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Stone as a building material

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Understanding of Building materials, its behaviour and uses are extremely important for the students of Architecture and Interior Designing. Hence, I tried to introduce the 1st year students with the …

Understanding of Building materials, its behaviour and uses are extremely important for the students of Architecture and Interior Designing. Hence, I tried to introduce the 1st year students with the 1st building material they are going to learn in college, stone as a building material. The presentation covers almost all the factors related to this material class with a focus on the capability of 1st year students.

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  • 1. As a building material Earth Crust Rock Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 Stone 1
  • 2. 1. Geological Classification a) b) c) Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks 2. Physical Classification a) b) c) Stratified rocks Non-stratified rocks Foliated rocks Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 3. Chemical Classification a) b) c) Siliceous rocks Argillaceous rocks Calcareous rocks 2
  • 3. Sources of stone: Monomineralic rock Polymineralic rock Rock forming minerals: ( Found in igneous rocks) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Augite. Chlorite. Felspar. Hornblende. Mica Olivine. Plagioclase. Quartz. 9. Serpentine. 10. Calcite. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 3
  • 4. Rock forming minerals: (Found in sedimentary rocks) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Calcite. Magnesite. Dolomite. Glauconite. Limonite. Gypsum. Anhydrate. Texture or structure of a rock The arrangement of minerals forming a rock is known as its texture or structure. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Compact crystalline. Conglomerate. Foliated. Glassy. Granular crystalline. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 6. Pisolitic. 7. Porous granular. 8. Porphyritic. 9. Vesicular. 4
  • 5. Fracture of a rock The type of surface obtained, when a rock is broken, indicates its fracture. 1. Conchoidal. 2. Earthy. 3. Even. 4. Fibrous. 5. Hackly. 6. Uneven. Uses of stones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Structure. Face work. Paving. Basic mineral. Miscellaneous ballast for railways, blocks in construction of bridges, piers, retaining walls, light house, damns, etc, Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 5
  • 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. Dressing of stones is tedious, laborious and time consuming. Desired strength and quality not available at moderate rates especially in plain areas. RCC, Steel are alternatives to stones and gives more strength and flexibility. Stone structure design can’t give freeness and flexibility to the designer. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 6
  • 7. Definition and Importance Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 7
  • 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Acid test. Attrition test. Crushing test. Crystallization test. Freezing and thawing test. Hardness test. Impact test. Microscopic test. Smith’s test. Water absorption test. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 8
  • 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Crushing strength. Appearance. Durability. Facility of dressing. Fracture. Hardness. Percentage wear. Resistance to fire. Seasoning. Specific gravity. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 11. Texture. 12. Toughness index (between 13 and 19 13. Water absorption must be Less than 0.60 14. Weathering. 9
  • 10. Quarrying with hand tools. Quarrying with channeling machine. 3. Quarrying by blasting. 1. 2. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 10
  • 11. Purpose: Classification 1. 1. To get desired appearance. 2. 2. To make the transport from quarry easy and economical. 3. To suit the requirements of stone masonry. 4. To take the advantage of local people who are trained to such type of work. Quarry dressing Site dressing. Finishes used 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 18. Axed finish. Boasted or drove finish. Chisel finish. Dragged or combed finish. Furrowed finish. Moulded finish. Hammer dressed finish. Plain finish. Polished finished. Punched machine. Reticulated finish. Rubbed finish. Scabbling finish. Tooled finish. Self-faced or rockfaced or quarryfaced finish. Sunk finish. Vermiculated finish. Circular finish. 11
  • 12. Alternate wetness and drying. 2. Frost. 3. Impurities in atmosphere. 4. Living organisms. 5. Movement of chemicals. 6. Nature of mortar. 7. Rain water. 8. Temperature variations. 9. Vegetable growth. 10. Wind. 1. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 12
  • 13. Following precautions to be taken to retard the decaying action of weathering agencies on stones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Compact siliceous stones. External renderings. Joints. Natural beds. Qualities of stones. Seasoned stones. Size of stones. Washing with water. Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 13
  • 14. Why? Coal tar. Linseed oil. 3. Paint. 4. Paraffin. 5. Solution of alum and soap. 6. Solution of baryta. 1. 2. What is an artificial stone? 1. 2. 3. Cement concrete. Mosaic tiles. Terrazzo. Advantages of artificial stones Assignment: Make a list on common building stones in India describing stone name, classification, qualities, uses and localities where they are available ( in A-1 sheet ) Hrishiraj Sarma, APIED/2013 14

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