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Changing Platforms, Not Values: Is Magazine Journalism in Decline?


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BA dissertation on the relationship between journalistic platform and function, and its effects on the magazine publishing industry in the United Kingdom.

BA dissertation on the relationship between journalistic platform and function, and its effects on the magazine publishing industry in the United Kingdom.

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  • 1. University of the Arts London 16/05/2011London College of CommunicationModule Title: Major ProjectStudent: Hristina HristovaIssued by: Simon DasID: HRI09266648 Changing Platforms, Not Values: Is Magazine Journalism in Decline?             BA (Hons) Magazine Publishing Single Honours 3rd Year
  • 2.    AbstractMuch   recent   scholarly   attention   has   been   paid   to   the   changing   platforms   and  properties   of   magazine   publishing,   in   light   of   content   democratisation,   the   social  attributes   of   Web   2.0,   and   increasing   broadband   penetration   in   the   United  Kingdom.  As  technology  evolves,  society  changes  with  it.    The  media  sector  is  first  to  absorb  and  respond  to  these  changes  as  they  most  immediately  affect  it.    To  equate  changes  in  journalistic  functions  and  journalistic  platforms  is,  however,  to  deny  the  complexities   of   interconnections   between   the   demands   of   a   proactive   Web   2.0  audience,   innovative   revenue   strategy   requirements   of   the   future,   and   the  adaptation   of   the   magazine   industry   to   this   new   media   milieu.   By   tracing   the  relationship   between   platform   and   function,   this   dissertation   discusses   whether  magazine   journalism   is   in   decline,   not   only   through   reference   to   statistical  circulations   and   revenues   data,   but   by   comparing   and   contrasting   these   diverse  variables.  Rather  than  focusing  on  the  economic  side  of  changes  to  the  industry  to  the  exclusion  of  social  factors,  the  paper  highlights  the  significance  of  technology  in  terms   of   the   functions   and   values   of   magazine   journalism.     The   relationship  between  platform  and  function  permits  of  a  range  of  subtle  implications,  the  most  crucial   of   which   is   that,   although   journalistic   channels   are   at   once   transforming  the   industry   and   transformative   of   consumer   attitudes   towards   the   industry,  essential  magazine  journalism  values  continue  to  hold  true.                   2  
  • 3.       Acknowledgments          With  special  thanks  to;      Mr   Simon   Das   –   for   providing   guidance,   support   and   critical   feedback   during   the  writing  of  this  dissertation.    Ms   Lorraine   Mallon   –   for   guidance   and   support   through   the   initial   planning  stages  of  this  dissertation.  Ms   Zoë   Sutherland   –   for   proofreading,   and   providing   moral   support   and  inspiration  throughout  the  dissertation  planning  and  writing  process.    My  colleagues  and  supervisors  at  Groupon  UK  &  IE  -­‐  for  showing  understanding  and  support  throughout  the  dissertation  process.                       3  
  • 5.    APPENDIX  5  :  PLATFORM  COMPARISON   112  APPENDIX  6:  KOVACH  AND  ROSENSTIEL’S  ELEMENTS  OF  JOURNALISM   113      1.0 Introduction  The   following   dissertation   discusses   the   relation   between   platform,   function   and  values,   in   terms   of   magazine   journalism   in   the   United   Kingdom.   The   dissertation  places   the   magazine   publishing   industry   in   the   context   of   recent   technological  and   economic   developments,   including   the   effects   and   properties   of   Web   2.0  (O’Reilly,   2007),   the   introduction   of   the   iPad   to   the   market,   content  democratisation   and   the   global   economic   crisis,   which   has   in   turn   led   to   the  increased   popularity   of   m-­‐   and   e-­‐commerce   sales.     The   increased   broadband  penetration  (MINTEL,  2010),  number  of  social  media  users  in  the  UK,  and  their  attitudes   towards   the   digital   are   all   influential   factors   in   the   changes   magazine  journalism  is  currently  undergoing.       The  aim  of  this  dissertation  is  to  place  magazine  journalism  in  the  context  of   its   contemporary   techno-­‐economic   environment   in   order   to   discuss   its  traditional,  emergent  and  future  attributes.      1.1 Research Objectives  The   main   objectives   of   this   dissertation   involve   answering   the   following  questions:     1. What  are  the  traditional  functions  and  values  of  journalism,  and  magazine   journalism  in  particular?     2. What  is  the  relationship  between  platform  and  function,  and  how  is  this   significant  to  magazine  journalism?     3. How  are  journalistic  properties  changing  and  how  do  these  changes  affect   the  magazine  industry  in  the  UK?       5  
  • 6.    1.2 Research Justification  The   following   dissertation   holds   significance   for   the   field   of   research   as   it  provides   an   insight   into   the   properties   of   magazine   journalism,   rather   than  focusing   on   the   magazine   publishing   industry   as   a   whole,   which   narrows   the  scope   of   the   research   and   also   provides   a   new   angle   on   the   issues   identified   in  other   research.     While   industry   writings   are   mostly   focusing   on   the   industry  itself,  by  looking  into  the  importance  of  technology  such  as  the  iPad  (Hepworth,  2010,  Woyke,  2011,)  and  the  falling  circulation  numbers  of  magazines  (MINTEL,  2010),  the  following  research  channels  all  these  variables  into  a  comprehensive  analysis   of   how   such   factors   affect   magazine   journalism;   its   functions,   social  roles  and  values.  Naturally,  the  research  design  allows  for  such  findings  through  analysis   of   the   industry   in   terms   of   revenue   strategies,   circulation   reports   and  other  statistical  data.    Its  main  strength,  however,  is  the  transformation  of  such  data  into  knowledge  regarding  magazine  journalism.      1.3 Research Methodology  The  research  was  designed  in  a  manner  to  offer  insight  into  the  popular  opinion  of   journalism   and   its   changing   parameters,   as   well   as   an   overview   by   industry  specialists.   The   primary   research   is   a   qualitative   report   which   consists   of   two  parts;  a  research  survey,  with  fifty  participants  from  different  backgrounds,  and  an   industry   specialist   focus   group,   consisting   of   six   experts   in   the   field   of  magazine   publishing.     Both   elements   of   the   primary   research   are   based   on   the  findings  from  the  secondary  research.             6  
  • 7.    1.4 Dissertation Structure  The   Contextualisation   chapter   of   this   dissertation   provides   an   overview   of   the  techno-­‐economic  milieu  of  magazine  journalism  today  and  includes  some  of  the  properties   of   applications-­‐based   Internet,   the   significance   of   social   media   as   a  news   provider,   online   advertisement   revenue   reports   for   2010,   and   the   overall  state   of   the   magazine   publishing   industry   today.     In   addition,   see   Appendix   1  Definitions   for   the   full   definitions   of   terms   used   in   this   dissertation,   and   their  justifications.     The   Literature   Review   examines   key   themes   in   the   area   of   study   and  provides   a   comparative   analysis   of   existing   research   in   the   field.     Through  analysis,   synthesis   and   evaluation,   the   chapter   identifies   the   issues   of   the  question   and   provides   a   substantive   basis   for   the   primary   research   to   be  conducted.       The   Research   Methodology   Design   chapter   details   the   types   of   research,  and   justifies   the   research   methods,   applied   in   this   dissertation.   A   comparative  analysis  of  qualitative  and  quantitative  research  is  provided,  which  explains  the  methodology  design  of  the  primary  and  secondary  research.       The   Data   Analysis   chapter   describes   and   analyses   data   collected   via   the  primary   research,   summarising   findings   which   are   inspected   in   the   Discussion  chapter.     In  turn,  the  Discussion  chapter  draws  together  all  the  themes  and  findings  of  the  research;  furnishing  the  dissertation  with  a  critical  analysis  of  the  research  by  comparing  and  contrasting  evidence  to  turn  it  into  knowledge.     Finally,   the   dissertation   is   concluded   with   a   summary   of   the   main  findings,  and  recommendations  for  the  future  of  magazine  journalism.         7  
  • 8.        Chapter ReferencesHepworth,  D.,  (2010),  “If  the  iPads  the  answer,  whats  the  question  again?”  InPublishing,  May/June  2010  URL:  <>  MINTEL,  (2010),  Paid-­‐For  vs  Free  -­‐  Consumer  Attitudes  to  Pricing  in  Media  and  Music  -­‐  UK  -­‐  April  2010  OReilly,  T.,  (2007),  What  is  Web  2.0:  Design  Patterns  and  Business  Models  for  the  Next  Generation  of  Software,  Sebastopol  (CA),  OReilly  Media    Woyke,  E.,  (2011),  “Analyst:  Android  Tablet  Shipments  Will  Match  IPad  In  Second  Half  Of  2011”,,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  10/01/2011,  URL:  <­‐android-­‐tablet-­‐shipments-­‐will-­‐match-­‐ipad-­‐in-­‐second-­‐half-­‐of-­‐2011/>                           8  
  • 9.  2.0 Contextualisation  2.1 Socio-technological environment  The   Web   has   been   identified   as   a   platform   since   2004   when   Tim   O’Reilly   first  introduced  the  term  Web  2.0  (O’Reilly,  2007)  and  defined  market  dominance  as  the   network   effects   of   user   contributions.   (O’Reilly,   2007:   9).     The   increased  effect   of   user-­‐generated   content   and   application-­‐based   Internet   has   influenced  most   media   industries   by   challenging   existing   platforms   and   practices,   enforcing  the   application   of   new   revenue   models   (Kaye,   Quinn,   2010).   In   addition   to   the  rising  number  of  users,  who  self-­‐publish  content  online  (Morris,  2010,  Sconfield  2010),   the   number   of   tablets   sold   worldwide   is   also   increasing,   with   Google  forecasted  to  match  the  number  of  Apple  tablets  sold  in  2010  by  the  end  of  the  second   quarter   of   2011   (Woyke,   2010).   Additionally,   m-­‐commerce   (or,   mobile  commerce)   is   an   increasing   trend,   shaping   geo-­‐location   based   marketing   and  commerce  for  the  future  of  business  (Dholakia  and  Dholakia  2004).     The   true   power   of   the   Internet   as   a   journalistic   tool   can   be   seen   in  examples   from   early   2011   –   through   the   revolutions   in   the   Arab   world   that  started   in   January   2011,   the   tsunami   crisis   in   Japan   in   March   2011,   and   the   anti-­‐cuts   protests   in   the   UK   from   March   2011.   Platforms,   such   as   Twitter,   YouTube  and   various   blogs   provided   instant   information   (Panisson,   2011,   Jarvis,   2011,  Rosen,   2011,   Coldeway,   2011)   about   the   events,   and   a   number   of   traditional  journalistic   platforms,   including   The   Guardian   and   The   BBC,   based   their  journalistic   reporting   on   the   information   available   via   social   media,   opening   a  debate  on  journalistic  fact  verification,  sourcing  and  functions.   Online   advertising   revenue   has   also   been   a   much   discussed   subject,  mainly  because  of  its  record  numbers  in  2010,  increasing  by  15%  from  2009  to  reach   $26   billion   in   the   United   States   alone   (IAB   Report,   2011),   combined   with   a  22%   increase   in   the   number   of   display   ad   impressions   for   the   same   period  
  • 10.    (Comscore  Inc,  2010).    In  the  UK  the  Internet  economy  equals  7.2%  of  UK  GDP  -­‐  more  than  that  of  utilities,  transport  or  construction  (Boston  Consulting  Group,  2010).   This   is   suggestive   of   how   increased   broadband   penetration   in   the   UK  (Mintel,   2011)   has   increasingly   led   the   advertiser,   publisher   and   consumer   to  rely  on,  and  trust,  the  Internet  in  recent  years.    2.2 Effects on the magazine publishing industry in the UK  For   the   UK   magazine   publishing   industry,   content   democratisation,   platform  digitalization,  and  the  increase  in  online  advertising  have  resulted  in  substantial  financial  and  structural  changes.     The   industry   is   currently   said   to   have   stabilised   after   the   2008-­‐2009  recession;  an  estimated  530  million  copies  of  female  consumer  magazines  were  sold  in  2010,  generating  revenue  of  ca.  £691  million  (Mintel,  2010),  which  is  only  £40   million   less   than   the   turnover   from   2007.   Additionally,   the   PPA   estimates  the   entire   UK   magazine   industry   to   be   worth   £6   billion   (PPA,   2009),   and   given  that  online  advertising  in  the  UK  alone  is  worth  £100  billion  (Boston  Consulting  Group,  2010),  there  is  potential  for  the  industry  in  terms  of  profit  optimisation  and  introduction  of  new  revenue  channels.     Scrutinising  the  financial  changes  that  digitalisation  has  introduced  to  the  industry,   there   has   been   a   considerable   increase   in   magazines’   online  investments.   These   include   the   development   and   management   of   tablet   issue  versions,   better   (more   user-­‐friendly)   websites,   social   media   management,   online  content  management,  SEO  content  management,  blogger  outreach,  and  e-­‐  and  m-­‐  commerce  support.  Magazines  have  always  relied  on  targeted  content  to  attract  consumers  and  advertisers  alike,  and  investing  in  new  platforms  is  another  way  for   magazines   to   monetarise   content.     Today,   magazines   generate   revenue  through   different   sources   and   models,   and   Web   2.0   provides   an   excellent  opportunity  for  the  industry  to  optimise  its  overall  revenue.       10  
  • 11.     Further,  on  the  structural  dimension  of  magazine  publishing,  one  can  note  changes  in  the  industry  as  a  whole,  as  well  as  on  a  smaller  scale  with  individual  publications.   Web   2.0   has   forced   change   in   some   traditional   roles   involved   in  magazine   publishing.   For   example,   the   role   of   the   editor   has   changed  considerably  (InPublishing,  2008).  There  is  now  also  a  new  relationship  between  the   consumer,   publisher   and   advertiser,   which   means   that   magazines   must   re-­‐invent  their  traditional  interaction  with  the  consumer,  in  order  to  ensure  more  advertisers   and   subscription   –   digital   or   analogue.     Additionally,   the   relationship  between  publisher  and  distributor  (OFT,  2006)  is  changing.      As  more  magazines  focus   their   attention   on   digital   platforms,   the   significance   of   distributors   and  merchants  diminishes.    _____________________________________________________________________________________________  Chapter References  Boston  Consulting  Group,  (2010),  Press  Release:  Internet  Economy  Worth  £100  Billion  a  Year,  Finds  Landmark  Report,  published  28/10/2010  Coldeway,  D.,  (2011),  People,  Not  Things,  Are  The  Tools  Of  Revolution,  TechCrunch,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  11/02/2011,  URL:<­‐of-­‐revolution/>  ComScore  Inc,  (2010),  Press  Release:  U.S.  Online  Display  Advertising  Market  Delivers  22  Percent  Increase  in  Impressions  vs.  Year  Ago,  last  visited  01/05/2011,  published:08/11/2010  Dholakia,  R.,  Dholakia,  N.,  (2004),  Mobility  and  markets:  emerging  outlines  of  m-­‐commerce,  Journal  of  Business  Research  IAB  Report  (2011),  Internet  Advertising  Revenue  Report,  2010  Full  Year  Results  04/2011  InPublishing,  (2008),  The  changing  role  of  the  editor,  last  visited  01/05/2011,  published:  01/09/2008,  URL:  <>     11  
  • 12.    Jarvis,  J.,  (2011),  Facebook,  Twitter,  and  the  Egyptian  Revolution,  The  Faster  Times,  last  visited:  24/04/2011,  published  13/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐twitter-­‐and-­‐the-­‐egyptian-­‐revolution/>  Kaye,  J.,Quinn,  S.,  (2010),  Funding  Journalism  in  the  Digital  Age:  Business  Models,  Strategies,  Issues  and  Trends,  Peter  Lang  MINTEL,  (2010),  Womens  Magazines,  UK,  December  2010  MINTEL,  (2011),  Digital  Trends  Spring,  UK,  April  2011  Morris,A.,  (2010),  2010  Blogging  Trends:  There’s  Only  Enough  Room  in  the  Blogosphere  for  the  144  Million  of  Us,  Ignite  Social  Media,  last  visited:  24/04/2011,  published  05/08/2010,  URL:  <­‐media-­‐trends/2010-­‐blogging-­‐trends-­‐blog-­‐growth-­‐statistics/>  Office  of  Fair  Trading,  (2006),  Newspaper  and  Magazine  Distribution:  Public  consultation  on  the  draft  opinion  of  the  Office  of  Fair  Trading,  May  2006  OReilly,  T.,  (2007),  What  is  Web  2.0:  Design  Patterns  and  Business  Models  for  the  Next  Generation  of  Software,  Sebastopol  (CA),  OReilly  Media    Panisson,  A.,  (2011),  The  Egyptian  Revolution  on  Twitter,  Gephy,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  15/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐egyptian-­‐revolution-­‐on-­‐twitter/>  PPA,  (2009),  Creative  Industries  Review  Group  Response  from  Periodical  Publishers  Association,  June  2009  Sconfield,  E.,  (2010),  Costolo:  Twitter  Now  Has  190  Million  Users  Tweeting  65  Million  Times  A  Day,  TechCrunch,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  08/06/2010,  URL:  <­‐190-­‐million-­‐users/>  Woyke,  E.,  (2011),  Analyst:  Android  Tablet  Shipments  Will  Match  iPad  In  Second  Half  Of  2011,,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  10/01/2011,  URL:     12  
  • 13.    <­‐android-­‐tablet-­‐shipments-­‐will-­‐match-­‐ipad-­‐in-­‐second-­‐half-­‐of-­‐2011/>                                           13  
  • 14.  3.0 Review of the LiteratureThe  following  chapter  provides  a  detailed  overview  of  academic  discussions  with  implications   for   this   dissertation.     The   chapter   identifies   the   main   issues   the  question  raises  and  provides  sufficient  evidence  in  which  to  ground  the  primary  research.    The  main  issues  identified  are  as  follows;     1.   If   journalistic   platforms   are   changing,   are   journalistic   values   and   functions  changing  also?     2.   If   new   technologies   mean   new   revenue   channels,   how   will   magazine   journalism  of  the  future  be  funded?       3.     What   do   these   changes   mean   for   the   media   sector,   and   for   society   as   a   whole?  These   concerns,   identified   in   the   literature   review,   are   then   addressed   via   the  primary  research  methodology.      3.1 Definitions of Journalism  The   following   section   aims   to   outline   the   key   definitions   of   journalism   (in  general),  with  a  focus  on  socio-­‐economic  influences.  Understanding  the  debates  regarding  defining  journalism  allows  for  an  in-­‐depth  evaluation  of  its  functions,  platforms  and  “new”  elements.   The   rather   old-­‐fashioned   concept   that   “journalism   is   whatever   journalists  say   it   is”   (Kovach,   Rosenstiel,   2001,2007:   11),   has   not   gone   unchallenged   by  scholars   and   industry   specialists.   Since   the   professionalisation   of   journalism   in  the   twentieth   century   (Deuze,   2005:450),   journalism   has   been   a   controversial  profession   to   analyse.   It   is   even   arguable   whether   it   is   a   profession   at   all  
  • 15.    (Vujnovic,   2008).     In   his   paper,   The   Journalist   and   Professionalism   (1986),  Hodges  identifies  what  he  calls  “the  components  of  a  profession”:    …a profession is an occupation: in which things are practised; whichis an intellectual operation with large individual responsibility; inwhich raw material is derived from science and learning; in whichknowledge must be applied; which has educationally communicabletechniques; which is self-organised; and which is altruistic in itsmotivation. Hodges,  1986   Hodges  continues  to  state  that  journalism  does  not  fall  in  all  of  the  above  categories  but  does  classify  as  a  profession.  Journalism  is  an  occupation  in  which  journalistic  activities  are  practiced;  including  source  verification,  newsgathering,  and  fact  analysis.  These  activities  can  be  summarised  as  an  intellectual  operation  with  individual  responsibility;  knowledge  is  applied  to  journalism  and  there  are  educationally   communicable   techniques.     Deuze   (2005)   disagrees   with   Hodges,  and   refers   to   journalism   as   an   “occupational   ideology”   (2005:   43)   instead,  justifying  his  approach  as:  …inspiring because it helps us to look beyond infrastructures[…] or representationalism […]when assessing what journalismas a profession is […] in a context of fast-changingtechnology and society. Deuze,  2005:  443   Deuze’s  article  offers  insight  into  the  difficulties  associated  with  defining  contemporary   journalism,   as   well   as   the   defining   industry   debates.     Deuze’s  definition   would   complement   this   dissertation,   as   it   discusses   journalism   in  terms  of  its  socio-­‐technological  environment.     Örnebring   (2010)   refers   to   “journalism   as   labour”   (2010:59),   because  “journalism   […]   is   a   product   of   the   industrial   revolution   and   its   linking   of  technology   to   the   capitalist   system”   (2010:   68).     Örnebring’s   approach   is  illuminating  because  it  enables  an  analysis  of  the  elements  of  journalism  from  a  monetary   viewpoint.     In   deconstructing   the   editorial   process,   to   examine     15  
  • 16.    publication   frequency   or   speed   of   newsgathering   for   instance,   one   can   analyse  these   from   a   capitalist   viewpoint;   giving   each   a   monetary   value   and   ultimately  portraying   journalism   as   a   business   enterprise.   Allison   (1986),   on   the   other  hand,   looks   at   journalism   from   a   social,   rather   than   in   a   techno-­‐economic   or  capitalist  sense,  arguing  that  “studies  should  focus  on  how  journalists  are  being  perceived   by   society”   (Vujnovic,   2008:   76).   Allison   refers   to   journalism   as   a  profession,   in   terms   of   the   power   allowed   it   by   society,   and   the   power   it   holds  over   society.   Allison’s   approach   is   also   relevant   to   this   dissertation,   as   it  evaluates   the   relationship   between   audiences   and   publishers.   This   issue   is   of  vital   importance   to   the   future   of   journalism,   in   terms   of   the   threat   set   out   by  content  democratisation.       3.2 Traditional Functions and Values of Journalism  It   is   important   to   establish   the   central   opinions   and   theories   regarding   the  traditional   functions   and   values   of   professional   journalism,   in   order   to  understand   how   new   platforms   and   technologies   are   interlinked   with   the  functions  of  journalism.     Journalism’s   definition   is   highly   contingent   on   its   functions   and   values,  influencing   determinations   about   whether   or   not   it   is   in   decline.     Kovach   and  Rosenstiel   categorise   the   functions   of   journalism   as   journalism   of   verification,  journalism  of  assertion,  journalism  of  affirmation,  and  interest  group  journalism  (2010:   36-­‐50).   The   authors   further   state   that   the   norms   and   values   to   which  journalism   aspires   include   “independence,   verification,   a   primary   allegiance   to  citizens   rather   than   political   faction   or   corporate   interests,   and   a   dedication   to  consideration   of   events”   (2010:   172).     Complying   with   these   elements   would  help   journalism   keep   its   position   as   a   trustworthy   profession   and   also   re-­‐   16  
  • 17.    establish  its  voice  of  truth  amongst  platforms  which  do  not  (openly)  verify  their  facts,  such  as  WikiLeaks.  Kovach  and  Rosenstiel  focus  on  journalism’s  obligation  to   the   truth   –   arguably,   its   foremost   function   (2001,2007,   pp   36).     The   relation  between   journalism   and   ethics   is   a   significant   one,   as   the   human   desire   for   truth  would   mean   that   truth   verification,   assertion   and   affirmation   are   functions  consistently  demanded  by  society.     Michael   Ryan’s   (2001)   argument   that   ethics   is   the   main   value   in  journalism   complements   Kovach   and   Rosenstiel’s   findings.   It   further   suggests  that  the  main  function  of  journalism  is  to  portray  the  truth  (Kovach,  Rosenstiel,  2001,   2007:   14).   It   is   important   to   note   the   importance   of   truth   when   discussing  journalism  as  the  issue  of  fact  verification  and  source-­‐confirmation  is  a  part  of  an  active   debate,   regarding   new   journalistic   platforms,   which   are   said   to   lack   fact  verification.     There   have   been   several   instances,   when   new   platforms   have,  admittedly,  provided  instant  access  to  information,  but  information  which  is  not  accurate.   For   example,   numerous   Twitter   death   hoaxes   have   been   noted   to   be  trending  worldwide  (Zarella,  2011).     McNair’s   (2009)   descriptions   of   journalism   invoke   its   surveillance   and  social   reproduction   roles   (2009:   21)   -­‐   referring   to   journalism’s   obligations   to  society,   on   which   Kovach   and   Rosenstiel   also   focus.   McNair   further   states   that  journalism   provides   “an   ongoing   narrative   about   the   world   beyond   our  immediate  experiences”  (2009:  21)  –  a  function  that  is  today  largely  substituted  by  technology  (Rutenbeck,  2006:29).     A  thorough  description  of  the  functions  of  journalism,  with  a  focus  on  its  roles  as  a  witness,  is  provided  by  Carlson  (2007),  who  states  that:     17  
  • 18.    Journalistic authority relates to credibility and legitimacy inperforming the function of a surrogate witness, but one that alsosorts, omits, transforms, explains, comments on, and makes sense ofwhat it reports. Carlson,  (2007:  266)   Carlson’s  multi-­‐dimensional  definition  relates  closely  with  that  of  Kovach  and   Rosenstiel   (2010).   Carlson   raises   a   valid   point   by   looking   at   journalism   as  not  simply  a  provider  of  information,  but  an  analytical  social  mechanism.  In  this  context,   independence   from   political   or   corporate   organisations   might  increasingly  difficult,  as  new  platforms  threaten  existing  ones.    3.3 Traditional Platforms  Magazines  Defining   traditional   journalistic   platforms   and   discussing   their   transformation   is  a   crucial   step   towards   identifying   whether   magazine   journalism   is   in   decline.  Magazines,   which   first   appeared   in   1731   (McKay,   2006:7),   are   a   popular  journalistic  medium,  traditionally  defined  as:  a periodical publication containing articles and illustrations,typically covering a particular subject or area of interest Oxford  Dictionary,  2nd  Edition,  2005   The   key   terms   in   the   above   definition   are   periodical,   publication   and  particular,  which  refer  to  a  magazine’s  frequency,  type  and  content  type/target  audience   respectively.   It   is   important   to   note   these,   as   they   are   significant   in  terms   of   the   transformation   of   the   magazine   towards   online   platforms  (Periodical   Publishers’   Association,   2011).   The   three   terms   are   applicable   yet     18  
  • 19.    amended  –  mainly  in  terms  of  the  frequency  of  content  publication  and  audience  targeting.  The  PPA  provide  a  more  industry-­‐focused  definition  of  a  magazine:  branded, edited content often supported by advertising or sponsorshipand delivered in print or other forms Periodical  Publishers’  Association,  2011     This   definition   adds   another   dimension   to   that   of   the   OED   –   that   of  revenue   as   an   essential   part   of   magazines   (McKay,   2006:   187-­‐207).   Magazines  are   dependent   on   advertisers,   who   in   turn   are   interested   in   promoting   their  products  to  a  targeted  audience.    Kaye  and  Quinn  (2010)  refer  to  this  model  as  “the  eyeball  business  model-­‐  give  away  content  to  attract  eyeballs,  and  sell  those  audiences  to  advertisers”  (2010:  15).    The  authors  emphasise  the  importance  of  content  and  niche  targeting,  which  are  both  crucial  elements  of  magazines’  profit  optimisation  strategies.       Given   that   web   platforms   offer   more   intense   consumer   targeting   at   a  cheaper   rate   –without   the   complications   of   traditional   magazine   publishing  processes,   such   as   printing   and   distribution   –   magazines   industry   participants  must   look   to   new   methods   of   profit   optimisation,   which   would   exclude   the   costs  of   distribution   and   printing.   Some   of   these   methods,   as   suggested   by   Kaye   and  Quinn   (2010)   include:   sponsorships   and   philanthropy,   microfunding   and  micropayments,   family   ownerships   and   trusts,   niche   advertising,   e-­‐commerce  and   engagement,   electronic   paper/e-­‐readers   and   SEO   (search   engine  optimisation),  and  AdSense  content  creation,  concluding  that  the  revenue  model  of   the   future   would   be   a   combination   of   revenue   sources   (Kaye,   Quinn,  2010:173).   Regardless   of   the   method,   magazines   are   changing   their   organizational  structure,  revenue  models  and  format.       19  
  • 20.    Newspapers  Newspapers  too  are  in  the  process  of  changing,  with  critics  questioning  current  revenue   models,   content   presentation,   and   corporate   structures   of   newspaper  organisations.  At  present,  newspapers  are  experimenting  with  different  models.  The   Financial   Times,   for   example,   offers   free   content,   combined   with   selected  paywall   content,   whereas   other   publications,   such   as   The   Guardian   offer  exclusively   free   content.     The   New   York   Times   offers   a   paid-­‐for   newsletter  function,  which  allows  users  to  list  their  preferred  topics  of  interest  and  receive  niche  content  (Kaye,  Quinn,  2010:  36).    McKay  (1996)  compares  newspapers  and  magazines,  concluding  that  magazines  are  entering  the  future  with  strategies  on  targeting,   niche   marketing   and   extensions,   which   “are   precisely   the   things   at  which   the   best   magazines   already   excel”   (McKay,   2006:   5).   New   technologies  facilitate   niche   targeting.   It   is   for   newspapers   to   take   advantage   of   these   new  media  technologies.       New   technologies   have   already   transformed   newspaper   journalism   “from  instant   global   distribution   to   community   participation   to   more   powerful   story  telling   techniques”   (Kaye,   Quinn,   2010:   173).     Despite   the   fact   that   newspaper  revenues   have   been   falling   since   the   recent   global   recession   (Kaye,   Quinn,  2010:7),   there   is   optimism   about   the   future   of   newspaper   journalism   with  increases  in  Kindle,  iPad  and  Twitter  users.        3.4 New Platforms  The   section   below   outlines   the   key   “new   media”   platforms,   which   have,   or   are   in  the   process   of   substituting,   the   traditional   channels   discussed   in   the   previous  section.   The   section   focuses   on   studies   regarding   Twitter   (and   microblogging),  blogs  and  WikiLeaks.     New   technologies   and   journalistic   functions   have   always   existed   in  correlation.   As   Pavlik   (2000)   notes   “journalism   has   always   been   shaped   by     20  
  • 21.    technology”   (2000:229).     Pavlik   provides   the   example   of   the   significance   of  Guttenberg’s   printing   press   and   the   invention   of   the   telephone,   which   allowed  for  rapid  exchange  of  information.  Jarvis  (2010)  compares  the  significance  of  the  printing   press   to   the   Reformation   of   Europe,   and   the   importance   of   Twitter   to  the  Egyptian  revolution  in  January  2011.    Information  technologies  are  known  to  drive   societies   forward,   and   one   could   argue   that   the   same   is   happening   with  magazine  journalism  and  Web  2.0.       Örnebring   agrees   with   Pavlik,   stating   that   “the   prime   function   of   any   new  technology   is   to   speed   up   the   news   process   (2010:65)  –   the   scholar   views   speed  as   a   capitalist   means   of   competitive   advantage   and   a   naturalised   element   of  journalism  (2010:65).    This  means  that  increasing  the  speed  of  publication  –  also  increasing   the   speed   of   information   sourcing   and   verifying   –   increases  productivity   and   improves   a   publication’s   position   amongst   its   direct  competitors.     Hampton   (2004)   calls   this   revenue-­‐related   factor   an   “epistemology   of  speed   and   sensationalism”   (2004:92),   meaning   that   contemporary   news  journalism   focuses   on   providing   content   rapidly,   even   if   at   the   cost   of  correctness.   He   argues   that   while   mid-­‐Victorian   journalism   was   based   on  deliberation   and   debate,   New   Journalism   relied   on   instantaneous   news,   rather  than   accuracy   (2004:92).   New   technologies   allowing   for   instant   news   might   also  mean   sacrifices   in   accuracy.   Elliott   (2008)   regards   high-­‐speed   information   as   a  threat   to   journalism,   arguing   that   new   channels   create   a   “24-­‐hour   expectation   of  information   flow,   with   the   destruction   of   a   space-­‐   and   time-­‐limited   news   hole”  (2008:29).    For  Elliott,  the  “open  podium”  the  Web  creates  (referring  to  content  democratisation)   has   led   to   “a   lack   of   hard   borders   between   types   of   mass  communication”   (2008:29).     Blogs,   microblogging,   social   networks   and   other  elements  of  Web  2.0  (see  White,  2007)  are  the  main  platforms  fomenting  threats  to   the   traditional   journalism   Elliott   describes.     High-­‐speed   based   news   either  means  a  decrease  in  content  quality  (as  there  is  now  less  time  for  the  editorial  process),   or   the   adaptation   of   journalistic   practices   to   the   new   conditions  engendered  by  “new”  media  platforms.         21  
  • 22.    BlogsBlogs,  or  weblogs,  as  they  were  known  in  1997  when  the  term  first  appeared,  are  a  Web  phenomenon,  associated  with  content  democratisation  and  Web  2.0.  The  generic  definition  of  a  blog  identifies  it  as  a    Web site on which an individual or group of users produces an ongoingnarrative Oxford  Dictionary,  2nd  Edition,  2007     This  definition  of  a  blog  is  limiting  in  terms  of  a  blog’s  functions,  purpose  and  narrative.    Rutenbeck’s  (2006)  definition  allows  for  a  clearer  view  into  the  way  blogs  are  operated:  a content management system (CMS)for allowing a person to use a webbrowser to directly create, edit and add to publically accessibleweb pages. Rutenbeck,  2006:29   Rutenbeck’s   description   includes   two   important   elements,   which   the  generic  definition  lacks;  content  management  and  accessibility.  This  implies  that  blogs   are   not   simply   “an   ongoing   narrative”   but   a   CMS   that   allows   for   the  implication  of  an  editorial  and  business  strategy.    Accessibility  means  that  more  people   would   be   able   to   access   the   news   at   any  given  time.  Singer  (2005)  goes  further,  stating  that  “a  blog  is  an  ongoing  conversation”  (Singer,  2005:178)  with  the  audience.  Singer  focuses  on  the  significance  of  blogs  as  a  social  tool  used  for  audience   engagement   (through   comments,   RSS   feeds   and   sharing   on   social  networks  such  as  Facebook  and  Twitter).       Jay  Rosen,  one  of  the  most  influential  industry  analysts,  discusses  blogs  in  terms   of   the   redistribution   of   media   power   they   have   caused   -­‐   from   “elitist”  journalistic   platforms   to   open   platforms.   As   journalism   is   transformed   into   a  conversation   (Kovach,   Rosenstiel,   2010:   172),   “the   news   system   now  incorporates   the   people   formerly   known   as   the   audience”   (Katz,   2011).     In   an     22  
  • 23.    earlier   paper   about   the   relationship   between   blogger   and   journalists   Rosen  (2005)   argues   that   the   well-­‐known   industry   debate   of   bloggers   versus  journalists   is,   in   fact,   over.     The   debate   itself   consists   of   questions,   such   as:   is  blogging   a   replacement   of   journalism;   are   bloggers   journalists   and   how   are  journalistic  values  transcribed  onto  blogging  (Lowrey,  2006).  Rosen  argues  that  journalism   and   blogging,   or   any   sort   of   citizen   journalism   for   that   matter,  complement  each  other:  Not sovereign doesn’t mean you go away. It means your influence isnot singular anymore. Rosen,  2005   Rosen  does  not  ignore  the  rise  of  the  blog  as  a  platform  but  believes  the  two   can   co-­‐exist   together.   However,   Rosen   does   not   go   into   detail   over   market  share  and  revenues,  which  ultimately  make  it  possible  for  journalism  to  prosper  in  this  economic  and  technological  environment.  J.D.  Lasica  agrees  with  Rosen  on  this  topic,  discussing  the  relationship  between  the  two  as  symbiotic  in  “creating  a   new   media   ecosystem”   (Lasica,   2003:   71).     Seven   years   before   Kovach   and  Rosenstiel’s   Blur,   Lasica   had   introduced   the   concept   of   journalism   as   process,  rather   than   a   static   product   (Lasica,   2003:   72).     Picard   (1998)   on   the   other   hand  states  that  “journalism  is  not  in  itself  a  product  or  a  service”  (1998:  99).  Twitter  Twitter,   a   social   media   microblogging   site,   is   often   mentioned   when   discussing  the   future   of   magazine   journalism.   Twitter   allows   for   instant   access   to  information  -­‐  an  economic  advantage  that  Örnebring  discusses  in  detail  (2010).  Jack   Dorsey,   one   of   Twitter’s   co-­‐founders   describes   the   platform’s   content   as  “short   burst   of   inconsequential   information”   (Sarno,   2009),   different   from  magazines  and  newspapers  in  its  publication  frequency.  Whereas  magazines  and  newspapers   are   periodical,   content   on   Twitter   is   sporadic   and   often   unrelated.    Twitter   rarely   offers   an   analysis   of   information,   which   is   one   of   journalism’s  main  functions,  as  stated  by  Carlson,  (2007:  266).  In  this  way,  Twitter  might  be  seen,  not  as  a  threat  to  journalism,  but  rather  as  a  useful  tool.  Patterson  (2011)     23  
  • 24.    identifies  a  clear  division  between  journalism  and  Twitter,  stating  that  “Twitter  is   a   tool,   the   web   is   a   medium,   and   journalism   is   an   action”.   The   researcher  agrees   strongly   with   this   statement,   as   it   offers   a   useful   separation   between  platform  and  function.     The  advantage  of  Twitter  is  its  easy  accessibility  as  a  platform  (via  mobile,  browser,   tablet);   allowing   news   to   be   transmitted   more   quickly   than   through  traditional   media.   For   example,   Twitter   transmitted   revolution   from   Egypt   to  neighbouring   states   (Panisson,   2011,   Jarvis,   2011,   Rosen,   2011,   O’Dell,   2011).    Live   updates   of   the   advancement   of   the   revolutionaries   were   re-­‐tweeted   at   an  exceptional  speed.     Twitter   is   becoming   an   important   journalistic   tool,   especially   regarding  information   and   source   gathering.   Real-­‐time   reporting   (“live-­‐blogging”   as   the  Guardian   refers   to   it)   is   another   important   function   that   Twitter   contributes   to  journalism.    Currently,  a  number  of  journalists  in  the  UK  actively  use  Twitter  as  a  journalistic  tool,  including  Paul  Lewis  of  The  Guardian,  who  live-­‐blogged  the  Ian  Tomlinson  inquest  on  The  Guardian  website  (Lewis,  2011).  Real–time  reporting  represents   an   upwards   trend   amongst   magazines   and   newspapers,   especially  after  journalists  in  the  UK  were  given  permission  to  tweet  and  email  from  court  (Lumley,   2010).   New   technologies   influence   not   only   journalism,   but   also   law  and  politics.  Journalism  necessarily  transforms  the  phenomena  it  represents.  As  representations   are   altered   via   new   technologies,   so   too   are   the   phenomena  represented  altered.      WikiLeaks  WikiLeaks  is  a  whistle–blowing  organisation,  which  questions  the  functions  and  obligations   of   journalism   by   revealing   confidential   information.     WikiLeaks’  content   is   controversial   to   the   extent   that   some   have   called   it   “not   a   news  organisation,   but   a   criminal   enterprise”   (Thiessen,   2010).   WikiLeaks   in   itself   is  not   an   independent   medium,   but   relies   on   traditional   media,   such   as   The   New  York   Times   and   The   Guardian   to   promote   the   information   it   releases.     As   Hotz     24  
  • 25.    (2010),  a  critic  of  WikiLeaks  states,  “the  site  is  still  just  a  big  mine  full  of  data  that  has  to  be  extracted  and  processed  by  other  agents  in  the  journalistic  machine”.    Hotz  refers  to  the  fact  that  WikiLeaks  does  not  offer  an  analytical  portrayal  of  the  information   it   provides;   an   essential   function   of   traditional   journalistic   channels.    What   WikiLeaks   does   offer,   however,   is   the   opportunity   for   data   journalism   to  establish   itself   as   a   recognisable   media   force   (Greenslade,   2010).   By   revealing  sources  and  otherwise  secret  files,  WikiLeaks  calls  for  better  fact  verification  and  openness  within  journalism.       The   main   debate   surrounding   Wikileaks   (Axon,   2010)   in   the   media  industry  is  concerned  with  such  questions  as;   1. Is  WikiLeaks  a  journalistic  platform?     2. Can  WikiLeaks  exist  without  traditional  media  to  promote  it?   3. What  should  the  boundaries  of  journalism  be?     4. Do  we  need  to  re-­‐define  fact  verification?      3.5 New platforms and functions  The   following   section   includes   academic   writings   on   the   relationship   between  the  new  platforms  discussed  above,  and  the  traditional  functions  and  activities  of  journalism  with  regard  to  magazine  journalism.    Discussed  are  the  new  functions  likely  to  emerge  as  a  result  of  the  properties  of  the  new  platforms,  the  demands  of  the  Web  2.0  audience,  and  the  nature  of  updated  revenue  strategies.   One   of   the   main   changes   that   new   technologies   bring   to   magazine  journalism   is   the   speed   of   news   and   the   instant   circulation   of   information.  Standardisation  and  timesaving  are  a  product  of  the  Industrial  Revolution,  used  to   “promote   synchronised   efficiency   in   […]   complex   industrial   work   settings”  Eriksen   (2001:53).   In   our   time   of   “acceleration”,   as   Eriksen   refers   to   it,  journalism  is  expected  to  offer  instantaneous  news.    The discourse of speed, understood as at heart a capitalist logic ofcompetition and use of technology to increase productivity, hasbecome a wholly naturalized element of journalism   25  
  • 26.     Örnebring  (2010)     Örnebring  shows  the  relation  between  speed  and  technology,  confirming  they   are   both   elements   of   journalism.   Tools   such   as   Twitter   allow   for   journalism  to   increase   the   speed   of   newsgathering   and   delivery.   Eriksen   (2001)   expresses  concern  about  a  speed  of  information  suggestive  of  “a  society  where  everything  stands   still   at   enormous   speed”   (2001).   In   a   high-­‐speed   information   era,   time  becomes  a  scarce  resource  and  an  information  overflow  occurs.  Thus  a  negative  aspect   of   the   application   of   new   tools   and   platforms   to   magazine   journalism   is  that   the   quality   of   information   may   suffer.   Sources,   provided   by   WikiLeaks   or  Twitter,  have  not  undergone  the  processes  of  verification  traditionally  instigated  in  journalism.     It  is,  thus,  important  to  note  the  relationship  between  audience  demands  (for  constant  flows  of  information-­‐sharing  and  interaction),  which  are  the  basis  for   the   properties   of   new   platforms,   and   the   development   of   new   journalistic  functions.  “Technology  may  change  delivery  and  form  […]  but  it  will  not  change  human   nature   and   the   imperatives   of   what   people   need   to   know”   (Kovach   and  Rosenstiel,  2010:173).  This  means  that  the  fundamental,  traditional  functions  of  journalism   must   remain   the   same,   but   journalists   of   the   future   must   practise  additional  functions.     These   functions   might   include   gatekeeping   (Bennet   and   Livingstone,  2003),   public   forum   organising   (Bollinger,   2011),   sense   making   (Kovach   and  Rosenstiel,   2010),   and   information   filtering   (Friend   and   Singer,   2007).  Gatekeeping  refers  to  journalism’s  role  as  a  public  judge  about  what  is  and  is  not  quality  content,  and  which  platforms  are  to  be  trusted.  Gatekeeping  is  the  reason  why  WikiLeaks,  for  example,  managed  to  gain  the  popularity  it  now  boasts:  well-­‐respected   publications   sourced   information   from   the   WikiLeaks   files,   which  automatically  made  it  trustworthy  in  the  eyes  of  many  readers.     The   function   of   being   a   public   forum   organiser   refers   to   the   demand   by  the   Web   2.0   audience   for   participation   and   equality.   Citizens   today   are   more  proactive   and   involved   in   social   debates.   Journalistic   channels   might   therefore  become   a   platform   to   encourage   action   and   involvement.   Sense   making   refers   to  the  function  of  putting  “information  into  context  […]  look  for  connections  so  that,     26  
  • 27.    as  consumers,  we  can  decide  what  the  news  mean  to  us”  (Kovach  and  Rosenstiel,  2010:176).    Finally,  information  filtering  means  that  rather  than  writing  content  and   storytelling,   the   future   function   of   journalists   might   consist   of   filtering  information  from  the  pool  of  content  that  is  the  Web;  editing  and  formatting  the  information   provided   by   others,   and   targeting   information   towards   niche  audiences.     Whatever   combinations   of   functions   become   native   to   journalism;   the  demands  of  the  audience,  the  limitations  and  properties  of  journalistic  platforms,  and  the  restrictions  of  revenue  strategies  will  command  journalistic  functions.      ___________________________________________________________________________  Chapter References"blog",  noun.  The  Oxford  English  Dictionary,  2nd  edition,  Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press,  2007  "magazine",  noun.  The  Oxford  English  Dictionary,  2nd  edition,  Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press,  2005  Allison,  M.,  (1986),  "A  literature  review  of  approaches  to  the  professionalism  of  journalists",  Journal  of  Mass  Media  Ethics:  Exploring  Questions  of  Media  Morality,  Vol.  1,  Issue  2,  pp.  5-­‐19  Axon,  S.,  (2010),  The  WikiLeaks  Debate:  Journalists  Weigh  In,  Mashable  Social  Media,  last  visited  29/01/2011,  published  20/08/2010,  URL:  <­‐journalism/>  Bennet,  W.,  and  Livingsotne,  S.,  (2003),  Gatekeeping,  Indexing,  and  Live-­‐Event  News:  Is  Technology  Altering  the  Construction  of  News  Political  Communication,  20:363–380,  Taylor  &  Francis  In     27  
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  • 29.    Jarvis,  J.,  (2011),  Facebook,  Twitter,  and  the  Egyptian  Revolution,  The  Faster  Times,  last  visited:  24/04/2011,  published  13/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐twitter-­‐and-­‐the-­‐egyptian-­‐revolution/>  Katz,  I.,  (2011),  SXSW  2011:  Jay  Rosen  on  bloggers  v  journalists,  Guardian  Technology,  last  visited  03/04/2011,  published  13/03/2011,  URL:  <­‐2011-­‐jay-­‐rosen-­‐bloggers-­‐journalists>  Kaye,  J.,  Quinn,  S.,  (2010),  Funding  Journalism  in  the  Digital  Age:  Business  Models,  Strategies,  Issues  and  Trends,  Peter  Lang  Kovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2010),  Blur:  How  to  Know  Whats  True  in  the  Age  of  Information  Overload,  New  York,  Bloomsbury  Kovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2010),  Blur:  How  to  Know  Whats  True  in  the  Age  of  Information  Overload,  New  York,  Bloomsbury  Lasica,  J.D.  (2003),  "Blogs  and  Journalism  Need  Each  Other",  Nieman  Reports,  Fall  Lewis,  P.,  (2011),  Ian  Tomlinson  inquest  -­‐  Tuesday  29  March  2011,  The  Guardian,  last  visited  25/04/2011,  published  29/03/2011,  URL:  <­‐tomlinson-­‐inquest-­‐live-­‐updates>  Lowrey,  W.,  (2006),  Mapping  the  journalism−blogging  relationship,  Journalism  November  2006;  7  (4),  SAGE  Publications  Lumley,  J.,  (2010),  Reporters  Can  Twitter,  E-­‐Mail  in  Court,  U.K.  Senior  Judge  Says,  Business  Week,  last  visited:  25/04/2011,  published  20/12/2010,  URL:  <­‐12-­‐20/reporters-­‐can-­‐twitter-­‐e-­‐mail-­‐in-­‐court-­‐u-­‐k-­‐senior-­‐judge-­‐says.html>  McKay,  J.,  (2006),  The  Magazine  Handbook,  Abingdon:  Routledge  McNair,  B.,  (2009),  News  and  journalism  in  the  UK,  Taylor  &  Francis  Meriam,  S.,  (2009),  Qualitative  Research:  a  guide  to  design  and  implementation,  John  Wiley  and  Sons     29  
  • 30.    MINTEL,  (2010),  Womens  Magazines,  UK,  December  2010  MINTEL,  (2011),  Digital  Trends  Spring,  UK,  April  2011  ODell,  J.,  (2011),  How  Egyptians  Used  Twitter  During  the  January  Crisis  [INFOGRAPHIC],  Mashable,  last  visited  25/04/2011,  published  01/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐twitter-­‐infographic/>  OReilly,  T.,  (2007),  What  is  Web  2.0:  Design  Patterns  and  Business  Models  for  the  Next  Generation  of  Software,  Sebastopol  (CA),  OReilly  Media    Office  of  Fair  Trading,  (2006),  Newspaper  and  Magazine  Distribution:  Public  consultation  on  the  draft  opinion  of  the  Office  of  Fair  Trading,  May  200  Örnebring,  H,  (2010),  "Technology  and  Journalism-­‐As-­‐Labour:  Historical  Perspectives",  Journalism,  2010  11:57  Panisson,  A.,  (2011),  The  Egyptian  Revolution  on  Twitter,  Gephy,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  15/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐egyptian-­‐revolution-­‐on-­‐twitter/>  Patterson,  D.,  (2011),  "Its  the  wrong  question.  Twitter  is  a  tool,  the  web  is  a  medium,  and  journalism  is  an  action",  Twitter,  tweet  published:  18/02/2011,  last  visited  18/04/2011,  tweet  URL:  <!/DanPatterson/status/38631668113870848>  Pavlik,  J.  (2000)  ‘The  Impact  of  Technology  on  Journalism”,  Journalism  Studies  1(2):  229–37.  Picard,  G.,  (1998),  Measuring  media  content,  quality,  and  diversity:  approaches  and  issues  in  content  research,  Media  Economics,  Content  and  Diversity  Project  and  Media  Group  Rosen,  J.,  (2005),  Blogging  vs.  Journalism  is  Over,  Blogging,  Journalism  and  Credibility  Conference,  last  visited  22/01/2011,  published  15/01/2005  <>  Rosen,  J.,  (2011),  The  “Twitter  Can’t  Topple  Dictators”  Article,  Press  Think,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  13/02/2011,  URL:  <­‐twitter-­‐cant-­‐topple-­‐dictators-­‐article/>     30  
  • 31.    Rutenbeck,  J.,  (2006),  Tech  Terms:  What  Every  Telecommunications  and  Digital  Media  Person  Should  Know,  Focal  Press  Ryan,  M.  (2001)  “Journalistic  Ethics,  Objectivity,  Existential  Journalism,  Standpoint  Epistemology,  and  Public  Journalism’”  Journal  of  Mass  Media  Ethics  16(1):  3–22.  Sarno,  D.,  (2009),  Twitter  creator  Jack  Dorsey  illuminates  the  sites  founding  document.  Part  I,  Los  Angeles  Times,  last  visited  17/04/2011,  date  published:18/02/2009,  URL:  <­‐creator.html>  Singer,  J.,  (2005),  The  Political  J-­‐Blogger:  "Normalizing"  a  New  Media  Form  to  Fit  Old  Norms  and  Practices",  Journalism  2005  6:  173  Thiessen,  M.,  (2010),  WikiLeaks  Must  be  Stopped,  The  Washington  Post,  last  visited  29/01/2011,  published  03/08/2010  URL:  <­‐dyn/content/article/2010/08/02/AR2010080202627.html>  Vujnovic,  M.,  (2008),  "Framing  Professionalism  and  the  Ethics  of  Journalism  and  Public  Relations  in  the  New  Media  Environment:  The  Case  of  Armstrong  Williams",  in  Journal  of  New  Communications  Research,  Vol.  II,  Issue  2,  edited  by  McClure,  L.  White,  B.,  (2007),  The  Implications  of  Web  2.0  on  Web  Information  Systems,  Web  information  systems  and  technologies:  International  Conferences,  WEBIST  2005  and  WEBIST  2006:  revised  selected  papers,  Springer  Zarella,  D.,  (2011),  Anatomy  of  a  Twitter  Death  Hoax:  “Rip  Nelson  Mandela”,,  last  visited  01/05/2011,  published  17/01/2011,  URL:­‐of-­‐a-­‐twitter-­‐death-­‐hoax-­‐rip-­‐nelson-­‐mandela.html     31  
  • 32.  4.0 Research Methodology DesignThe   research   undertaken   in   this   dissertation   aims   at   achieving   the   three   main  objectives  identified  through  the  Literature  Review;   1. To   establish   whether   journalistic   functions   must   change   in   accordance   with  the  changing  platforms.     2. To  identify  what  these  changes  mean  to  magazine  publishing.   3. To   discuss   what   are   the   challenges   magazine   journalism   is   facing,   and   how  these  might  be  addressed.     The   researcher   aims   at   achieving   the   above   objectives   through   analysis,  synthesis   and   evaluation   of   sources   and   data.   The   following   chapter   describes  and  justifies  the  research  methods  applied  in  the  dissertation.  The  chapter  refers  to  research  as  a  systematic  learning  process  (Meriam,  2009:  4)  and  analyses  the  methods   chosen   by   the   researcher.   Finally,   it   presents   the   limitations   of   the  research.      4.1 Secondary Research  The   secondary   research   of   this   dissertation   consists   of   industry   materials,  including   journals,   academic   books,   quantitative   research,   on-­‐   and   off-­‐line  articles,   conference   transcripts   and   industry   specialists’   opinions,   published   on  various   platforms.   The   contemporary   nature   of   the   question   and   its   relatively  new   technological   constituents   require   a   corresponding   research   approach.   As  such   the   researcher   has   collected   sources,   in   accordance   with   their   date   of  publication,  which  necessarily  focus  on  the  most  recent  studies,  taking  account  of  the  latest  technological  developments.     The   researcher   has   completed   the   research   for   this   dissertation   by  thematically  dividing  her  sources,  grouping  them  into  categorical  clusters.    The  secondary   research   sources   follow   the   structure   of   the   rest   of   the   dissertation,  strategically   dividing   the   sources   into   groups   by   topic;   “new”   and   “old”  
  • 33.    platforms,   values/elements   of   magazine   journalism,   and   the   future   of   the  industry.   The  backbone  of  the  secondary  research  is  based  on  the  writing  of  Kovach  and   Rosenstiel   (2001,   2010),   Picard   (1998,   2002),   Lowrey   (2006),   O’Reilly  (2007)   and   Kaye   and   Quinn   (2010).   All   statistical   data   has   been   sourced   via  recent   MINTEL   reports   (MINTEL,   2010,   2011)   and   influential   Internet   reports,  such   as   IAB   (2011),   OFT   (2006)   and   Ofcom   (2010).   Academic   journals,   such   as  SAGE   and   Emerald   Insight   have   also   played   an   important   role   in   sourcing  relevant  material.   Industry-­‐acknowledged   newspapers   and   magazines,   such   as   The  Guardian,   The   Economist,   Marketing   Week   and   Forbes   have   also   been   used   as  sources,   as   they   all   provide   a   detailed   insight   into   the   global   and   UK   media  industry.  The  secondary  research  has  resulted  in  two  key  findings:  1.   There   is   not   an   inherent   conflict   between   journalistic   platform,   function   and  value.  2.  New  revenue  strategies  must  be  developed,  in  order  for  magazine  journalism  to  survive.    4.2 Primary Research  The   findings   of   the   secondary   research   raise   the   following   questions,   to   be  answered   through   the   methods   of   the   primary   research.   The   questions   include  the  following;   1. Are  “new”  media  platforms  threatening  the  industry?   2. Are   the   values,   associated   with   traditional   magazine   journalism   being   transcribed  onto  the  “new”  media  platforms?   3. What  is  the  significance  of  journalism  to  society?   4. How   are   the   changing   elements   of   journalism   affecting   the   magazine   industry  in  the  UK?     33  
  • 34.     In   order   to   answer   the   above,   a   relevant   research   method   must   be   applied.    Perceiving   research   as   the   process   of   collecting   sources   and   enriching   her  knowledge   base,   initially   the   researcher   considered   both   qualitative   and  quantitative  methods  to  be  applied  in  the  primary  research  of  this  dissertation.  Given  the  inquiring  nature  of  the  question  and  the  sub-­‐questions,  raised  by  the  secondary   research,   an   inductive   approach   is   appropriate   as   it   allows   the  researcher   to   ask   questions,   such   as   “what,   why   and   how,   rather   than   how   many  or   how   much”   (Keegan,   2009:11).     As   there   is   not   a   single   definite   answer   to   the  main   question   set   in   this   dissertation,   a   qualitative   approach   is   more  appropriate,  as  it  “is  not  verification  of  a  predetermined  idea,  but  discovery  that  leads  to  new  insights”  (Sherman,  Webb,  1988:  5).  As  qualitative  research  focuses  on  meaning  rather  than  measurement,  it  is  more  suitable  for  the  purposes  of  this  dissertation.    Although various organisations and researchers have attempted toquantify quality, no rigorous definition of journalistic qualityexists. John  St.,  Rosenberry  2010:  71     The   issue   of   quantifying   quality   in   journalism   arises   from   the   fact   that  journalism  has  intrinsic,  as  opposed  to  instrumental,  moral  values,  which  derive  from   “things   that   facilitate   action   and   achievement,   including   awareness,  belonging  and  understanding”  (Picard,  2009).  Intangible  variables,  such  as  truth,  authenticity   and   emotion,   which   the   secondary   research   has   identified   to   be  elements   of   journalism,   cannot   be   measured   in   an   empirical   manner,   as     “no  person   is   in   a   position   of   full   knowledge   in   which   to   make   such   evaluations”  (Picard,  1998:99).  Furthermore,  …journalistic quality is a function of journalistic activity andbecause the activities that produce and process this information canbe measured, these activities can be used as surrogate measures ofjournalistic quality. Picard,  1998:100  Journalistic   activity   can   thus   be   used   to   measure   the   overall   quality   of  journalism,   which   leads   the   researcher   to   believe   that   they   could   also   be   used   to  measure   whether   journalism   is   in   decline.     The   researcher   therefore   found   it     34  
  • 35.    appropriate   to   apply   qualitative   research   to   this   dissertation,   as   it   is   the   most  appropriate   approach   in   terms   of   the   limitations,   scope   and   nature   of   the  dissertation.  4.3 Research methods and data collection  In   order   to   answer   the   questions,   raised   in   the   beginning   of   this   chapter,   the  research   methodology   must   allow   for   qualitative   data   analysis,   which   can   then  be   used   as   evidence   in   the   Discussion   chapter   of   this   dissertation.   The   primary  research  consists  of  two  parts;  a  research  sample  survey  of  fifty  participants  and  a  focus  group  of  six  professional  journalists.    The  diagram  below  illustrates  the  research  process,  in  terms  of  coherence  and  data  collection.    Table  1.  Diagram  of  the  research  process.   Secondary  Research   Primary  Research   Primary  Reseacrh   (Research  Survey)   (Focus  Group)   • Identify  themes   • Question  the   • Discuss  the   • Identify   main   themes,   •indings  of  the   issues     identi•ied  in  the   research  survey,   secondary   in  terms  of  the   research   magazine   • Attempt  to   industry  in  the   answer  the   UK.   main  issues   • Discover  how   the  previously   identi•ied  issues   concern  the   magazine   industry  in  the   UK.      The  aim  of  the  survey  is  to  portray  a  populist  image  of  contemporary  magazine  journalism,  in  terms  of  functions  and  platforms.  Surveys,  which  are  an  example  of   experimental   research,   are   a   practice   which   allows   for   an   overview   of   the  topic,  providing  space  for  the  researcher  to  set  dependent  variables  in  the  form  of   strategic   questions.     In   this   case,   the   questions   the   participants   were   asked  related   to   the   findings   of   the   secondary   research,   creating   a   coherent   basis   for     35  
  • 36.    analysis.   All   questions   include   the   keywords   identified   in   the   dissertation   title,  namely  platform,  values,  magazine  journalism  and  platforms.  All  questions  in  the  survey   use   elements   from   Kovach   and   Rosenstiel’s   books   (2001,2010).   The   full  results  of  the  survey  are  enclosed  to  Appendix  2.    The  table  below  lists  the  aims  and  methods  of  the  research  survey.      Table  2.  Elements  of  the  Research  Survey  (Planning).       Topic   Aim   Method   Basis     To   establish   what   media   Ask  participants  scenario-­‐     platforms  present  a  threat   based  questions.         to   existing   journalistic   Ask   participants   to   rate       platforms;   what   are   the   strategically   chosen     New  media  and   new   media   elements   that   platforms,   which     the  threat  to   provide   advantages   over   represent   their   media     journalism   traditional   journalistic   kind.     Using   the   platforms;   discover   what   Ask   participants   to   findings   from   new   media   channels   the   compare   and   contrast   the   secondary   survey   participants   new   and   traditional   research,   test   prefer.   media  channels.     the   findings     To   establish   the   Ask   the   participants   to   through     relationship   between   rate   a   list   of   adjectives   coherent,     platform   and   function;   to   and   decide   how   they   logical     determine   the   media   would   describe   questions.   Relationship   requirements,   which   journalism.     between   command  the  functions  of   Ask   participants   to   platform  and   a   platform;   to   define   a   contrast   and   compare   function   general   function   of   different   platforms   and   journalism;  to  identify  the   functions.     most   important   elements   of  journalism  in  general.     The  focus  group,  on  the  other  hand,  aims  at  allowing  for  a  conversation  to  take  place,  based  on  the  findings  of  the  research  survey.    The  focus  group  aims  at  discovering   how   the   elements,   discussed   through   the   research   survey,   apply   to     36  
  • 37.    the  magazine  publishing  industry  in  the  UK.    Focus  groups,  which  produce  data  that   is   rich   in   detail   (Asbury,   1995),   provide   an   opportunity   not   only   to   vividly  envision   the   planned   themes,   but   also   to   discover   new   elements   of   the   topic   in  question.   The   focus   group   enabled   the   researcher   to   derive   evidence   regarding  how   the   changing   nature   of   magazine   journalism   is   affecting   the   magazine  industry  in  the  UK.    The  table  below  illustrates  the  planning  of  the  focus  group  and  the  aims  of  the  exercise.    Table  3.  Elements  of  the  Focus  Group  exercise  (planning).   Topic   Aim   Method   Basis     To   establish   what   Provide   the       the   magazine   participants   with       industry   in   the   UK   theories   discussed     Magazines  today:   is   based   on,   in   in   the   Review   of     what  needs  to  be   terms   of   the   Literature,   and   Findings  of  the   changed?   magazine   medium   encourage   them   to   research  survey;   and   revenue   discuss   them   in   evidence  gathered   strategies.   detail.     from  the  Review  of     To   identify   Provide   the   the  Literature.     potential   financial,   participants   with   Future  of  the   technical   and   options,   regarding   magazine   structural   changes   the   future   of   the   to   the   magazine   magazine   industry   industry  in  the  UK.     and   encourage   a   critical  discussion.      4.4 Research Limitations  While  conducting  the  primary  research,  the  researcher  has  taken  the  limitations  of  the  research  into  consideration.    The  first  limitation  arises  from  the  fact  that  the  question  in  the  title  of  this  dissertation  is  not  a  scientific  question,  in  terms  of     37  
  • 38.    the   possible   matching   answers.   There   is   more   than   one   likely   outcome,   which  means   that   the   researcher   must   support   her   findings   with   strong   primary  research,  coherent  arguments  and  logical  deductions.   There   is   a   further   important   limitation   of   the   research   which   relates   to  the  industry  research  survey.    The  data,  collected  through  the  researcher  is  only  based   on   fifty   participants.   Had   the   number   of   participants   been   higher,   the  second   part   of   the   research   would   have   had   a   stronger   influence   on   the   final  findings  of  the  research.    The  focus  group  also  does  not  classify  as  representative  sampling,   given   that   it   only   consists   of   six   industry   participants,   who   do   not  necessarily   speak   for   the   entire   journalist   trade.     The   focus   group   interviews  were   not   recorded,   which   means   that   the   data   shown   in   this   dissertation   has  been  selectively  recorded,  during  the  time  of  the  focus  group  meeting.    _____________________________________________________________________________________________  Chapter ReferencesAsbury,  J.  E.  (1995)  “Overview  of  focus  group  research”,  Qualitative  Health  Research,  Vol.  5,  no.  4.[pdf]  Last  visited:  17/02/11.  Available  to  download  from  <>  John,  St  B.,  Rosenberry,  J.,  (2010)  Public  journalism  2.0:  the  promise  and  reality  of  a  citizen-­‐engaged  press,  Oxford:  Routledge,  Keegan,  S,.  (2009),  Qualitative  Research:  Good  Decision  Making  Through  Understanding  People,  Cultures  and  Markets.  London:  Kogan  Pag  Kovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2001),  The  Elements  of  Journalism,  New  York:  Random  House  Kovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2010),  Blur:  How  to  Know  Whats  True  in  the  Age  of  Information  Overload,  New  York,  Bloomsbury  Meriam,  S.,  (2009),  Qualitative  Research:  a  guide  to  design  and  implementation,  John  Wiley  and  Sons     38  
  • 39.           39  
  • 40. 5.0 Data Analysis  The   following   chapter   provides   an   in-­‐depth   analysis   of   the   primary   research  conducted   for   this   dissertation.   The   main   aim   of   this   chapter   is   to   provide   and  discuss   evidence,   in   order   to   answer   the   key   question   of   the   dissertation.     The  chapter  is  divided  into  three  sections,  each  referring  to  a  question  identified  via  the  findings  of  the  secondary  research.     A   research   survey,   targeting   fifty   adults   from   different   professional  backgrounds,   (see   Appendix   3),   aims   at   portraying   a   broad   insight   into   how  magazine  journalism  is  perceived  as  changing,  providing  the  opportunity  for  an  analytical  comparison  with  the  findings  from  the  secondary  research.     Focus   group-­‐based   evidence   compliments   the   findings   of   the   research  survey  and  provides  for  a  further  viewpoint  of  the  effects  of  new  media  on  the  magazine  industry  in  the  UK.  The  focus  group  consists  of  six  professionals  with  journalistic  backgrounds  and  experience  within  the  magazine  publishing  sector.  The   discussions   during   the   focus   group   meeting   were   based   on   the   findings   of  the  research  survey  and  secondary  research.  5.1 New media and the threat to journalism  The  first  part  of  the  research  survey  focused  on  questions  regarding  new  media  and  journalism.    The  table  below  shows  the  full  responses.  Table  4.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  identify  which  platforms  they  consider  to  be  a  threat  to  journalism.    
  • 41.     The   question   is   significant   in   terms   of   identifying   what   platforms  journalists   should   be   aware   of,   learn   from,   and   adapt   to   in   their   practices.   The  results  of  the  survey  suggest  that  a  large  percentage  of  people  regard  Twitter  not  simply   as   a   journalistic   tool,   but   also   a   threat.   This   could   be   due   to   Twitter’s  advantages   in   terms   of   delivery   speed   of   information,   easy   accessibility   and  increasing   popularity.   It   is   revealing   that   20%   of   the   participants   agreed   that  “Twitter,  blogs,  Facebook,  WikiLeaks  or  YouTube”  are  not  a  threat  to  journalism  at   all,   which   means   that   the   public   confidently   uses   non-­‐traditional   journalistic  platforms  already.     Another   result   that   supports   this   theory   is   the   participants’   ratings   of  what  they  would  consider   not  to  be  a  journalistic  platform.    The  seven  options  in  the   question   were   sourced   from   the   findings   of   the   secondary   research,   and  include  the  following:    Table  4.    Elements  of  research  survey:  platforms  to  be  rated  by  the  participants.   Platform   Reasoning  The  Huffington  Post   It   is   a   famous   example   of   a   respected   newsblog.  The  Economist’s  editor’s  Twitter  account     It  is  an  example  of  a  combination  between   a   respected   publication   and   a   less   conventional  channel  A  journalist’s  Twitter  account     It  is  an  example  of  a  new  journalistic  tool,   combined  with  the  function  of  a  journalist  A  journalist’s  personal  blog   It   provides   a   combination   between   the   traditional  and  new.  Wikileaks   Controversial    Table  5.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  identify  which  platforms  they  consider  not  to  be  journalistic  channels.         41  
  • 42.    The  Huffington  Post,  which  relies  on  various  social  media  tools  (see  Appendix  4),  has  been  voted  as  a  non-­‐journalistic  platform  by  the  least  number  of  people,  which  indicates  that  the  participants  trust  journalistic  channels  with  strong  social  media  strategies.  In  turn,  this  indicates  that  social  media  strategies  might  be  one  of  the  factors  of  journalism’s  success  in  the  future.    5.2 Relationship between platform and function   In  order  to  establish  what  participants  might  expect  from  any  given  new  media   platform,   they   were   given   a   hypothetical   scenario   and   asked   to   rate   the  sources  they  would  refer  to  first,  in  order  to  find  more  information.    40%  would  visit   The   Guardian   website   first,   followed   by   traditional   television   platforms   and  newsblogs.   When   asked   to   rate   the   same   media,   this   time   one   week   after   the  hypothetical   event   –   aiming   at   distinguishing   between   the   desire   of   quality   of  content  and  fast  delivery  of  content  -­‐  a  similar  result  occurred.     This   might   mean   that   the   participants   were   looking   for   a   medium   to  combine  high-­‐speed  delivery  of  information,  with  quality  of  content.  The  results  from   another   question   confirm   this   theory.     When   asked   to   choose   whether  accuracy  of  information  is  more  important  than  accessibility  of  information,  76%  of   the   participants   voted   that   accuracy   was   more   important;   yet   24%   ignored  accuracy   for   the   sake   of   accessibility.   Accuracy,   which   is   an   element   said   to   have  crucial  importance  to  journalism  (Kovach  and  Rosenstiel,  2010)  is  no  longer  the  single   decisive   factor.   Contemporary   audiences,   accustomed   to   high-­‐speed  information   overflow   expect   quality   content   instantaneously,   which   leads   the  researcher   to   believe   that   time   is   one   of   the   factors   which   might   play   an  important  role  in  the  development  of  magazine  journalism.       To   establish   the   main   functions   of   contemporary   journalism,   the  researcher  asked  the  participants  to  choose  the  three  most  important  elements,  as  listed  by  Kovach  and  Rosenstiel  (2001,  2010).  These  include  the  following:           42  
  • 43.    Table   6.   Elements   of   research   survey:   options   of   elements   for   the   participants   to   rate   as  most  important  to  journalism.       True   facts.   (i.e.   not   opinions   presented   as     facts)     Loyalty  to  the  citizen     Verified  facts     Independence   from   profit   and   political     organisations.   Element   A  forum  for  the  public  to  discuss  facts.   Interesting   (entertaining)   portrayal   of   information.   Comprehensive  news.   Transparency   (of   sources,   fact-­‐gathering,   editorial  process)   Technically  advanced  journalists.   A  strong  editor.     To   further   understand   the   sentiment   of   the   participants   towards  journalism  in  its  current  form,  the  researcher  asked  them  to  choose  from  a  list  of  adjectives,   which   describe   journalism,   as   indicated   by   the   findings   of   the   Review  of  Literature.  The  table  below  lists  the  findings  of  the  question.    Table  7.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  choose  the  adjectives  which  best  describe  “journalism”.       The   results   imply   that   the   participants   consider   journalism   to   be   an  important,   complex   medium,   responsible   for   independently   bringing   facts     43  
  • 44.    beyond   our   immediate   experiences   (McNair,   2009:   21).   When   given   the   same  adjectives,   but   asked   to   describe   “new   media”,   the   participants’   answers   differed  only  slightly.        Table  8.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  choose  the  adjectives,  which  best  describe  “new  media”.       Comparing   the   two   result   tables,   one   can   deduce   that   new   media   and  journalism   are   both   complex   and   important   to   society,   and   given   that   a   large  number   of   participants   (20%   of   the   total)   did   not   assume   new   media   was   a  threat  to  journalism  (Question  9),  it  is  possible  to  conclude  that  new  media  and       Combining  the  findings  above  with  Picard’s  writings  (2009)  taken  into  consideration,  the  researcher  asked  the  participants  to  judge  whether  or  not  journalists  deserve  to  be  paid  the  same  amount  of  money  for  their  services,  given  there   are   a   large   number   of   alternative   information   sources.   92%   of   the  participants   answered   that   journalists   should   continue   to   be   paid   the   same  amount   of   money,   which   means   that   the   participants   value   the   functions   of  journalism  highly.       Concluding   the   findings   from   the   questions,   aiming   at   identifying   the  relationship  between  platform  and  function,  one  might  confidently  state  that;   1. Quality   of   the   content   on   any   given   platform   is   still   rated   as   more   important  than  the  speed  of  delivery  of  content.     2. Fact   verification   and   independence   are   important   factors,   when   judging   the  quality  of  any  given  platform.       44  
  • 45.     3. Providing   content   about   the   world   beyond   individuals’   immediate   experience  is  an  important  social  role  of  journalism.    5.3 Changing journalistic elements and the magazine industry in the UK  After  summarising  the  findings  from  the  research  survey,  the  researcher  organised  a  focus  group  in  order  to  provide  for  a  discussion  of  the  findings,  from  a  specialist  point  of  view.    The  table  below  illustrates  the  participants’  backgrounds.    Table  9.    Focus  group  participants’  occupations  and  backgrounds.     Participant   Background   Current  Occupation  Participant  1   Journalism   Online  content  editor  Participant  2   Journalism   Freelance  writer  Participant  3   Publishing   Blogger  Participant  4   Media  Studies   Creative  writer  Participant  5   Politics   Online  content  editor  Participant  6   Creative  Writing   Blogger                           45  
  • 46.    The  table  below  shows  the  main  findings  of  the  focus  group  research.    Table  10.  Summary  of  focus  group  research  findings.   X  number  of  the  total   Agree  that:   3/6   Digitalisation  is  a  threat  in  terms  of   revenue  channels  and  audience  reach.     2/6   Digitalisation  as  an  opportunity.   6/6   Social  media  platforms  are  useful   journalistic  tools.   3/6   Social  media  is  an  adequate  revenue   channel.   5/6   Speed  of  content  delivery  is  not  an   essential  element  for  magazine   publishing.   6/6   Keeping  in  touch  with  technology  is   important.   3/6   Technology  helps  funnel  a  magazine’s   niche  audience.     4/6   High  quality  content  is  the  key  to  the   survival  of  the  magazine.   6/6   Portable  tablets  and  m-­‐commerce,  will  be   a  part  of  the  future  magazine  commerce,   yet  not  necessarily  the  only  revenue   outlets.   2/6   The  future  of  the  magazine  lies  in   specialist  editions.     1/6   The  magazine  industry  will  become  more   elitist               46  
  • 47.    Summarised,  the  data  in  the  table  means  that,   1. Niche  targeting  is  a  strategy  that  must  be  strengthened  by  magazine   publishers,  who  now  face  geo-­‐  and  behavioral  -­‐  targeting  competition   from  online  businesses.   2. Investments  in  the  online  sector  must  be  made.     3. High  quality  content,  specialist  magazines  and  tablets  are  all  elements   likely  to  be  important  in  the  future  of  magazine  publishing.      Chapter ReferencesKovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2001),  The  Elements  of  Journalism,  New  York:  Random  House  Kovach,  B.  and  Rosenstiel,  T.,  (2010),  Blur:  How  to  Know  Whats  True  in  the  Age  of  Information  Overload,  New  York,  Bloomsbury  McNair,  B.,  (2009),  News  and  journalism  in  the  UK,  Taylor  &  Francis  Picard,  R.,  (2009),  “Fit  to  Print:  Q&A  with  Robert  Picard”,  last  visited  22/01/2010,  published  13/07/2009,  URL:  <­‐to-­‐print/>     47  
  • 48. 6.0 Discussion  The   following   chapter   provides   an   in-­‐depth   discussion   of   the   findings   from   the  primary   and   secondary   research,   by   drawing   together   the   main   evidence   and  aiming  at  answering  the  questions  raised  by  the  research.    6.1 The issue of new audience demands  With  the  development  of  new  technologies  and  the  increasing  public  demand  for  faster   information   (Eriksen,   2001,   Elliott,   2008),   journalism   faces   the   issues   of  overcoming  the  new  challenges  technology  has  produced,  while  also  maintaining  financial   stability.     The   increased   number   of   tablet   users   (Woyke,   2011),   the  growing  curve  of  broadband  penetration  in  the  UK  (see  Appendix  1,  Table  x)  and  the   increased   amount   of   social   media   users   (Owyang,   2011)   are   definite  signifiers  that  the  Web  2.0  revolution  is  changing  not  only  the  media  landscape,  but   all   industries   (Tapscott   and   Williams,   2008).   As   Participant   4   from   the  primary   research   focus   group   stated   during   the   focus   meeting,   “digital   changes  everything”.       Given   the   contextual   background   of   the   world   economy   and   technology,  the   question   we   need   to   ask   is   not   whether   magazine   journalism   is   in   decline;  but  how  it  is  adapting  to   the  new  audience  demands.  These  demands  include  the  need   for   socialising,   communal   content   building   and   sharing.   Tapscott   and  Williams   (2008)   compare   Web   2.0   to   “an   open   canvas”,   rather   than   a   “digital  newspaper”.  The  two  authors  are  referring  to  websites  before  2004  (or,  the  dot  com  era),  which  did  not  allow  for  a  conversation  with  the  consumer,  but  rather  created  a  one-­‐way  monologue  of  content.         To  be  sure,  essential  elements  as  listed  by  Kovach  and  Rosenstiel  (2001,  2010),   including   fact   verification   and   the   obligation   of   the   journalist   to   tell   the  truth,  remain  the  same.    The  majority  of  the  participants  in  the  research  survey  of   this   dissertation   also   agreed   that   independence   and   true   facts   are   the   most  important   elements   of   magazine   journalism.     Despite   their   traditionalist  
  • 49.    responses  to  questions  regarding  function,  the  research  survey  participants  also  showed   that   the   contemporary   audience   is   an   advanced   one,   accustomed   to  various   channels   –   41%   of   the   participants   considered   Twitter,   Wikileaks,   and  personal  blogs  to  be  journalistic  platforms.       In   the   past,   journalism   has   always   been   a   rather   one-­‐sided   medium;  journalists   would   collect   and   present   information   for   the   audience   to   digest.  Discussion   with   the   audience   was   maintained   on   a   very   basic   level   –   through  letters  to  the  editor,  and  later  e-­‐mails.    This  form  of  communication  is  no  longer  adequate,   as   the   audience   today   expects   a   much   faster   response;   the   power   to  change   content   and   contribute   in   real-­‐time.   Audiences   today   do   not   perceive   the  journalist   as   a   distant   figure   (only   6%   of   the   research   participants   applied   the  adjective  “elitist”  to  journalism)  or  the  voice  of  morality  it  may  have  in  the  past.  It  is  not  audience  as  such,  but  a  combination  of  audience  and  publisher.       For   other   industries,   content   democratisation   is   a   welcome   factor,   as   it  can   be   used   as   a   business   tool.     Web   2.0   allows   for   mass   marketing,   word   of  mouth  marketing,  customer  interaction  and  virtual  focus  groups  for  businesses  to   observe   what   consumers   think   of   their   products/services   (Tapscott   and  Williams,   2008).   Content   democratisation   also   allows   for   open   project  collaborations,   which   reduces   costs,   and   provokes   creativity   and  entrepreneurship.    Examples  of  such  collaborations  are  Apple’s  apps,  which  are  often  produced  by  external  developers  (148Apps,  2011).  In  this  case,  Apple  has  provided  the  platform,  and  the  public  has  developed  the  actual  products.       In  order  to  deal  with  the  demands  of  such  a  proactive  audience,  magazine  journalism   must   not   only   adapt   to   the   requirements   of   Web   2.0,   but   also   re-­‐establish   its   role   within   society;   its   functions,   and   the   ways   it   performs   those  functions.     If   journalism   is   to   become   a   conversation,   rather   than   a   monologue,   it  must;    1.  Provide  platforms  which  allow  for  the  elements  of  Web  2.0  to  be  applied.  2.  Change  the  structure  of  the  newsroom.    3.  Allow  for  user-­‐generated  content  presentations.     49  
  • 50.    4.   Become   more   open;   share   its   sources,   admit   editorial   mistakes,   ask   the  audience  for  feedback,  and  apply  change  in  accordance  to  that  feedback.       Because  of  Web  2.0,  the  consumer  has  been  given  more  power  than  ever  before.  It  is  now  for  the  consumer  to  dictate  the  rules  of  journalism.  A  society  like  ours;  one  that  trusts  leaked  documents  (see  research  survey  results)  and  follows  revolutions  on  Twitter  (Jarvis,  2011),  does  not  necessarily  rely  on  critics  and  fact  verifiers   like   it   used   to   before   the   digital   revolution.   It   needs   efficient  communicators   to   provide   and   filter   verified   facts   as   objectively   as   possible,  leaving  the  public  to  do  the  rest.      6.2 Future revenue models for magazines and newspapers  Having   analysed   what   are   the   demands   of   the   Web   2.0   audience,   it   is   now  important   to   discuss   the   possible   revenue   strategies   for   newspapers   and  magazines  to  meet  these  demands,  while  still  maintaining  profitability.       First,  let  us  discuss  the  issues  with  the  existing  revenue  models,  in  terms  of   their   relevance   to   the   ever-­‐changing   nature   of   the   Web   and   magazine  journalism   itself.     After   the   global   financial   crisis   that   emerged   in   2008,   media  enterprises   worldwide,   including   in   the   UK,   suffered   from   a   lack   of   adequate  advertising   revenue,   due   to   the   fact   that   most   advertisers   decreased   their  spending   budgets   in   reaction   to   the   harsh   economic   conditions   of   the   financial  crisis   (Kaye   and   Quinn,   2010).     Unable   to   borrow   money,   magazines   and  newspapers  were  forced  to  cut  their  own  spending,  which  in  reality  meant  that  they  invested  more  time  and  effort  in  their  digital  platforms,  which  are  cheaper  and  easier  to  manage.         The   combination   of   these   factors   with   a   growing   demand   for   online  content  has  forced  magazines  and  newspapers  to  look  to  new  revenue  models  in  order  to  remain  financially  feasible.  Some  publications,  specifically  those  owned  by  Murdoch  (Burell,  2010),  have  been  using  a  “paywall”  strategy;  providing  some  content   for   free,   yet   requiring   a   paid   subscription   for   consumer   access   to   the   full     50  
  • 51.    information   database.   The   paywall   strategy,   although   seemingly   logical,   is  impractical  for  most  consumer  publications.  For  example,  for  niche  publications  such   as   The   Financial   Times   and   The   Economist,   the   model   might   prove   to   be  most   suitable   because   these   publications   provide   high   quality   information,   not  necessarily   available   elsewhere.   However,   for   smaller   and   more   commercial  publications,   such   as   OK!   Magazine   for   instance,   which   does   not   often   feature  exclusive  content  and  does  not  target  a  niche  audience  (instead,  a  rather  broad  demographic  group  of  female  consumers),  this  model  would  not  work.       A   different   revenue   strategy   should   be   applied   to   publications   such   as  women’s   weeklies   and   other   “light   reads”.   For   those   publications,   the   future  might   be   in   Apple   subscriptions   (Siegler,   2011),   which   would   mean   that   the  publication   would   give   30%   of   its   earnings   to   Apple,   in   return   for   the   TNC  hosting   a   platform   for   the   magazine   via   iPad   and   iPhone   apps.   Given   the   large  number   of   Android   devices   and   tablets   sold   already   (Woyke,   2011),   similar  subscriptions   are   likely   to   become   available   soon.   The   negative   aspects   of   this  scenario  include  the  fact  that  the  magazine  industry  would  lose  its  autonomy  by  relying  solely  on  Apple  (or  another  provider)  for  its  digital  distribution.    As  such,  Apple   would   control   the   entire   publishing   market   without   considering   the  demands  of  other  stakeholders.       A   further   potential   revenue   strategy   is   the   conversion   of   readers   into   e-­‐commerce   customers.   This   strategy   would   require   a   separate   e-­‐commerce  department   for   a   given   publishing   enterprise,   which   would   be   responsible   for  finding   partners,   who   offer   relevant-­‐to-­‐the-­‐audience   products/services.   This  model   is   already   practised   in   combination   with   search   engine   optimisation  content   techniques,   and   other   visitor-­‐driving   strategies.   Some   of   these   might  include   paid-­‐for   personalised   newsletters,   access   to   a   package   of   websites  (owned   by   the   same   publishing   group,   or   groups   in   partnership),   affiliate   and  display   marketing,   and   pay-­‐as-­‐you   go   subscriptions   in   which   users   pay   small  amounts   in   order   to   access   single   articles   or   series   of   articles.   There   are   other  personalised   marketing   methods   through   which   publishing   companies   might  drive   revenue,   including   geo-­‐location   targeted   content,   paid-­‐for   videos   and  images,  and  paid-­‐for  RSS  content.     51  
  • 52.       Whatever  revenue  strategy,  or  more  likely,  combination  of  strategies,  the  future   of   publishing   becomes   dependent   upon,   journalism   itself   must   maintain  its   essential   values   and   functions,   by   remaining   independent   from   private   and  political  organisations  and  providing  verified  facts.      6.3 The next journalistic functions  The   changes   promulgated   by   Web   2.0   concern   not   only   the   structure   of  journalistic   enterprises   and   their   revenue   strategies.   This   is   the   critical   issue;  magazine   journalism   and   publishing   must   change   significantly,   perhaps   not   to  the  extent  of  a  full  paradigm  shift,  but  definitely  to  introduce  new  functions  and  values   to   the   existing   ones   (see   Focus   Group   results).     In   an   era   when   the   reader  is   also   a   publisher,   a   critic   and   an   active   member   of   journalistic   debates,   it   is  important   to   discuss   the   new   functions   that   magazine   journalism   needs   to  acquire,   in   order   to   adapt   to   the   evolving   media   milieu.     Technology   may   change  the   way   journalistic   content   is   delivered,   but   it   should   not   change   its   essential  values.   However,   new   functions   must   be   applied   if   magazine   journalism   is   to  keep   up   with   the   times.   As   the   findings   of   the   primary   research   survey   show  (Question   8),   journalism   has   become   more   complex,   not   obsolete   (Kovach   and  Rosenstiel,  2010:182).     Kovach   and   Rosenstiel   (2010:173-­‐190)   clearly   identify   the   new  journalistic   functions   they   envision   for   future   journalism.   By   considering  “gatekeeping”  as  a  secondary  role  of  contemporary  journalism,  the  two  authors  open   up   the   debate   of   which   of   the   new   functions   are   of   most   significance   to  journalism.    While  discussing  the  terms  of  “gatekeeping”,  the  participants  of  the  research   focus   group   found   gatekeeping   to   be   an   important   function   not  necessarily   in   its   own   right,   but   rather   when   practised   in   combination   with  others.         52  
  • 53.    Gatekeeping is definitely a function that journalism must preserve –we need a metaphorical judge to tell us what is quality, true contentand what is not; but its functions do not stop there. They should notstop there. Research  Focus  Group,  Participant  3         The   new   functions   magazine   journalism   appropriates   should   reflect   the  audience’s   demands   and   new   revenue   strategies,   as   discussed   in   the   two  previous   sections   of   this   chapter.    As   such,   these   new   functions   must   allow   for  audience   interaction,   sharing   and   contribution.   Journalism   must   become   a   type  of  public  forum  organiser,  encouraging  discussion  and  citizen  action  (Bollinger,  2011).       Any   information,   discussed   via   this   public   forum   must   also   be  contextualised   and   prioritised   in   accordance   with   its   significance   for   the  audience.   Journalists   of   the   future   are   likely   to   act   as   filters   and   sense-­‐makers   of  information:   by   verifying   facts,   contrasting   and   comparing   information,   deciding  its   value   to   the   audience   and   investigating   it   further.     From   storytelling,  journalism’s  initial  task,  contemporary  magazine  journalism  is  transforming  into  an  advanced,  analytical  body  of  media.      The shift in journalism from writing to editing will prove to be thebiggest challenge. Mark  Deuze,  interviewed  for  Friend  and  Singer,  2007:  205    Deuze  is  referring  to  storytelling  in  a  multimedia  environment,  which  might  not  necessarily   be   storytelling   in   terms   of   news   gathering   and   distributing,   but  “managing   and   editing   communication   and   information   flow   of   others,   such   as  publics,  other  journalists,  news  sources,  agencies  and  so  on”  (Friend  and  Singer,  2007:205).     Journalism   today   does   not   exist   as   a   singular   medium,   and   as   such   it  must   learn   to   adapt   to   its   competing   mediums   and   to   turn   them   into   tools.  Magazine   journalism   within   a   multimedia   landscape   is   no   longer   predominant.  However,   as   Rosen   incisively   notes,   “not   sovereign   doesn’t   mean   you   go   away“  (2005).           53  
  • 54.        6.4 Magazine publishing in the UK and the future  After  discussing  the  general  changes  in  journalistic  roles,  functions,  revenue  models  and  audiences,  it  is  now  important  to  discuss  how  all  of  these  affect  the  magazine  industry  in  the  UK.  As  already  noted  in  the  Literature  Review  and  Contextualisation,  these  changes  are  not  hypothetical,  distant  scenarios  –  media  evolution  is  happening  today,  and  the  magazine  industry  in  the  UK  is  an  active  participant  of  it,  voluntarily  or  not.       The   2008   global   recession,   combined   with   the   introduction   of   the   iPad,  rising   curve   of   m-­‐   and   e-­‐commerce,   and   the   increased   number   of   social   media  users  in  the  UK,  have  led  to  a  decreasing  circulation  of  paid  consumer  magazines  (see   Table   12,   Appendix   2),   yet   an   increasing   number   of   freesheets   and  publications’   online   traffic   (MINTEL   (2),   2010).  Even   though   paid-­‐for   magazine  circulations   have   dropped   with   over   17%   in   the   last   few   years   (Mintel,   2010),  online   traffic   is   still   going   up,   with   micropayments   and   e-­‐commerce   models  having  achieved  some  success.     The   Telegraph   Media   Group,   for   example,   which   specialises   in  newspapers   rather   than   magazines,   offers   free   online   content,   yet   relies   on  micropayment   strategies   for   its   sites.   This   is   a   revenue   channel   that   could   be  successful   for   magazines   in   the   future   as   well,   especially   consumer   magazines,  which   could   promote   the   products/services   they   include   in   their   content   to  target   their   audiences   accurately.   Given   that   the   British   public   is   now   also  proven   to   have   been   educated   about   online   payments   and   security,   (Ofcom,  2010),  it  is  likely  that  e-­‐commerce  economy  will  continue  to  grow.     It   appears   that   the   strength   of   magazines   that   McKay   (2006)   elucidates,  namely   niche   audience   targeting,   is   also   the   factor   that   is   likely   to   drive  magazines   in   the   future   –   through   specialist   publications,   which   could   provide  unique  content,  targeted  at  a  very  specific  demographic  group.  As  Participant  4     54  
  • 55.    stated   during   a   discussion   regarding   magazines   and   content,   “producing  specialist  content  that  is  not  available  elsewhere  might  as  well  be  the  industry’s  secret   weapon”.     Perhaps   the   magazine   industry   today   is   too   preoccupied   with  adapting   itself   to   new   technologies,   but   it   appears   that   few   are   concerned   with  what  happens  beyond  the  platform.  “Locking  in”  strategies,  successful  marketing,  intelligent   editorial   strategy,   and   quality   content   are   elements   of   successful  magazines,   which   might   be   too   often   overlooked   because   of   the   industry’s  preoccupation  with  technology.        Chapter References148Apps  Report  (2011),  App  Store  Metrics,  last  visited:  14/05/2011,  last  updated:  15/05/2011,  URL:  <­‐store-­‐metrics/>  Bollinger,  L.,  (2011),  A  Free  Press  for  a  Global  Society,    Bulletin  of  the  American  Academy  of  Arts  &  Sciences,  Winter  2011,  [pdf]  URL  <>  Burell,  I.,  (2010),  Has  Rupert  Murdochs  paywall  gamble  paid  off?  The  Independent,  last  visited  10/05/2011,  published  02/09/2010,  URL:  <­‐rupert-­‐murdochs-­‐paywall-­‐gamble-­‐paid-­‐off-­‐2067907.html>  Elliott,  D.,(2008),  Essential  Shared  Values  and  21st  Century  Journalism,    The  Handbook  of  Mass  Media  Ethics,  Taylor  &  Francis,  pp.28  Eriksen,  T.,  (2001),  Tyranny  of  the  moment:  fast  and  slow  time  in  the  information  age,  Pluto  Press  Friend,  C.,  and  Singer,  J.,  (2007),  Online  journalism  ethics:  traditions  and  transitions,  M.E.  Sharpe  Jarvis,  J.,  (2011),  Facebook,  Twitter,  and  the  Egyptian  Revolution,  The  Faster  Times,  last  visited:  24/04/2011,  published  13/02/2011,  URL:     55  
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  • 58. 7.0 Conclusion  The  conclusive  findings  of  this  dissertation  are  as  follows;   1.  Magazine  journalism  cannot  be  said  to  be  in  decline,  solely  judging  by   the   annual   report   statistics.   Even   though   circulation   numbers   and   sales   continue   to   fall,   the   findings   of   the   research   show   that   magazine   journalism  and  professional  journalism  in  general  are  still  in  demand  by   society.       2.   Despite   the   fact   that   platforms   are   changing,   adding   new   dimensions   and   properties   to   the   publishing   trade,   the   traditional   values   and   functions  of  magazine  journalism  remain  the  same.       3.     Revenue   strategies   and   media   power   are   changing   too,   but   this   does   not  mean  that  the  entire  magazine  industry  is  diminishing  in  profitability.   It   only   means   that   industry   participants   must   show   more   creativity   and   adaptability   in   terms   of   technology,   content,   structure   and   business   strategy.    As  society  is  changing  in  accordance  with  technologies,  the  media  industry  is  the  first  one  to  respond  to  these  changes,  as  they  most  directly  affect  it.  One  should  approach  these  changes  with  an  optimistic  impetus,  rather  than  a  negative  one,  as   the   new   challenges   magazine   publishing   is   facing   offer   potential   for  improvements  in  terms  of  structure,  content  and  presentation.    As  new  leaders  and   stakeholders   enter   the   magazine   industry   in   the   UK,   it   will   become   more  comfortable   with   the   new   elements   itself.     As   we   bravely   enter   the   era   of   Web  3.0,  magazine  journalism  is  not  in  decline  –  it  is  simply  evolving  into  something  else.      
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  • 80.    10.0 AppendicesAppendix 1: Definitions  It   is   important   for   one   to   place   journalism   in   terms   of   its   definition   in   such  complex,  fast  moving  socio-­‐technological  environment  as  described  above.  Given  that   definitions   and   functions   of   different   media   elements   are   changing   on  regular   basis,   it   is   important   to   define   the   main   terminology,   used   in   this  dissertation,   before   delving   into   discussions   of   how   they   are   changing   and   the  effects   of   these   changes.   The   following   chapter   outlines   the   definitions   used  throughout  the  dissertation.  Magazine  Journalism  For  the  purposes  of  the  question,  the  term  magazine  journalism  is  regarded  as    the activity or profession of writing for newspapers or magazines orof broadcasting news on radio or television. Oxford  Dictionary,  2nd  Edition,  2005   Broadcasting  news  on  radio  or  television  is  not  included  in  the  research  methodology   and   only   briefly   acknowledged   in   the   Discussion   chapter.   The  definition   of   magazine   journalism   is   directly   linked   to   the   platforms   it   is  associated  with  –  namely,  magazines.    It  is,  therefore,  logical  for  one  to  conclude  that  if  the  definition  of  the  magazine  platform  changes,  the  meaning  of  journalism  would  also  change.    Defining  magazine  journalism  is  also  a  subject  to  identifying  its   main   purposes:   political,   sociological,   cultural   and   economic.   The   Literature  Review   chapter   of   this   dissertation   offers   a   detailed   insight   into   the   scholarly  research  and  findings  in  the  field  of  defining  journalism  and  magazine  journalism  in  particular.             80  
  • 81.    Platforms  The   title   of   the   dissertation   suggests   a   comparative   analysis   of   traditional   and  emerging   platforms,   aiming   at   determining   how   this   tension   influences  journalism  and  the  magazine  industry  in  the  UK  in  particular.     The   traditional   platforms   discussed   include   analogue   magazines   and  newspapers.   The   emerging   platforms   include   microblogging   sites   (such   as  Twitter  and  Facebook),  blogs  and  WikiLeaks.    The  conflict  between  old  and  new  media   platforms   is   of   vital   importance   to   professional   journalism,   as   it   could  mean:   -­‐ a  fundamental  paradigm  shift  for  journalism.   -­‐ the  enforcement  of  new  adaptations  in  methods  and  practices,  added  to/   substituting  the  existing    ones.   -­‐ Substantial   financial   and   structural   changes   to   the   magazine   industry   in   the  UK.   It  is,  however,  impossible  to  argue  any  of  the  above  without  including  content  in   the   discussion   of   the   significance   of   platforms.     Content   is   intrinsic   to   both  journalism   and   journalistic   platforms,   and   has,   arguably,   a   greater   importance  than  either  of  them.      …content will be more important than its container in this nextphase. Thats a huge shift in the "balance of power" in our world,from the content providers to the content consumers. Curley,  T.,  2004   The   term   balance   of   power     (Hagey,   2010)   is   also   of   great   importance,  when  analysing  modern  media,  as  the  digital  revolution  has  mixed  the  positions  of   writer/reader   and   consumer/provider.   Other   scholars   argue   Curley’s  emphasis  on  content:  the  discussion  is  fully  portrayed  in  the  Literature  Review  chapter  of  this  paper.           81  
  • 82.    Values    The  dissertation  is  alert  to  the  meaning  of  values  as  both  a  moral  and  economic  concept:   the   following   chapters   closely   analyse   the   definitions   of   these   values  and  their  influence  -­‐  prior  to  and  after  the  emergence  of  new  platforms  -­‐  on  the  development  of  professional  journalism.     Economic   values   are   analysed   in   terms   of   industry   revenues,   traditional  and   emerging   revenue   generation   models   and   strategies.   Moral   values   refer   to  the   intrinsic   and   instrumental   effect   (Zimmerman,   2010)   journalism   has   on  society,  from  a  cultural  and  political  perspective.      Magazine  Industry  in  the  UK  The   phrase   refers   to   the   magazine   trade   in   the   United   Kingdom   as   a   whole,  unless  otherwise  specified.        Appendix References"journalism",  noun.  The  Oxford  English  Dictionary,  2nd  edition,  Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press,  2005  Curley,  T.,  (2004),  Online  News  Association  Conference,  12/11/2004,  last  visited  22/01/2011,  published  12/11/2004  URL:  Hagey,  W.,  (2010),  WikiLeaks  a  media  game  changer,  Politico,  last  visited  24/04/2011,  published  29/11/2010,  URL:  <>  Zimmerman,  M.,  (2010)  Intrinsic  vs.  Extrinsic  Value,    Stanford  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy     82  
  • 83.    Appendix 2: Tables and DiagramsThe  following  Appendix  includes  all  diagrams  and  tables,  displayed  in  this  dissertation.  The  table  numbers  are  set  in  accordance  to  their  appearance  in  the  body  of  the  dissertation.          Table  1.  Diagram  of  the  research  process.   Secondary  Research   Primary  Research   Primary  Reseacrh   (Research  Survey)   (Focus  Group)   • Identify  themes   • Question  the   • Discuss  the   • Identify   main   themes,   •indings  of  the   issues     identi•ied  in  the   research  survey,   secondary   in  terms  of  the   research   magazine   • Attempt  to   industry  in  the   answer  the   UK.   main  issues   • Discover  how   the  previously   identi•ied  issues   concern  the   magazine   industry  in  the   UK.                     83  
  • 84.      Table  2.  Elements  of  the  Research  Survey  (planning).     Topic   Aim   Method   Basis     To   establish   what   media   Ask  participants  scenario-­‐     platforms  present  a  threat   based  questions.         to   existing   journalistic   Ask   participants   to   rate       platforms;   what   are   the   strategically   chosen     New  media  and   new   media   elements   that   platforms,   which     the  threat  to   provide   advantages   over   represent   their   media     journalism   traditional   journalistic   kind.     Using   the   platforms;   discover   what   Ask   participants   to   findings   from   new   media   channels   the   compare   and   contrast   the   secondary   survey   participants   new   and   traditional   research,   test   prefer.   media  channels.     the   findings     To   establish   the   Ask   the   participants   to   through     relationship   between   rate   a   list   of   adjectives   coherent,     platform   and   function;   to   and   decide   how   they   logical     determine   the   media   would   describe   questions.   Relationship   requirements,   which   journalism.     between   command  the  functions  of   Ask   participants   to   platform  and   a   platform;   to   define   a   contrast   and   compare   function   general   function   of   different   platforms   and   journalism;  to  identify  the   functions.     most   important   elements   of  journalism  in  general.                     84  
  • 85.    Table  3.  Elements  of  the  Focus  Group  exercise  (planning).   Topic   Aim   Method   Basis     To   establish   what   the   Provide   the       magazine   industry   in   participants   with       the   UK   is   based   on,   in   theories,   discussed     Magazines  today:   terms   of   the   magazine   in   the   Review   of     what  needs  to  be   medium   and   revenue   Literature,   and   Findings  of  the   changed?   strategies.   encourage   them   to   research  survey;   discuss   them   in   evidence  gathered   detail.     from  the  Review  of     To   identify   potential   Provide   the   Literature.     financial,  technical  and   participants   with   Future  of  the   structural   changes   to   options,   regarding   magazine   the   magazine   industry   the   future   of   the   in  the  UK.     magazine   industry   and   encourage   a   critical  discussion.          Table  4.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  identify  which  platforms  they  consider  to  be  a  threat  to  journalism.                   85  
  • 86.    Table  5.    Elements  of  research  survey:  platforms  to  be  rated  by  the  participants.   Platform   Reasoning  The  Huffington  Post   It  is  a  famous  example  of  a  respected  newsblog.  The  Economist’s  editor’s  Twitter  account     It   is   an   example   of   a   combination   between   a   respected   publication   and   a   less   conventional   channel  A  journalist’s  Twitter  account     It   is   an   example   of   a   new   journalistic   tool,   combined  with  the  function  of  a  journalist  A  journalist’s  personal  blog   It   provides   a   combination   between   the   traditional  and  new.  WikiLeaks   Controversial          Table  6.  Results  from  research  survey:  participants  asked  to  identify  which  platforms  they  consider  not  to  be  journalistic  channels.                       86  
  • 87.    Table   7.   Elements   of   research   survey:   options   of   elements   for   the   participants   to   rate   as  most  important  to  journalism.       True   facts.   (i.e.   not   opinions   presented   as     facts)     Loyalty  to  the  citizen     Verified  facts     Independence   from   profit   and   political     organisations.   Element   A  forum  for  the  public  to  discuss  facts.   Interesting   (entertaining)   portrayal   of   information.   Comprehensive  news.   Transparency   (of   sources,   fact-­‐gathering,   editorial  process)   Technically  advanced  journalists.   A  strong  editor.    Table   8.     Results   from   research   survey:   participants   asked   choose   the   adjectives,   which  best  describe  “journalism”.        Table   9.   Results   from   research   survey:   participants   asked   choose   the   adjectives,   which  best  describe  “new  media”.       87  
  • 88.          Table  10.  Focus  group  participants’  occupation  and  background.     Participant   Background   Current  Occupation   Participant  1   Journalism   Online  content  editor   Participant  2   Journalism   Freelance  writer   Participant  3   Publishing   Blogger   Participant  4   Media  Studies   Creative  writer   Participant  5   Politics   Online  content  editor   Participant  6   Creative  Writing   Blogger                                               88  
  • 89.    Table  11.  Summary  of  focus  group  research  findings.   X  number  of  the  total   Agree  that:   3/6   Digitalisation  is  a  threat  in  terms  of   revenue  channels  and  audience  reach.     2/6   Digitalisation  as  an  opportunity.   6/6   Social  media  platforms  are  useful   journalistic  tools.   3/6   Social  media  is  an  adequate  revenue   channel.   5/6   Speed  of  content  delivery  is  not  an   essential  element  for  magazine   publishing.   6/6   Keeping  in  touch  with  technology  is   important.   3/6   Technology  helps  funnel  a  magazine’s   niche  audience.     4/6   High  quality  content  is  the  key  to  the   survival  of  the  magazine.   6/6   Portable  tablets  and  m-­‐commerce,  will  be   a  part  of  the  future  magazine  commerce,   yet  not  necessarily  the  only  revenue   outlets.   2/6   The  future  of  the  magazine  lies  in   specialist  editions.     1/6   The  magazine  industry  will  become  more   elitist               89  
  • 90.    Table  12.    Broadband  penetration  in  the  UK.  Source:  Google  Public  Data          Table  13.  UK  magazines  (paid  titles  only),  total  average  net  circulation,  December  2004-­December  2009.  Source:  ABC/Mintel      Table  x14  UK  magazines  (free  titles  only),  total  average  net  circulation,  December  2004-­December  2009.  Source:  ABC/Mintel               90  
  • 91.    Appendix 3: Research Survey ResultsThe  following  Appendix  includes  the  full  results  from  the  research  survey,  which  was  a  part  of  the  primary  research.  The  research  survey  included  fifty  participants,  and  eleven  questions.    Part  1.  Research  survey  questions   1. Occupation   2. What  is  more  important?   -­‐ Accuracy  of  information   -­‐ Accessibility  of  information   3. Imagine   the   following   scenario:   It   is   10am   on   a   Monday   morning,   and  a  major  terrorist  attack  has  just  happened  in  Chicago,  USA.  You   have   just   heard   about   it   from   your   colleague,   who   has   not   shared   where  he/she  received  this  information.  Rate  the  platforms  you  are   likely  to  use  first,  in  order  to  find  out  more  about  the  catastrophe:   -­‐Twitter   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  News  blogs  (such  as  the  Huffington  Post)   -­‐The  Guardian  website   -­‐  An  evening  newspaper   -­‐  Television   -­‐  Radio   -­‐YouTube  4.  A  week  after  the  attack,  you  want  to  find  out  more.  First,  you  head  to:   -­‐Twitter   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  News  blogs  (such  as  the  Huffington  Post)   -­‐The  Guardian  website   -­‐The  Guardian  print  newspaper   -­‐  An  evening  newspaper     91  
  • 92.     -­‐  Television   -­‐  Radio   -­‐  The  Economist   -­‐YouTube  5.   In   your   opinion,   what   are   the   main   elements   of   professional   journalism?  (tick  a  maximum  of  3)   -­‐True  facts.  (i.e.  not  opinions  presented  as  facts)   -­‐  Loyalty  to  the  citizen   -­‐  Verified  facts   -­‐  Independence  from  profit  and  political  organisations.   -­‐  A  forum  for  the  public  to  discuss  facts.   -­‐  Interesting  (entertaining)  portrayal  of  information.   -­‐  Comprehensive  news.   -­‐  Transparency  (of  sources,  fact-­‐gathering,  editorial  process)   -­‐  Technically  advanced  journalists.   -­‐  A  strong  editor.  6.   What   would   you   consider   not   to   be   a   journalistic   platform?   (Tick   all   that  apply)   -­‐  The  Huffington  Post   -­‐  The  Economists  editors  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  YouTube  channel   -­‐  A  journalists  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  personal  blog   -­‐  WikiLeaks   -­‐  These  are  all  journalistic  platforms.                   92  
  • 93.    7.     From   1-­5   ,   how   trustworthy   would   you   rate   these   same   platforms?   (5  being  the  most  trustworthy)   -­‐  The  Huffington  Post   -­‐  The  Economists  editors  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  YouTube  channel   -­‐  A  journalists  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  personal  blog   -­‐  WikiLeaks  8.   Which   of   the   following   would   you   consider   a   threat   to   traditional  journalism?  (Tick  all  that  apply)   -­‐  Twitter   -­‐  Blogs   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  Wikileaks   -­‐  YouTube   -­‐  None  of  the  above  9.   Which   of   these   adjectives   would   you   say   apply   to   professional  journalism,  as  you  see  it?   -­‐Elitist   -­‐  Complex   -­‐  Declining   -­‐  Meaningless  (to  our  society)   -­‐  Important  (to  society)   -­‐  Irrelevant  (to  our  time)   -­‐  Old-­‐fashioned   -­‐  Irreplaceable   -­‐  Intellectual  10.   Given   there   are   millions   of   bloggers   and   Twitter   accounts,   who   all  provide   a   constant   flow   of   information,   do   you   think   professional  journalists  should  continue  to  be  paid  the  same  amount  of  money  for  their  services?   -­‐  Yes   -­‐No       93  
  • 94.      11.   Which   of   these   adjectives   would   you   say   apply   to   professional  journalism,  as  you  see  it?   -­‐Elitist   -­‐  Complex   -­‐  Declining   -­‐  Meaningless  (to  our  society)   -­‐  Important  (to  society)   -­‐  Irrelevant  (to  our  time)   -­‐  Old-­‐fashioned   -­‐  Irreplaceable   -­‐  Intellectual                                         94  
  • 95.    Part  2.  Research  survey  results     1. Occupation     Participant Occupation 1 Media Planner 2 Tax Consultant 3 Lawyer 4 Graphic Designer 5 Sales Assistant 6 Salesperson 7 Student 8 Programmer 9 Project Manager 10 Student 11 Member Services 12 Student 13 Unemployed 14 Web Designer 15 Student 16 Student 17 Marketing executive 18 Freelance web designer 19 Student 20 Copywriter 21 Student 22 Account manager 23 Quality Assurance 24 Student 25 Student 26 Translator 27 Editor 28 Student 29 Journalist 30 Bakery Clerk 31 HR 32 Student/Journalist   95  
  • 96.     33 Jeweller 34 Student 35 Manager 36 EVP International Development, Groupon International 37 Student 38 Student 39 Freelance translator 40 Netto 41 Bartender 42 Student 43 Actress 44 Manager 45 Company owner 46 Student 47 Student 48 Journalist 49 Editor 50 Barmaid     2. What  is  more  important?   -­‐ Accuracy  of  information             -­‐ Accessibility  of  information    Results:       Accuracy of information 76% Accessibility of information 24%             96  
  • 97.       3. Imagine  the  following  scenario:  It  is  10am  on  a  Monday  morning,   and  a  major  terrorist  attack  has  just  happened  in  Chicago,  USA.  You   have  just  heard  about  it  from  your  colleague,  who  has  not  shared   where  he/she  received  this  information.  Rate  the  platforms  you  are   likely  to  use  first,  in  order  to  find  out  more  about  the  catastrophe:     -­‐Twitter   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  News  blogs  (such  as  the  Huffington  Post)   -­‐The  Guardian  website   -­‐  An  evening  newspaper   -­‐  Television   -­‐  Radio   -­‐YouTube                                                     97  
  • 98.   1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Twitter 12% 8% 4% 14% 4% 10% 22% 26% Facebook 2% 12% 12% 10% 20% 30% 14% 0% News blogs (such as The Huffington Post) 8.30% 4.20% 20.80% 16.70% 20.80% 12.50% 8.30% 8.30% The Guardian Website 38.80% 22.40% 16.30% 4.10% 6.10% 8.20% 2% 2% An evening newspaper 2% 8% 12% 18% 16% 16% 14% 14% Television 35.40% 25% 10.40% 10.40% 4.20% 4.20% 0% 4.20% Radio 4% 20% 20% 8% 12% 12% 18% 8% YouTube 0% 2% 4.10% 16.30% 8.20% 8.20% 18.40% 36.70% 98     1st The Guardian 2nd Television 3rd Newsblogs 4th YouTube 5th Facebook 6th Radio 7th Twitter 8th Evening Newspaper Results:                                                                      
  • 99.    4.  A  week  after  the  attack,  you  want  to  find  out  more.  First,  you  head  to:   -­‐Twitter   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  News  blogs  (such  as  the  Huffington  Post)   -­‐The  Guardian  website   -­‐The  Guardian  print  newspaper   -­‐  An  evening  newspaper   -­‐  Television   -­‐  Radio   -­‐  The  Economist   -­‐YouTube   Twitter 4% Facebook 2% News blogs (such as The Huffington Post) 16% The Guardian Website 66% The Guardian print newspaper 8% An evening newspaper 18% Television 14% Radio 8% The Economist 22% YouTube 8%                         99  
  • 100.    5.  In  your  opinion,  what  are  the  main  elements  of  professional  journalism?  (tick  a  maximum  of  3)     -­‐True  facts.  (i.e.  not  opinions  presented  as  facts)   -­‐  Loyalty  to  the  citizen   -­‐  Verified  facts   -­‐  Independence  from  profit  and  political  organisations.   -­‐  A  forum  for  the  public  to  discuss  facts.   -­‐  Interesting  (entertaining)  portrayal  of  information.   -­‐  Comprehensive  news.   -­‐  Transparency  (of  sources,  fact-­‐gathering,  editorial  process)   -­‐  Technically  advanced  journalists.   -­‐  A  strong  editor.         True facts. (i.e. not opinions presented as facts) 27 Loyalty to the citizen 4 Verified facts 30 Independence from profit and political organisations. 32 A forum for the public to discuss facts. 5 Interesting (entertaining) portrayal of information. 8 Comprehensive news. 13 Transparency (of sources, fact-gathering, editorial process) 12 Technically advanced journalists. 7 A strong editor. 2                 100  
  • 101.    6.  What  would  you  consider  not  to  be  a  journalistic  platform?  (Tick  all  that  apply)   -­‐  The  Huffington  Post   -­‐  The  Economists  editors  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  YouTube  channel   -­‐  A  journalists  Twitter  account   -­‐  A  journalists  personal  blog   -­‐  WikiLeaks   -­‐  These  are  all  journalistic  platforms.     The Huffington Post 3 The Economists editors Twitter account 10 A journalists YouTube channel 18 A journalists Twitter account 17 A journalists personal blog 15 WikiLeaks 14 These are all journalistic platforms. 21                                   101  
  • 102.    7.    From  1-­5  ,  how  trustworthy  would  you  rate  these  same  platforms?  (5  being  the  most  trustworthy)  -­‐  The  Huffington  Post  -­‐  The  Economists  editors  Twitter  account  -­‐  A  journalists  YouTube  channel  -­‐  A  journalists  Twitter  account  -­‐  A  journalists  personal  blog  -­‐  WikiLeaks     1 2 3 4 5 The Huffington Post 12.20% 16.30% 30.60% 34.70% 6.10% The Economists editors Twitter account 12.00% 14.00% 38.00% 26.00% 10% A journalists YouTube channel 12.80% 29.80% 34.00% 21.30% 2.10% A journalists Twitter account 16.70% 25% 33.30% 18.80% 6.30% A journalists personal blog 16.00% 20.00% 36.00% 24% 4% WIkiLeaks 10.20% 32.70% 26.50% 16.30% 14.30%                                           102  
  • 103.     1 2 3 4 5 The Huffington Post 6 8 15 17 3 The Economists editors Twitter account 6 7 19 13 5 A journalists YouTube channel 6 14 16 10 1 A journalists Twitter account 8 12 16 9 3 A journalists personal blog 8 10 18 12 2 WIkiLeaks 5 16 13 8 7   A journalists personal blog 1 A journalists YouTube channel 2 The Economists editors Twitter account 3 The Huffington Post 4 WIkiLeaks 5                                     103  
  • 104.    8.  Which  of  the  following  would  you  consider  a  threat  to  traditional  journalism?  (Tick  all  that  apply)   -­‐  Twitter   -­‐  Blogs   -­‐  Facebook   -­‐  Wikileaks   -­‐  YouTube   -­‐  None  of  the  above       Twitter 30 Blogs 24 Facebook 21 Wikileaks 17 YouTube 16 None of the above 9  9.  Which  of  these  adjectives  would  you  say  apply  to  professional  journalism,  as  you  see  it?   -­‐Elitist   -­‐  Complex   -­‐  Declining   -­‐  Meaningless  (to  our  society)   -­‐  Important  (to  society)   -­‐  Irrelevant  (to  our  time)   -­‐  Old-­‐fashioned   -­‐  Irreplaceable   -­‐  Intellectual             104  
  • 105.     Elitist 3 Complex 20 Declining 15 Meaningless (to our society) 1 Important (to society) 39 Irrelevant (to our time) 0 Old-fashioned 5 Irreplaceable 18 Intellectual 23  10.  Given  there  are  millions  of  bloggers  and  Twitter  accounts,  who  all  provide  a  constant  flow  of  information,  do  you  think  professional  journalists  should  continue  to  be  paid  the  same  amount  of  money  for  their  services?  -­‐  Yes  -­‐No     Yes 92% No 8%    11.   Which   of   these   adjectives   would   you   say   apply   to   professional  journalism,  as  you  see  it?   -­‐Elitist   -­‐  Complex   -­‐  Declining   -­‐  Meaningless  (to  our  society)   -­‐  Important  (to  society)   -­‐  Irrelevant  (to  our  time)   -­‐  Old-­‐fashioned   -­‐  Irreplaceable   -­‐  Intellectual       105  
  • 106.                                               106  
  • 107.    Appendix 4: Focus Group Notes  The  following  Appendix  provides  detailed  notes  of  the  primary  research  focus  group  discussion.  The  notes  are  divided  into  topics  of  discussion  and  include  manual  notes  the  researcher  has  taken  during  the  focus  group  discussion.  The  focus  group  discussions  were  based  on  the  findings  of  the  Review  of  Literature  and  the  primary  research  survey  results.    Topic 1. Magazines today – what needs to be changed?QuotesWhat we have got today does not seem to be enough to satisfy thepublic – they want more. Participant  3  I think we have got ourselves an industry where no one really knowswhat they are doing. Participant  1  People are definitely obsessed with the iPad, and with good reason. Participant  3  Even industry specialists do not read print magazines anymore – Ihave not purchased one in over six months. This says something aboutthe industry. Participant  2  The whole issue people were talking about before, that nothing couldreally substitute the newsagent; that online search is not the sameas you going to the shop and having a good old browse. Well, peopleare wrong. Nowadays, you do not even have to search for what you want– the Web knows your tastes already, thanks to open APIs and theFacebook LIKE button, for example. Participant  4  Technology has many uses: it helps funnel a magazines nicheaudience, for one.   107  
  • 108.     Participant  3  Being changed is not the same as going away. I could wear a greensweater instead of a blue one tomorrow, it would not mean I am dead,which is what many journalists have been practically saying aboutmagazines. Participant  4  Gatekeeping is definitely a function that journalism must preserve –we need a metaphorical judge to tell us what is quality, true contentand what is not; but its functions do not stop there. They should notstop there. Participant  6  Topic 2. Revenue StrategiesThe problem is not new technology; it is how to make money out of it. Participant  3  I do not understand what all the fuss is about. People just need tobe more creative, and find new ways to cash in. Participant  4  I do not personally think people would spend money on consumersubscriptions – for specialist titles – maybe, but why would I wantto pay for Cosmo when I could go on any beauty blog. Participant  1  As long as there is money in the consumer’s pocket and demand forcontent, magazines will survive. Participant  5  So, what are people paying for? Is it the content itself? Participant  5     108  
  • 109.    If I was running a magazine, I would definitely invest in having afull social media department. It is a cheap, effective way to getonline popularity and is also a great revenue channel. Participant  2  I could see tablets being a considerable part of the future,especially when discussing revenue channels, but I do not think itwill be the only outlet. Participant  1  Topic 3. The future of the magazine publishing industry in the UKNo, I do not think magazines are dying; they are just changing. Thereis a difference. Participant  4  The future is in content. You provide good content – people will finda way to get it. All you need to figure out is where to present it,and how to make money out of it. Participant  6  Digitalisation is a threat in terms of revenue channels and audiencereach. Participant  2  Digitalisation is an opportunity, not a threat. Participant  5  Facebook and Twitter are journalistic tools indeed; I do not know whypeople would presume otherwise. Participant  4     109  
  • 110.    I do not know about speed of delivery, but I would definitely saythat keeping in touch with technology is an important factor. Participant  6  Magazines will become collectibles, or they could also becomeexpensive specialist treats for many people. Participant  2  Some publications are already a bit elitist, and I could definitelysee how they would become more so if magazines became exclusivelyspecialist publications. Participant  2  The digital changes everything. Participant  4     110  
  • 111.             111  
  • 112.    Appendix 5 : Platform Comparison  The   following   appendix   includes   a   platform   comparison   table,   comparing   and  contrasting   the   websites   of   three   different   media   channels:   The   Economist   (a  magazine),   The   Huffington   Post   (an   online   newsblog),   and   The   Guardian   (a  newspaper).     The   elements   include   Kovach   and   Rosenstiel’s   recommendations  for  what  the  future  journalistic  platform  must  include.     The The Economi Huffington The Element st Post Guardian Customisable Graphics N N N Photo Galleries Y Y Y Hyperlinks (to definitions/elaborations) N N Y Hyperlinks (to newsmakers and organisations mentioned) N N Y Hyperlinks (to key facts) N N Y Interview Transcripts N Y Y Video/Audio interviews Y Y Y Biography of the storys author N N Y Interactive timelines of key events N N N Searchable databases, relevant to the story Y Y Y FAQ (related to the story) N N N Links to blogs and tweets, covering the story N Y Y Invitation to crowd-source material N Y N Feedback from users Y Y N What can users do about issues raised in the story N N N Buttons to share the story Y Y Y Corrections and updates to the story, with cross outs added directly to the original text N N N Paid-for content? Y N N External advertisers? Y Y Y Internal advertising? Y Y Y Total score: 8/20 10/20 12/20   112  
  • 113.    Appendix 6: Kovach and Rosenstiel’s elements of journalism  Journalisms  first  obligation  is  to  the  truth.    Its  first  loyalty  is  to  citizens    Its  essence  is  a  discipline  of  verification    Its  practioners  must  maintain  an  independence  from  those  they  cover    It  must  serve  as  an  independent  monitor  of  power    It  must  provide  a  forum  for  public  criticism  and  compromise    It  must  strive  to  make  the  significant  interesting  and  relevant    It  must  keep  the  news  comprehensive  and  in  proportion    Its  practioners  have  an  obligation  to  exercise  their  personal  conscience    Citizens  too,  have  rights  and  responsibilities  when  it  comes  to  the  news.       113  
  • 114.                 114