Overview of the parts of an argument


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Reviews the definition of an argument, parts of an argument, explains some basics of analyzing and constructing arguments

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Overview of the parts of an argument

  1. 1. Overview of the parts of an argument Claim, Support, Warrant
  2. 2. What is an argument? • An argument is an attempt to convince or persuade someone to accept a claim by offering reasons, evidence and appeals to the audience’s needs and values. • Understood this way an argument has three main elements.
  3. 3. 3 Elements • Claim- what you are trying to prove • Support—reasons and evidence offered to support the claim • Warrants-underlying assumptions that link the support and the claim. • Sometimes warrants are argued for but often they are assumed.
  4. 4. Types of Claims • Claims of fact including predictions, interpretations, statements of cause and effect • Claims of value including evaluations and ethical arguments • Claims of policy—claims about the right course of action
  5. 5. Types of support • Facts and statistics • Examples, real and hypothetical • Expert testimony • Textual or visual evidence • Analogies or comparisons • Appeals to the needs and values of the audience
  6. 6. Types of Warrants include • Assumptions about the reliability of authorities or data • Assumptions about the relevance and representativeness of examples • Assumptions about how to interpret the evidence • Assumptions about cause and effect relationships
  7. 7. Types of Warrants continued • Assumptions about two situations being comparable or analogous • Assumptions about values
  8. 8. When evaluating arguments • You need to consider the evidence and whether it is credible, sufficient and relevant. • You need to consider the warrants (even if they are unstated). It is possible to accept the evidence and still reject the claim if you do not agree with the warrant.
  9. 9. Other kinds of analysis • Arguments also can be analyzed in terms of the audience they are aimed at, the context in which they are written, and the kinds of appeals to character, logic, and values and emotions they make.
  10. 10. • Logos-Appeal to reason--emphasizes the subject matter of the argument with supporting reasons and evidence • Pathos-Appeal to emotion-focuses on what the audience values or fears and tries to move them emotionally • Ethos-Appeal to authority or character-- emphasizes the credibility of the speaker or writer 3 means of persuasion
  11. 11. Four Pillars of Academic Argument • Thesis statement • Evidence • Refutation of opposing views • Concluding statement to reinforce your position