrian Furnham

  1. 1. HR & Technology: Developing a Winning Approach to Change Professor Adrian Furnham Department of Psychology University College London a.furnham@ucl.ac.uk
  2. 2. Optimist or Pessimist How many psychologists do you need to change a light-bulb? Just the one will do…..but the light-bulb needs to want to be changed •  CYNICAL PESSIMIST? What you see (in early adulthood) is what you get. People change very little over time. Accept it, live with it. That is the reality. Depressive realism? •  DITHERER? With the right help (coaching, therapy,training) and sufficient motivation people can be taught new skills and behaviours. But it takes effort, resources and often pain •  NAÏVE OPTIMIST: Personality, even abilities,can change if you adopt the right mindset and behaviour pattern. It is comparatively easy. Deluded optimism…but good for you. The nun’s story…optimism and longevity 2  
  3. 3. Change on various levels •  To what extent, through specific interventions (training, therapy, coaching) can and do individuals change •  To what extent one can change group/ team functioning •  What are the best methods to introduce and maintain adaptive & desired organisational change
  4. 4. Plastic or Plaster •  James (1890/ 1960) hypotheses’ on personality change: –  Plasticity Hypothesis – Personality is changeable, like plastic –  Plaster Hypothesis – Personality is enduring, like plaster •  Costa & McCrae (1994; 1997): first large, longitudinal studies find no meaningful changes in personality after the age of 30 years •  Plaster hypothesis widely accepted, but more recently the pendulum has moved to plasticity
  5. 5. Change Can Be: •  Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary •  Discontinuous vs. Continuous •  Strategic vs. Operational •  Total System vs. Local Option
  6. 6. The  Four  Major  Entry  Points  for  Change  in  Organisa8onal   Tasks     People   Structure   Technology  
  7. 7. Change targets Purpose Clarify or create mission and objectives People Update recruiting and selection practices; improve training and development Structure Update organisational design and coordination mechanisms Strategy Clarify or create strategic and operational plans Tasks Update job designs for individuals and groups Culture Clarify or create core beliefs and values Objectives Set or modify specific performance targets Technology Improve equipment, facilities and work flows Organisational targets for planned change
  8. 8. People in Transition 1.  Ending and Letting Go -  Stop identifying with the ‘old organisation’-title, role, position & language. 2. Experience the neutral zone -  Experience ambiguity, confusion, despair and meaninglessness 3. Make a new beginning -  Learn new skills, make new relationships, build a new vision
  9. 9. CURRENT STATE + - P E R L F E O V R E M L A N C E FUTURE STATE Surprise What? Rejection I don’t believe you Grudging acceptance I don’t like it, but… Rejection Told you it wouldn’t work! Acceptance Let’s give it a fair try Commitment It is going to work Haste I want it now Control Steady improvement Achievement Transition Process
  10. 10. Phases of Planned Change 1.  Development of a need for change (unfreezing) 2.  Establishment of a change relationship between the change agent (consultant, usually external to the organisation or perhaps an internal organisational member who is championing and leading the change effort) and the client organisation 3.  Working toward change (moving) 4.  Generalisation and stabilisation of change (refreezing) 5.  Achieving a termination in the relationships, that is, ending the “change contract” between the consultant- change agent and the client organisations
  11. 11. •  The prelaunch phase: –  Leader self-examination –  Gathering information from the external environment –  Establishing a need for change –  Providing clarity regarding vision and direction •  The launch phase: –  Communication of the need for change –  Initiating key activities –  Dealing with resistance •  Post-launch phase of further implementation: –  Multiple leverage –  Taking the heat –  Consistency –  Repeating the message •  Sustaining the change –  Dealing with unanticipated consequences –  Momentum –  Choosing successors –  Launching yet again new initiatives
  12. 12. Change at Work •  Changes in the workforce in terms of cultural diversity, skill, experience and expectations, which probably differ significantly from one country to another. •  Changes in customer expectations, which normally means a rise in the quality and reliability of products, and the excellence of service demanded. •  Changes in the size, structure and international focus, and the managers needed to run them. Economics, legal, social and competitive forces mean that companies have to adapt, reinvent themselves, and re-engineer simply to survive, let alone prosper. •  Changes in economic conditions governed by new inventions (the electronic revolution), raw material (the exhaustion of certain assets), and political co-operation and competition.
  13. 13. What has Changed I 1. The way we think about: –  Ourselves at work –  Our boss, colleagues –  Our customers –  Our shareholders 2.  The expectations of customers. 3.  The speed, openness, and cheapness of communication.
  14. 14. What has Changed II 4.  The cost, shelf-life, size and portability of technology. 5.  Our use of time. 6.  The working life in a time of greater longevity. 7.  Globalization of work-force and markets.
  15. 15. HR change is driven by: •  Technology •  Legislation/regulation •  Global/economic trends •  Demographics •  Social change •  New models/methods of business, as well as mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, alliances. •  Know how, innovation, business intelligence
  16. 16. Current Responses to Current Problems 1.  Continual reorganization of various divisions. 2.  Subcontracting non-core services and operations. 3.  Developing good relationships with key players. 4.  Streamlining and rationalizing processes. 5.  Subscribing to continuous improvement of processes. 6.  Creating flatter structures. 7.  Creating more teamwork. 8.  Developing core competencies. 9.  Recognizing workforce diversity. 10.  Creating a flexible workforce.
  17. 17. 11.  Acknowledging the end of the era. 12.  ‘Empowering’ people at work. 13.  Promoting the concept of the manager as a facilitator and coordinator. 14.  Recognizing a need for employees to continually update their knowledge and skills.
  18. 18. Pressures and challenges facing individuals •  No more jobs for life •  Change of emphasis From being employed to being employable •  Job security based on performance Individuals need to take responsibility for their own learning
  19. 19. If HR does not change, it will face: •  Internal marginalisation as ‘people advocates’. •  Downgrading as finance/administration/line assume transactional responsibilities. •  Outsourced sections of HR, or the entire function •  Reductions in headcount and resources •  Loss of authority and influence.
  20. 20. Type of Change   Love psychological, human resource programmes aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, behaviour & values   Love changing “systems”, be they organisational charts, structure, process or gadgets   Hate attempting to change others (and probably themselves)   Against “rocking the boat” in any way whatsoever People Things “Chango-philes” “Chango-phobes”
  21. 21. Individuals don’t change by themselves They are changed by others. They tend to be more accepting of change when:   it is understood   it does not threaten security   those affected have helped create it   it follows other successful changes   it genuinely reduces a work burden   the outcome is reasonably certain   the implementation has been mutually planned   top management support is strongly evident
  22. 22. Change Strategies Confrontational strategy Engineering strategy Academic strategy Economic strategy Political strategy Military strategy Fellowship strategy
  23. 23. Fellowship Strategy •  Seminars, dinners, discussions: warm & fuzzy •  Everyone can and should have a say BUT. . . •  Conflict Averse •  Time wasting •  People get frustrated and leave
  24. 24. Political Strategy •  Identify targets & influence official leaders •  Flatter, bargain & compromise with those with large constituencies BUT. . . •  This strategy can destabilise the organisation •  The strategy is devious and often precisely the opposite of the values espoused for the new culture
  25. 25. Economic Strategy •  “Homo Economicus” Buy people out, use money to induce BUT. . . •  Can be costly with only short term effects •  Strategy ignores emotional issues •  Strategy at odds with new, desirable cultural values
  26. 26. Military/Confrontational Strategy •  Use of brute force and mobilization of anger •  Forces people to confront things they would rather not BUT. . . •  Anger and conflict polarise people and may cause a backlash •  Change enforcers cannot relax •  Often too much attention is on the problem not the solution
  27. 27. Academic Strategy •  People are rational: present the evidence and they will change •  Commission studies from consultancy experts and employees BUT…. •  Analysis paralysis and difficult to get mobilized •  Many people feel left out of the process •  Reports rarely specify who should do what, when and how.
  28. 28. Engineering Strategy •  Change how people do their jobs: place, time, technology •  Reengineering the whole process BUT. . . •  Many people feel uncommitted and do not understand how and why new methods work •  It breaks up happy and efficient teams
  29. 29. Group Responses to Organisational Change •  Fight back mustering every fact, guilt- inducing behaviour and rationale to survive. •  Close Ranks; circle the wagons. Resist divide and conquer. •  Change allegiances or ownership. Stay together by being spun off into a separate unit. •  Demand new leadership.
  30. 30. Responses to Organisation Change According to Organisational Level Organisa(onal  Level   Resistance   Coping  with  Change   Individual   •  Has  to  do  with  losing  something   of  value  to  the  person   •  Forms:  blind,  poli8cal  and   ideological     •  Apathy  is  worse:  with   resistance,  there  is  energy  and   the  person  cares  about   something   •  Transi8oning:  ending  and  leHng  go,  going   through  the  neutral  zone,  making  a  new   beginning   •  Achieving  closure:  dealing  with   unfinished  business   •  Par8cipa8on:  helping  to  make  the  change   work   Group   •  “Turf”  protec8on  and   compe88on   •  Closing  ranks:  “circle  the   wagons”   •  Changing  allegiances  and/or   ownership   •  Demand  for  new  leadership   •  The  sense  for  individuals  as  listed  above   •  Conduc8ng  a  closure  ceremony  (e.g.   funeral)   •  Conduc8ng  group  problem-­‐solving   sessions,  preferably  off-­‐site   •  Recompose  the  membership  of  groups  
  31. 31. Coopera8ve  Apathe8c    Slowing    Making  inten8onal          learning      mistakes   Acceptance  Indifference  Passive    Ac8ve          resistance  resistance   Enthusiasm            Passive  Doing  only            Protes8ng    Taking              Deliberate                  resigna8on  what  is        8me  off          sabotage        ordered      job   Greenberg  &  Baron,  2003.  
  32. 32. No End to Change •  HR is in the midst of a changing business and the business of change. •  Change & Adaptation is a joint journey not a destination •  HR must champion change & be exemplars of it.
  33. 33. Mastering Politics •  Change is about getting people on side •  It is about knowing who, and when, and how to do things •  It means being “Savvy”
  34. 34. Beliefs About Organisation Politics •  Manipulation •  “I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine” •  Looking out for #1 •  Destructiveness •  The Organization’s Soap Opera •  Covert Under-The-Table Deals •  Backstabbing •  One-Upmanship •  Deceitfulness •  Turf Battles •  Petty Personal Squabbles •  Back-Room Decisions •  Power Plays •  Natural Human Behaviour •  Behind-The-Scenes Manoeuvring •  Brownnosing •  Clever Operators •  Influence Attempts •  Hidden Agendas •  Dirty Tricks
  35. 35. When you think of “organisational politics”, what words come to mind? •  Backstabbing •  Brown-nosing •  Bootlicking •  Style over substance •  Manipulative •  Hidden agendas •  Old boy networks •  Deals under the table •  Turf struggles •  Testosterone overload
  36. 36. Why are some organizations more political? Organizations at the high end of the scale (and probably the ones with problems in this area) are likely to be those where some or all of the following apply: •  Excessive competition at the top; •  Ambiguous goals; •  Complex structures; •  No clear definition of performance; •  High (or very low) level of change; •  Refusal by powerful people to change; •  Punishment culture; •  Limited resources; •  Jobs at risk.
  37. 37. Four styles of Political Behaviour Clever Wise Inept Innocent POLITICAL UNAWARENESS POLITICAL AWARENESS Plays Games Acts with Integrity Baddeley & James, 1987
  38. 38. Savvy Checklist Part 1 •  Are you confident that, if you identify negative behaviours in the workplace – evidence of Machiavellians, Barbarians or even Naïves – you have the tools and the energy to deal with them? •  Do you possess a full portfolio of influencing techniques, and the interpersonal skills to pull them off? •  When conflict arises, do you tackle it – at the right time, appropriately and usually effectively? •  Do you build and maintain robust working relationships with a wide range of different people as a normal part of your working life? •  When these relationships break down, do you know what to do – both when you’re personally involved and when the rift involves others?
  39. 39. Savvy Checklist Part 2 •  Are you skilful when it comes to managing up the line: your boss, your boss’s boss and maybe even beyond? •  Can you spot bullying behaviours, and more importantly address them? •  Are you confident that, given your objectives, your network is sufficiently robust – and you have the skills to maintain and expand it? •  Does your reputation in your business reflect how you want to be perceived?
  40. 40. Characteristics of a Politically Savvy Individual •  Chooses to become an active, ethical, effective player •  Puts the organisation (not themselves) first •  Believes in, and really cares about, the issue at hand •  Sees a career as an outcome rather than a goal •  Plays above board •  Legitimises the task: avoids the political blind spot Political Savvy is ethically building a critical mass of support for an idea you care about
  41. 41. What distinguishes savvy players? •  Puts the company first •  Keeps career as an outcome versus goal •  Plays above board •  Legitimises the task •  Practices ethical influence
  42. 42. Can we measure political astuteness •  What are the dimensions •  Can and will people respond honestly •  What is the evidence of these measures
  43. 43. 1. Social Astuteness •  This is about being perceptive, insightful, attuned to all the vagaries and nuances of everyday interactions. •  It is about being psychologically minded. •  Picking up the clues and cues. Reading between the lines; the subtexts. •  Seeing the meaning in things. •  Aware of self and others: how you are “coming across”; what they are really saying.
  44. 44. 2. Interpersonal Influence •  This is about being persuasive in different contexts. •  It inevitably means being adaptable and flexible. •  Bi-or tri-lingual in the languages (visual, vocal, verbal) of persuasion. •  It is about monitoring self and others sufficiently to be able to charm, cajole and persuade. •  And it’s about knowing about and practicing those famous six influencing principles like using reciprocity norms, emphasising similarity etc.
  45. 45. 3. Networking Ability •  This is more than having a good address book or being vivacious at dinner parties. •  It is understanding the usefulness of, and more importantly to be able to establish, a range of alliances, coalitions and friendship networks. •  This involves the serious skills of deal making, conflict management and negotiation. •  People are helpful (useful) for different reasons and at different times. •  They can be assets that need to established and then “tapped” from time to time. •  They “come in handy” at different times and for different reasons.
  46. 46. 4. “Apparent” Sincerity •  Ah yes, that great oxymoron. It is about being able to look authentic and genuine on all occasions irrespective of what you really think or feel. •  Call it emotional labour or good acting, it is the ability not to show coerciveness, manipulativeness, or that one has ulterior motives. •  What you see is not what you get. •  Sincerity is showmanship: it’s good acting and really understanding emotions.
  47. 47. Six Secrets of Politically Savvy People
  48. 48. 1. Partner with your boss •  Unless you have unique and irreplaceable knowledge or skills (or are related to the CEO), your boss has more power than you do. •  Your manager also has greater access to key decision-makers. •  So it’s better to have your boss as a cheerleader than an adversary. •  Politically savvy people know how to “manage up”.
  49. 49. 2. Be a 360° team player •  With a wide network of relationships, you will have more information about what’s going on. •  And if people are willing to cooperate and collaborate with you, you will produce better results. •  Politically savvy people develop positive relationships in all directions – with management, peers, and employees.
  50. 50. 3. Understand the “power map” •  Organisations are power hierarchies. And from time to time, that power shifts. •  To succeed, you need to know where the leverage lies – who has influence (formal/informal), who doesn’t, and how much you have yourself. •  Politically savvy people always understand the leverage equation and recognise when it may be changing.
  51. 51. 4. Practise subtle self- promotion •  No-one can appreciate you if they don’t know what you’re doing. But that doesn’t mean you should become an insufferable braggart. •  Find natural ways to mention achievements and challenges, like sending regular progress reports to your boss or chatting about your projects at lunch. •  Politically savvy people share information without being obnoxious.
  52. 52. 5. Connect with the power people •  The big decisions about your career will be made (or endorsed) by people above your boss, so you need to make sure they know who you are. •  Since you may have limited access, look for interaction opportunities and be ready with a question to ask or information to share. •  Politically savvy people enjoy talking to those who have power (which is not the same as sucking up).
  53. 53. 6. Commit to the business •  An indifferent, apathetic attitude never impressed anyone. •  If you want decision-makers to think well of you, you need to be interested in and excited about the business, because you can bet they are. •  Politically savvy people choose a career that they find interesting and energising. •  You can’t fake enthusiasm for too long.
  54. 54. Savvy strategy 1 When building support for a new idea, a politically savvy person would: a)  Set up meetings with as many people as possible in order to build widespread support b)  Set up official meetings with key decision makers to get their attention and ensure s/he is seen as working above board (i.e. not manipulating) c)  Work informally with peers and formally with superiors d)  Plan to discuss it informally with those who will influence the decision
  55. 55. Savvy strategy 2 You’ve proposed a radical new idea for the business, and your boss is intrigued by it. He says he is going to meet with his superiors within the next 2 days to make a decision on it. A politically savvy person would: a)  Seize the opportunity and focus on preparing a great presentation b)  Try to postpone the meeting until s/he is more sure of the data and the quality of the idea c)  Try to get the meeting delayed to think about how best to proceed d)  Grab the opportunity if s/he can make sure the boss will be there to support it
  56. 56. Savvy strategy 3 A key meeting to decide on an important project is coming up in two weeks. The first action a politically savvy person would take would be to: a)  Work hard on the presentation to make sure it communicates in a professional way b)  Lobby the values of the project informally to those with influence prior to the meeting c)  Learn the interests and concerns of others that will be at the meeting d)  Make sure the presentation goes beyond the technical merits and emphasises the financial and other benefits to the business
  57. 57. Savvy strategy 4 When implementing a strategy to influence others, a politically savvy person will start with: a)  One who trusts him or her b) The person who has the most influence c)  The person who is the major obstacle d) Those who are good listeners
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