Everybody can use english 20100414
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Everybody can use english 20100414 Everybody can use english 20100414 Document Transcript

  • Twitter @maozhu1: @xiaolai 140 11 https://twitter.com 140
  • 2010
  • GRE 2 "No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study." David Hubel Torsten Wiesel 1959 —— —— 3 Critical Period2 http://www.ets.org/gre/general/prepare/sample_questions/analytical/issues/index.html3 youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOHayh06LJ4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KE952yueVLA
  • 1981 Plastic Eric Heinz Lenneberg 1967 Lenneberg Language acquisition Critical period hypothesis Lenneberg Hypothesis Martin Seligman Learned Optimism SeligmanLenneberg Theory 0 10 —— David Hubel Torsten Wiesel Localizationism Hardwired
  • 4 Sea Gypsies 30 —— 75 22% Plasticity Anna Gislen4 Stroke
  • —— 1) 2) Cave Painting 1940 Lascaux 5Anna Gislen 65"We have discovered nothing." http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1577421.stm6Visual training improves underwater vision in children , Vision Research, Volume 46, Issue 20,October 2006, Pages 3443-3450
  • 1) 2) Reorganizing UAB 7 —— remap reroute rewire —— 20047 http://www.uabhealth.org
  • CI Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy CI CIMT” Edward Taub8 Taub Taub —— Taub 10 TaubTaub CI —— —— —— Learned Nonuse —— Rosetta Stone9 1) 2) Self-fulfilling prophecy10 I’m sorry, my English is poor… (I beg your) Pardon… Excuse me… • 11 Self-fulfilling8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Taub9 http://www.rosettastone.com/10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-fulfilling_prophecy11 Robert K. Merton 1910-2003
  • prophecy Thebes Laius Jocasta oidipous Corinth Polybus Sphinx Tiresias —— ——http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_K._Merton
  • 12 —— —— —— —— Let it be 2500 13 2500 —— —— 1000 —— 1500 3500 Mission Impossible 45001213
  • 6000 8000TOEFL/IELTS 15000 GRE —— 8 20 —— TOEFL 14 Power of Geography TOEFL 15 16 TOEFL14 http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/TOEFL_iBT_Score_Comparison_Tables.pdf15——16 70%
  • 17 1988 18 570 677 1993 570 —— 4862000 11GRE 19 EDU17How Columbus sickened the New World: Why were native Americans so vulnerable to the diseasesEuropean settlers brought with them? 10 October 1992 by DAVID J. MELTZER, New ScientistMagazine: http://is.gd/66Qqp1819
  • 2003 21 20 1994 28 GRE —— 21 GRE 21 GRE 28 —— 21 ——2021 2009
  • 2009 4 17 David Letterman22 Joe Wong23 —— 1970 1994199922 CBS Late Night Show23 http://www.lixiaolai.com/index.php/archives/6725.html
  • 24 1% 1% “ ” “ ” “ ” “ ” “ ”……Paul Meier paulmeier.com John Ales, Jonathan Brandis, A.J. Buckley,Jewel Kilcher, Jim Caviezel, Simon Baker Denny, Peter Coyote, Stewart Finlay-McLennan, Louise Fletcher, Bill Irwin, Gabrielle Fitzpatrick, Diana Hardcastle, Tom Hulce, Kris Kristofferson, Elizabeth Lackey, Tobey Maguire, Stephen Mailer, Terrence Mann, Callum Keith Rennie, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Kim Myers, Mark Ruffalo, Skeet Ulrich, Celia Weston, David Wenham, Valerie Wildman, Peter Wingfield, Tom Wilkinson, Jeffrey Wright…24 (zh ) (f i) (j ) (qi n) (g u) (j e) (l i) (b ) (j n) (j ) (j )
  • Paul Meier http://www.paulmeier.com/booklets.html l Cockney l Hampshire l Irish l Liverpool l Northern Ireland l Scottish l Welsh l Yorkshire; American Southern (Kentucky/Tennessee) l Deep South (Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi) l Down East New England l General New York l South Boston…http://alt-usage-english.org/audio_archive.shtml
  • —— —— —— —— 6700 6000 Patricia K. Kuhl 25 Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences 26 Citizens of the world 6700 6000 6 Kuhl filter ——25 http://ilabs.washington.edu/kuhl/26 http://ilabs.washington.edu/news/Times_Pacific_3_6_05.pdf
  • 16 8 5 6 —— r l row low rake lake 11 18 -ing -edKuhl 27 28 ———— ——27 ——28 ——
  • Michael Merzenich29 —— Paul Bach-y-Rita30 Paul Bach-y-Rita —— Paul Bach-y-Rita —— ——29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Merzenich30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Bach-y-Rita
  • —— —— Pablo Casals31 —— —— ——31 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Casalsv
  • 18 Kuhl—— (VOA) Special English 1500 VOA SE —— CNN VOA SE VOA SE —— —— CNN 32 MP3 MP3audiobook 32M PDA32 http://www.cnn.com/audio/radio/radio.html
  • HTC 33 —— ———— 34 —— Paul Bach-y-Rita Cool Edit Audio Edit Deluxe Audacity33 HTC S1 Touch Windows Mobile celetask34
  • AudioEdit Deluxe v4.10AudioEdit1. mp3 wav2.3.
  • 4. 351.1 v b f n35 93 TOEFL mp3http://www.lixiaolai.com/misc/tpartc/toelf-part-c-all/toelf-part-c-all.rar
  • video bideo video bideo video video bideo bideo1.2 idiosyncratic
  • /æ/ ab ebb /æ/ /e/ apple epple important /ɪmpɔtəәnt//ɪmpɔːtəәnt/ beach” /aɪ/1.3 36 189,819 titin 45 pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis 37 ver 3.0 pneu 1836 /l/37 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary
  • especially es | pecially es pe pe cially pe 38 un|fortunatelyim|portant under|stand edu|cation par|ticular fi|nancial absolutely ab-fucking-solutely abso-fucking-lutely1.438 pitch
  • façade façade facade ç c /ˈfækeɪd/—— specific /ˈspesɪfɪk/ / spɘˈsɪfɪk/ cellist facade heir niche specific 39 1 23 penalty penalize penalize /ˈpenəәˌlaɪz/ /ˈpɪnəәˌlaɪz / economy , economics , economist economics /e/ /ɪ/ GRE1.539
  • D.J. D.J. K.K. IPA SAT GRE Merriam-Webster /ɛ/ /e//t/ / t̬/ / ɚ/ / əәr/ K.K /a/ / /……
  • 1.2. D.J. K.K3. mp34. 75.6.7. façade [[fəәs ːd] ç /s/ a / ː/ /s/ f /f/ d /d/ e resumé e/ei/ 96% ichthyosaur ch /k/ yo /ɪəә/ aur /ɔː/ ch /k/ [ɪk ɪəәsɔː] —— debt b ——l Flash Guide to English Phonetc Symbols 40l Phonetics: The Sound of American English 4140 http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
  • 1.6 pri•ma•ry/ˈprai-məә-ri/ ich•thyo•saur /ˈɪk- ɪəә-sɔː/ tax•i /ˈtek-si/ cur•dling/ˈkəәr-dəә-li / create /kriː-ˈeɪt/ / kriːt / 42 1. a /eɪ/, eye /aɪ/ 2. + tea /tiː/, bay /beɪ/ 3. + + fly /flaɪ/, sky /skaɪ/ 4. + ebb /eb/, odd /ɔd/ 5. + + beep /biːp/, big /bɪg/ 6. + + east /iːst/ axe /æks/ 7. + + + stop /stɔp/, bleed /bliːd/ 8. + + + last /læst/, lapse /læps/ 9. + + + + blast /blæst/, frost /frɔːst/41 http://www.uiowa.edu/%7Eacadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html42
  • 9 51.7 archaeopteryx postmoernity TOEFL 43 community Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. ... community Community /mju:/ tone pitch community /mju:/ Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate.43 http://www.lixiaolai.com/misc/tpartc/toelf-part-c-all/toelf-part-c-all.rarhttp://www.lixiaolai.com/index.php/downloads
  • l l l l l l l l /əә/ l /s/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /əә/ lcity /ˈsi-ti/ /i/ /i/l a: /eɪ/ /əә/ l have: /hæv/ /həәv, əәv, v/l am: /æm/ /əәm, m/ l he: /hiː/ /hi, iː, i/l an: /æn/ /əәn, n/ l her: /həәː/ /həә, əәː, əә/l and: /ænd/ /əәnd, nd, əәn, n/ l him: /him/ /im/l any: /eni/ /ni/ l his: /hiz/ /iz/l are: /a:/ /əә/ l I: /ai/ /aː, əә/l as: /æs/ /əәz/ l is: /iz/ /s, z/l at: /æt/ /əәt/ l many: /meni/ /mni/l but: /bʌt/ /bəәt/ l me: /miː/ /mi/l can: /kæn/ /kəәn, kn, k / l must: /mʌst/ /məәst, məәs/l could: /kud/ /kəәd, kd/ l my: /mai/ /mi/l do: /duː/ /du, dəә, d/ l of: /əәv/ /əәv, v, əә/l does: /dʌz/ /dəәz, z, s/ l our: / ʊɚ/ /ar/l for: /fɔː/ /fəә/ l shall: /ʃæl/ /ʃəәl, ʃl/l from: /frɔm/ /frəәm, frm/ l she: /ʃiː/ /ʃi/l had: /hæd/ /həәd, əәd, d/ l should: /ʃud/ /ʃəәd, ʃd, ʃt/l has: /hæz/ /həәz, əәz, z, s/ l so: /səәʊ/ /səә/
  • l some: /sʌm/ /səәm, sm/ l us: /us/ /əәs/ l such: /sʌʧ/ /səәʧ/ l was: /wɔz/ /wəәz, wəә/ l than: /ðæn/ /ðəәn, ðn/ l we: /wiː/ /wi/ l that: /ðæt/ /ðəәt/ l were: /wəәː/ /wəә/ l the: /ði:/ /ði, ðəә/ l when: /wen/ /wəәn/ l them: /ðem/ /ðəәm, ðm, əәm, m/ l will: /wil/ /əәl, l/ l then: /ðen/ /ðəәn/ l would: /wud/ /wəәd, əәd, d/ l to: /tuː/ /tu, təә/ l you: /juː/ /ju/ our /ar/ l I hope youve all finished reading the assigned chapter on insurance -- so that youre prepared for our discussion today. 2 1 l One of our main jobs is to keep detailed records of the migration patterns of raptors. 90 31.8 /t/ /d/ /s/ /t/ /d/ /s/ /t/ [t] /d/ /s/ [t] [d] [s] /t/ /d/ /s/ [t] [d] [s] /t/ /d/ /s/ [t] [d] [s] IPA [t] [d] dental t/d /t̪/ /d̪/ t/d
  • 44 /t/ /t/ [t] [t] /d/ /s/ /t/ /d/ /s/ [s]44 Phonetics: The sounds ofAmerican English http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
  • student students /ts/ /t/ /dz/ /d/ We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called "One On One" helps elementary students whove fallen behind. 1 2~3 students teacher particular /t/ /d/ /s/ [t] [d] [s] [t] [d] [s] /s/[t] [d] [s] /t/ /d/ /s/ helps_elementary... /hel/ /p/ /s / elementary /t/ /d/1.9 /l/
  • /l/ [l] /l/ [l] [l] /l/ /l/ /n / /l/ law value fly /l/ [l] /l/ lawful , valuable , financial , still /ˈlɔːfəәu/ /ˈvæljəәbəәu//faɪˈnænʃəәu/ /ˈstɪəәu/ o /l/ /əәl/ /əәu/ /əәu/ /əәl/ /əә/ /əәl/ /əәu/ lawful , valuable , financial , still Im sure youll enjoy this community service, and youll gain valuable experience at the same time. 1 4 4545
  • /l/ Im sure youll_enjoy this community service, and youll gain valuable_experience at the same time. valuable experience” valuable /əәl/ /əәl/ /ˈpɪ/ /ˌvæ-ljəә-bəә-liks-...-ˈpɪ-rɪəәns/ /liks/ /ˈpɪ/ youll enjoy” /l/ Youll_enjoy valuable_experience /l/ /l+ / real audio” /ri-ˈlɔ:-diəәʊ/ Professor Dodge will_act as a mentor to the tutors... 1 9 /l/ /t/ /d/ /s/1.10 /t/
  • /t/ /t/ [t] /t/ /t/ /t/ city /t/ /t/ /t̬/ t v” [1] meet /miːt/ ing /ˈmiːt̬ɪ /——/t/ /t̪/ /d/ /t/ /t/ You education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching -- that is, tutoring in math and English. 1 4 it offers” /t/ that is” /t/ /t̬/ /d/ /t/ ——/t̪/ /d/ /t̪//t̪/ /d/ /t/ /t/ /t̬/ writer rider latter ladder petal pedal opportunity t tutoring t /s/ /t/ /k/ /p/ /ʧ/ study /sdʌdɪ/46 school /sgu:l/47 experience /ɪksˈbɪəәrəәns/48 strive /sʤaɪv/49 /s/ distance 50, costume 51, biscuit 52 /s/ coas t /t/46 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/s/study001.wav; cougar.eb.com47 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/s/school01.wav48 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/e/experi01.wav49 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/s/strive01.wav50 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/d/distan01.wav51 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/c/costum02.wav52 http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/b/biscui01.wav
  • 1. html IPAcharacter picker 4.1 2. /t/ /d/1.11 /t//t/ /t/ I hope you’ve all finished reading the assigned chapter on insurance — so that you’re prepared for our discussion today. 2 1 finished ed /sh/ /t/53 reading /t/ /t/ /d/ /t/ /d/ /t/ /d/ might be /maibi:/ /mai(-)bi:/ (-) /bi:/ might be interested in it53 “ed” /t/ /d/ td /ɪd/
  • You education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching — that is, tutoring in math and English. 1 4 /p/ /b/ /k/ /g/ helps /p/ looks /k/ A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind. 1 3 It looks good on your resume, too… 1 3 541.12/t + j/ /ʧ/ want you... Then tonight I want you to go home and read a passage into a tape recorder and evaluate your own voice. 16 1 /t/ /j/ 55/t/ that /t/ /j/ /t/ /j/ I hope youve all finished reading the assigned chapter on insurance -- so that youre prepared for our discussion today. 2 1/d + j/ /d/ /j/ /ʤ/ What should you do, then, on those sleepless nights? 20 1054 2.755 /j/ /j/ /j/ /j/ /j/
  • what” /t/ should” /ʃ/ /ʧ/ should”/d/ /ju:/ /djəә/ you” do” /d +j/ ʤ”/s + j/ /ʃ/ /s + j/ this year” /s/ /s/ /ðɪ-ˈʃɪəә/ As the committee in charge of this years tree-planting project, we have several items on our agenda. 9 2 When you entered as first-year students this year, the school assigned you to a dorm and a roommate... 40 2 /t/ /d/ /s/ /t/ /ʧ/ /t/ [t] 561.13 /t//t/l /t/ [t] /t/l /t/l /t/ /d/l /s/ /ts/ /d/ /dz/l /d/ /p/ /sh/ /t/l /t + j/ /ʧ/ /d + j/ /ʤ/1.14 Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before56 /t/ /d/ —— 2/3 ——
  • they graduate. A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind. 1 1~3 component programl component com po nentl program pro gram /æ/57 58 59 component program y ng hu li n pi n y ng hu li n pi n57 /æ/ :5859
  • 60 wife /aɪ/ /aɪ/lll 1 2 4 0 01.15 /ʌ/ /æ//ʌ / /əә/ encourage /inˈkʌriʤ //ʌ/ /əә/ /in-kəәr-ij/ 61 encourage We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind.6061
  • l abduct l dump l sonl above l exult l strugglel brunt l glutton l stubbornl brush l hull l stuccol budget l hunt l studyl bump l hush l stumpl bunk l hut l suchl bus l love l supperl but l lunch l troublel chuck l mumble l underl club l nothing l untill come l ruffle l upl cover l rummage l upperl crush l rush l usl cut l slumber l usherl deluxe l slush l wonderl discuss l some 1) /əә/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ 2) /ʌ/ / //æ/ / / /æ/ after , ask , glass , master , pass /æ/ /ː/ ask after My recommendation is that we ask the administration to keep the center open after midnight for studying. 86 3l absolute l ant l batl add l anthem l bathl admiral l apple l castlel after l ask l catl alcove l baggage l commandl ambulance l bank l dancel ample l bashful l disasterl annual l basket l fabricl answer l bass l frank
  • l glassl grassl halfwayl handl handsomel ladl lampl laughl madl manl massl masterl mathl passagel passl pathl raml rankl sadl sandwichl shatterl snackl tankl trackl trapl wax
  • 1.16 /aɪ/ /eɪ/ /ɛɚ/ /ɪəә/ /ɔɪ/ /aɪ/l /a/l /a/ /aɪ/ /a/ /ɪ/ 62/eɪ/ /ɛɚ/ /ɪəә/ /ɔɪ/—— /aɪ/ /aʊ/ /əәʊ/ /ʊəә/ /ʊ/ /aʊ/ /əәʊ/ /ʊəә/ /a:/ /i:/ /əә:/ /u:/ /ɔ:/ /æ/ Community service is an important component of education here at our university. 1 11.17 /θ/ /ð/ /v/ /ʒ// / /ð/62 DAVID ALAN STERN The Sound and Style of American English
  • / / /ð//v/ /v/ /w/
  • /ʒ/ [zh] [zh] /ʒ/ /ʒ/ vision” /v/ /ʒ/ revision” /ð/ / / They have a wide field of vision and, like most grazing animals, they are especially good at detecting movement. 75 5 Then you can make the necessary revisions and hand in your final outline, which is due two weeks from today. 23 10[zh] /ʒ/ /ʒ/1.18 Pitch pitch David Allen Stern 63 Step-up-and-step-down pattern63 The Sound and Style of American English
  • Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind. pitch Community , all , new , helps n n n n n /t/ /d/ /s//l/ / / /ð/ /v/ /ʒ/ /ʌ/ /æ/1.19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. /əә/ 6. 7. /t/ /k/ /p/ /d/ /g/ /b/ 8. /t/
  • Community service is an important component of education here at our university.n Community /mju:/n service is service servicesn “an important component of” important” component” important” /pɔ:/ /t/ component” /pəәu/ /nəәnt/“ of” component” /əәf/n “here at our university” /ˈhɪəә-æt-auəә-juniˈvəә:siti/ here” university” /vəә:/ at /əәt/ our” /auəә/ at” /əә/ here” /əә/ at” /t/ /əә/ /auəә/ /t/ /ˈhɪəә-dauəә-juniˈvəә:siti/We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity beforethey graduate.n “encourage” /inˌkəәˌri:ʤ/ /ri:ʤ/“n alln to /t/n “volunteer” /tɪəә/n “for at least” /t/ for” /fɚ/n onen “community activity” /iti/ /əәdɪ/ /d/ /t/n beforen “they” /ðɪ/ /ð/n graduateA new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’vefallen behind.n newn “program” /pəәu/ /græm/n calledn One on One One One onn “helps elementary students” helps elementary” elementary” help” p”
  • /help / /hel/ /ˈselɪ-men-təәri/ helpn who ve fallen behind who ve /v/ /f/ who fallen behindYou education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers theopportunity to do some teaching — that is, tutoring in math and English.n Youn education /kei/n might /t/n especiallyn interested in it /t/n it offers /t/ offern teachingn that is /t/n tutoringn and English EnglishYou’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester.n You d have to /ju-dæf-tu/n volunteern twon “for” /fɚ/n oneYou can choose to help a child with math, English, or both.n “can” /kəәn/n choose help child math Englishn or both or bothHalf-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days aweek.n Half /hæf/n finen half eachn twon week
  • Professor Dodge will act as a mentor to the tutorsn “will act” will” /wəәl/ act” ,“ /wəә-ˈlæ(k)t/ /k/n mentorn tutors– he’ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities.n “with lesson plans” with” /wəәð/ /l/ /ð/n or to offer to /t/ /d/He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon.n hours hoursn Tuesday and Thursday afternoon andYou can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week.n “can” /kəәn/n sign up /p/ forn “with him” /wɪ-zɪm/ him” /h/ /h/I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service and you’ll gain valuable experience atthe same time.n I m sure enjoy valuable same timen you ll enjoy valuable experience /l + e/It looks good on your resume, too — showing that you’ve had experience withchildren and that you care about your community.n looks good /k/n “resume” re” /meɪ/n toon children programn andn care about
  • If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week. n you d like to /d/ n “sign up” /saɪ-nʌ/ or if you have any question” n “Dodge” s” /dɔ-ʤɜs/1.20 64 international accent 6564 1-7 Cambridge IELTS 1-765
  • 1.21 MS Word Word 66 67 /ˈ/ /ˌ/MS Word CTRL+B CTRL+U66 Word67 3.5
  • 1 2 4 1) 2) 60 905 60 5 1 10
  • 1.22 68 TOEFL GRE 40 2.5 32 24 24 2 TOEFL SAT 120 TOEFL 110 69 Trilingual68 2.669 1.4
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  • 2.1 principle principal quite quiet sometime sometimes everyone every one scale ~ of the economy ~ of fish strike home even Steven paint the town red birds of prey prey
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  • 72 Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Yourgrandparents had a different word for burger flipping; they called it opportunity. flip burgers to do work that does not pay well, esp.at a cheap restaurant. Instead of playing baseball, the boys might be flipping burgers andearning a little cash.73 disease condition journeyman Journeyman Eric Clapton tears in heaven Journeyman journeyman Eric Clapton journeyman , 20 Journeyman(2007)74 journeyman2008 Man from Earth (2007)75 Earth the earth earth Man fromEarth Cave Man3.372 http://is.gd/6eL9573 http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/flip+burgers74 http://www.imdb.com/title/tt094853875 http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0756683/
  • word word phrase word 76 word words phrases phrasal verb dictionary dictionary ofidioms phrasal verbs idioms But this increased protection is partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially vulnerable if they are on the ground. Even those in trees can be attacked by birds of prey. counteracted roost predator vulnerable prey birds of prey77 Collegeboard Online Course I would rather chance my personal vision of the truth striking home here and there in the chaos of publication that exists than attempt to filter it through a few sets of official, honorable, and public-spirited scrutinizers.7677 2.1 birds of prey
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  • Webster Random House WebsterUnabridged Dictionary Merriam-WebsterCollegiate Dictionary and Thesaurus Merriam-Webster GRE ! GRE Merriam-Webster GRE GRE ETS GREMerriam-Webster 2.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 emule 50M 50M Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Websterrecognize co [ki]
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  • WordBank (Collins) 50 79 (Collins) Collins Cobuild EnglishGrammar80 (Collins) 1.1 A Z79 http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx80 http://www.amazon.com/Collins-COBUILD-English-Grammar/dp/0007183879
  • 3.7 Oxford Collocation DictionaryOxford Collocation Dictionary for Students of EnglishOxford Phrasebuilder Genie Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary Oxford Collocation Dictionary for Students of English 380 CDROM 2009
  • 1 5 house house live in, occupy, share, buy, rent, sellVERB+HOUSE
  • I hate purple passage with no essential content. passage purple passage purple purple passage purple passages[ ] content contents[ ]3.8 WordNet WordWebWordNet • (George A. Miller81) 1985 English lexical database) 2006 WordNet 12M 15 11.5 20.7 nouns verbs adjectives adverbs Wikipedia 82l Nouns n hypernyms: Y is a hypernym of X if every X is a (kind of) Y (canine is a hypernym of dog) n hyponyms: Y is a hyponym of X if every Y is a (kind of) X (dog is a hyponym of canine) n coordinate terms: Y is a coordinate term of X if X and Y share a hypernym (wolf is a coordinate term of dog, and dog is a coordinate term of wolf) n holonym: Y is a holonym of X if X is a part of Y (building is a holonym of window) 198581 300WordNet 1998 Brown University WordNet disambiguator Jeff Stibel Simpli 2000 Simpli NetZero 2350 2003 WordNet Applied Semantics 1998 Oingo Google 1 200 GoogleAdSence82 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WordNet
  • n meronym: Y is a meronym of X if Y is a part of X (window is a meronym of building)l Verbs n hypernym: the verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a (kind of) Y (to perceive is an hypernym of to listen) n troponym: the verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner (to lisp is a troponym of to talk) n entailment: the verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y (to sleep is entailed by to snore) n coordinate terms: those verbs sharing a common hypernym (to lisp and to yell)l Adjectives n related nouns n similar to n participle of verbl Adverbs n root adjectives dictionary Thesaurus WordNet 83 Windows 84 Unix-like 85 Thinkmap® Visual Thesaurus86 WordNet83 http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn84 http://wordnetcode.princeton.edu/2.1/WordNet-2.1.exe85 http://wordnetcode.princeton.edu/3.0/WordNet-3.0.tar.gz86 http://www.visualthesaurus.com/
  • TVT3.9 double blind test double blind test double blind test unintended consequences 87 unintended consequences87 Robert K. Merton wikipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unintended_consequence
  • double blind test unintendedconsequences 88 n n n Stick to the plan n n n n Action Reaction n n 2 n n n html css Wikipedia8988 2.289 http://en.wikipedia.org; 2005 Wikipedia
  • 3.10 apple cockroach fool rock ticketMerriam-Webster n apple: the fleshy usually rounded and red, yellow, or green edible pome fruit of a tree n cockroach: any of an order or suborder (Blattodea syn. Blattaria) of chiefly nocturnal insects including some that are domestic pests n fool: a person lacking in judgment or prudence n rock: a concreted mass of stony material; also: broken pieces of such masses n ticket: a document that serves as a certificate, license, or permit n apple: n cockroach: n fool: n rock: n ticket: hooligan Merriam-Webster hooligan: RUFFIAN, HOODLUM RUFFIAN: a brutal person : BULLY HOODLUM: THUG; especially: one who commits acts of violence THUG: a brutal ruffian or assassin : GANGSTER, KILLER Wikipedia
  • hooligan: [ ] , , hooligan wikipedia Etymology90 There are several theories about the origin of the word hooliganism. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary states that word may originate from the surname of a fictional rowdy Irish family in a music hall song of the 1890s. Clarence Rooks, in his 1899 book, Hooligan Nights, claimed that the word came from Patrick Hoolihan (or Hooligan), an Irish bouncer and thief who lived in the London borough of Southwark. Another writer, Earnest Weekley, wrote in his 1912 book Romance of Words, “The original hooligans were a spirited Irish family of that name whose proceedings enlivened the drab monotony of life in Southwark about fourteen years ago”. There have also been references made to a 19th century rural Irish family with the surname Houlihan who were known for their wild lifestyle. Another theory is that the term came from a street gang in Islington named Hooley. Yet another theory is that the term is based on an Irish word, houlie, which means a wild, spirited party. 91 different diverse divergent distinct various different90 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooliganism91 d j vu
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  • 4.1 • MiltonFriedman Friedman Georges Clemenceau – image extracted from Google Books search results9292 http://is.gd/6hMzX
  • too to much Parsing Parsing: Lost art of identifying all the components of a text, and once one of the fundamental exercises that tested and informed pupils in English. To parse a phrase such as ‘man bites dog’ involves noting that the singular noun ‘man’ is the subject of the sentence, the verb ‘bites’ is the third person singular of the present tense of the verb to bite, and the singular noun ‘dog’ is the object of the sentence. – Dictionary of Modern English Grammar, by Ned Halley, Wordsworth, 20054.2 1953 Winston Churchill93 By being so long in the lowest form I gained an immense advantage over the cleverer boys. They all went on to learn Latin and Greek and splendid things like that. But I was taught English. We were considered such dunces that we could learn only English. Mr. Somervell — a most delightful man, to whom my debt is great — was charged with the duty of teaching the stupidest boys the most disregarded thing–namely, to write mere English. He knew how to do it. He taught it as no one93 http://www.winstonchurchill.org/
  • else has ever taught it. Not only did we learn English parsing thoroughly, but we also practised continually English analysis. Mr. Somervell had a system of his own. He took a fairly long sentence and broke it up into its components by means of black, red, blue, and green inks. Subject, verb, object: Relative Clauses, Conditional Clauses, Conjunctive and Disjunctive Clauses! Each had its colour and its bracket. It was a kind of drill. We did it almost daily. As I remained in the Third Form three times as long as anyone else, I had three times as much of it. I learned it thoroughly. Thus I got into my bones the essential structure of the ordinary British sentence — which is a noble thing. And when in after years my schoolfellows who had won prizes and distinction for writing such beautiful Latin poetry and pithy Greek epigrams had to come down again to common English, to earn their living or make their way, I did not feel myself at any disadvantage. Naturally I am biased in favor of boys learning English. I would make them all learn English: and then I would let the clever ones learn Latin as an honour, and Greek as a treat. But the only thing I would whip them for is not knowing English, I would whip them hard for that. – My Early Life: A Roving Commission, Thornton Butterworth [UK] and Charles Scribner’s Sons [US], 1930) Abraham Lincoln 9494 “ ……”
  • William Mentor Graham “Spoke to me one day and said: ‘I had a notion of studying grammar‘, recalled Graham. “There was none in the village and I said to him: ‘I know of a grammar at one Vance’s (a man named John Vance), about six miles. Got up and went on foot to Vance’s and got the book. He soon came back and told me he had it. He then turned his immediate and almost undivided attention to English grammar. The book was Kirkham’s Grammar, an old (1826) volume.” – “My Childhood’s Home” Growing Up With Young Abe Lincoln, by Richard Kigel image from American Treasures of the Library of Congress95 Monday, [April] 24th On Saturday last we had General Rosecrans before our committee, and his account of the campaign of Western Virginia makes McClellan look meaner than ever. On last Friday went with Indianans to call on President Johnson. Governor Morton transgressed the proprieties by reading a carefully prepared essay on the subject of reconstruction. Johnson entered upon the same theme, indulging in bad grammar, bad pronunciation and much incoherency of thought. In common with many I was mortified.95 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr132.html
  • – Lincoln the Lover: III. The Tragedy, Wilma Frances Minor the evolutionary costs and benefits of innovations work like the economics of pharmaceutical research. The Pfizer Corporation spent over $I00 million and many years developing the drug Viagra before the drug made a single cent of profit. The costs accumulated early, and the benefits came only later. Drug companies can cope with this delayed gratification, and have the foresight to undertake the research that leads to such profitable innovations. But evolution has no foresight. It lacks the long-term vision of drug company management. A species can’t raise venture capital to pay its bills while its research team tries to turn an innovative idea into a market-dominating biological product. Each species has to stay biologically profitable every generation, or else it goes extinct. – The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature, by Geoffrey Miller, ANCHOR BOOKS 2000 96 If one were looking for an iconic image of the Second World War that summed up Allied pluck and derring-do it would have to be that of Winston Churchill with index and middle finger raised in a defiant ‘V’ for “Victory” sign. Revered for his strength of character and his willful defiance of Nazi Germany when Britain stood alone against the Third Reich, Winston Churchill is cherished throughout the world as one of the war’s most heroic figures. His legacy during one of the darkest eras in human history paints a portrait of the man as a wonderful, larger-than-life personality—a characterization that overshadows his faults and shortcomings in those crucial years. But those faults and shortcomings had a devastating legacy of their own. Winston Churchill: The Flawed Genius of World War II examines the decisions and policies Churchill made in the vital months between June 1940 and December 1941 that prolonged the war, allowed for millions of casualties, and left half of Europe behind96http://www.lixiaolai.com/index.php/archives/422.html
  • the Iron Curtain. In 1941 Britain was waging a successful campaign against Italy inNorth Africa. General O’Connor could in fact have beaten them altogether andthereby prevented Rommel and his army from even landing. However, Churchillmade the fatal decision to switch key British and Commonwealth divisions fromNorth Africa to Greece in order to defend that country from German invasion, aheroic but guaranteed-to-fail gesture, and fail it did. When the United States enteredthe war, George Marshall’s victory plan was to launch an invasion of theContinent—what would become operation Overlord—early in 1943 and force a directengagement of the enemy. But Churchill’s decision to remove troops to Greecestalled Britain’s victory in North Africa and enabled Rommel and his crack AfrikaKorps to gain a foothold. Now Churchill urged Roosevelt to help beleaguered Britishtroops in the African desert and that meant diverting troops from Marshall’s victoryplan. It made landing in northwestern Europe entirely impossible, and D-day, themain objective of attacking Germany directly, through France, was postponed untilJune 1944. As a result, by the time the Allies landed in Normandy, Soviet troops werefurther west than they would have been in 1943. In that crucial year, millions ofcivilians—Jewish, Russian, Polish, and German—died who might have lived. By thewar’s end Stalin had already eclipsed half of Europe. Had D-day been earlier the IronCurtain may have fallen with very different and diminished borders and millions ofCentral Europeans could have lived in freedom from 1945-1989. While Churchill’swas only one player in the drama that allowed this calamity to happen, ChristopherCatherwood contends that it certainly tarnished the legacy of his “finest hour.” – Winston Churchill: The Flawed Genius of WWII by Christopher CatherwoodIn August 1908, Hitler wrote a letter to Gustl that makes plain his mediocre successin mastering the most elementary usages of German spelling and grammar, not tomention any coherent subject matter. The handwriting is childish, two words arescratched out and written over, other words are misspelled, punctuation ishaphazard, and the style is rambling and disconnected. German spelling does notpresent the same kind of difficulty to the young student that English does. Novestigial spellings like though, touch, read, colonel, psalm, and such exist in German,which is spelled with dependable regularity. For young Hitler, however, the Germanlanguage was mined with booby traps. The spelling in his letter is often erratic: dannbecomes dan, sofort becomes soffort, Katarrh is spelled chartar, dies is spelled withtwo s’s, and so on. His use of capitals in this correspondence is also unpredictable.*Punctuation is omitted. In the August letter, as in others, he never used a questionmark. He asks “Who really published the newspaper I sent you last time” without aquestion mark. In the sentence “Have you read the last decisions of the municipalcouncil in connection with the new Teater,” Theater is spelled without the h, which ispart of the German as well as the English word, and again the sentence ends without
  • a question mark. So does the following sentence: “Do you know any details.” The pronoun sie, meaning either “they” or “she,” is not capitalized in German usage, although Sie, the formal pronoun meaning “you,” is. Hitler, however, capitalizes sie for “they” and for “she,” just as he haphazardly capitalizes other pronouns that should be lowereased. Words are hopelessly run togetherin one case seven of them, to make one long misspelled and inchoate formulation. – The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism by Davidson, Eugene. K K4.3 1 99.9%
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