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6 ways to build an insecure mobile application
 

6 ways to build an insecure mobile application

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As the world turns from desktop computing to mobile computing, the security of the mobile ecosystem is becoming critical to both businesses and individuals. Join us for an overview of the threats ...

As the world turns from desktop computing to mobile computing, the security of the mobile ecosystem is becoming critical to both businesses and individuals. Join us for an overview of the threats facing the mobile landscape, common vulnerabilities, and real-world examples of flaws we've seen in our own testing practice.

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    6 ways to build an insecure mobile application 6 ways to build an insecure mobile application Presentation Transcript

    • 6 ways to build an insecure mobile application Daniel Miessler Principal Security Architect, HP Fortify June 2013 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Agenda • Introduction • Why mobile security matters • Mobile security differences • Common mobile vulnerabilities • Takeaways • Questions 2 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Introduction Daniel Miessler, CISSP, CISA, GCIA Principal Security Architect, HP Fortify • • • • • • 10 years experience doing security testing 5 years experience doing appsec testing Web Application Vulnerability Assessments Mobile Application Vulnerability Assessments Application Security Process Development Enterprise Security Consulting daniel.miessler@hp.com 3 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Why mobile security matters © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Considerations: Mobile traffic increases • Global mobile data traffic will increase 26-fold between 2010 and 2015 • There will be nearly one mobile device per capita by 2015 (~7 billion) • Mobile payments will exceed 984 Billion by 2014 Data from Smart Insights, Yankee Group 2012 5 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Considerations: Mobile ubiquity • Mobile performance is becoming extraordinary • Using a desktop (static) computer will become increasingly rare • “Home computer” will come to mean better input and display options 6 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Considerations: Mobile ubiquity II • Mobile computing will soon be known as “computing” • Computing somewhere other than your mobile device will be the activity that requires a name • 7 Attackers follow the users © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Considerations: Mobile insecurity • • • • 8 Mobile development is the hottest type of development right now. New surface area equals dangerous surface area If anyone’s going to put features over security to get the product out the door, it’s likely to be a mobile team Many enterprise mobile developers haven’t had the security training that other types of developers have had Many assume that because mobile back ends aren’t visited directly they are more secure (obscurity assumption) © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Mobile security differences © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Mobile security differences Q: What’s the difference between “regular” security and mobile security? 10 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Mobile security differences: Thick-client testing Client Network • • • • • • • • • • 11 ABAP C/C++ Java Objective C Python VB6 COBOL Cold Fusion XML SQL © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Server • • • • • • • • • • ASP.NET VB.NET C# Classic ASP HTML Flex JavaScript/AJAX JSP PHP VBScript
    • Mobile security differences: Thick-client testing Client • • • • 12 Credentials in memory Credentials on filesystem Data stored on filesystem Poor cert management Network • • • • • • • • • • ABAP C/C++ Java Objective C Python VB6 COBOL Cold Fusion XML SQL © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Server • • • • • • • • • • ASP.NET VB.NET C# Classic ASP HTML Flex JavaScript/AJAX JSP PHP VBScript
    • Mobile security differences: Thick-client testing Client • • • • 13 Credentials in memory Credentials on filesystem Data stored on filesystem Poor cert management Network • • • • • • • • • • ABAP C/C++ Java Objective C Python VB6 COBOL Cold Fusion XML SQL • Cleartext credentials • Cleartext data • Backdoor data • Data leakage © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Server • • • • • • • • • • ASP.NET VB.NET C# Classic ASP HTML Flex JavaScript/AJAX JSP PHP VBScript
    • Mobile security differences: Thick-client testing Client • • • • 14 Credentials in memory Credentials on filesystem Data stored on filesystem Poor cert management Network • • • • • • • • • • ABAP C/C++ Java Objective C Python VB6 COBOL Cold Fusion XML SQL • Cleartext credentials • Cleartext data • Backdoor data • Data leakage © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Server • • • • • • • • • • ASP.NET VB.NET C# Classic ASP HTML Flex JavaScript/AJAX JSP PHP VBScript • • • • • Injection flaws Authentication Session management Access control Logic flaws
    • Mobile security differences Q: What’s the difference between this and mobile? 15 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Mobile security differences: Mobile security Client • • • • 16 Credentials in memory Credentials on filesystem Data stored on filesystem Poor cert management Network • • • • • • • • • • ABAP C/C++ Java Objective C Python VB6 COBOL Cold Fusion XML SQL • Cleartext credentials • Cleartext data • Backdoor data • Data leakage © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Server • • • • • • • • • • ASP.NET VB.NET C# Classic ASP HTML Flex JavaScript/AJAX JSP PHP VBScript • • • • • Injection flaws Authentication Session management Access control Logic flaws
    • Mobile security differences: Expanded mobile risk Two key differences Magnified network vulnerability Magnified physical vulnerability 17 Your network traffic is more likely to be visible to others with a mobile device than at work or home As with most other types of computer, once the attacker has physical access, it’s over © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common mobile vulnerabilities 2013 edition © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: OWASP Open Web Application Security Project • • • • • • Thought leader in web security Runs many projects designed to help industry security their applications OWASP Top 10 Risk Rating Methodology Vulnerability Prevention Cheat sheets Our team is heading up the Mobile Top 10 2013 http://www.owasp.org/ 19 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • OWASP Mobile Top 10 Risks M1 – Insecure Data Storage M6 – Improper Session Handling M2 – Weak Server Side Controls M7 – Security Decisions via Untrusted Inputs M3 – Insufficient Transport Layer Protection M8 – Side Channel Data Leakage M4 – Client Side Injection M9 – Broken Cryptography M5 – Poor Authorization and Authentication M10 – Sensitive Information Disclosure 20 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Most apps are vulnerable Most high-scrutiny (see: previously hacked) mobile apps are decently secure now, but the next tier down still have many issues • Evaluating any given application is likely to yield significant vulnerabilities • The younger, more eager the shop– the higher the chance of issues 21 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Real-world perspective • Definitely check out the OWASP Top 10, but this is more about what we’re seeing in the wild • We constantly test mobile applications from the top companies in the world, and these are the top categories of issue we find in those applications 22 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Real-world results 66% • • Case study of 120 Mobile applications for a single enterprise customer (results are typical) 66% of applications contained a critical or high vulnerability that either: • • 23 Disclosed 1 or more users’ personal data Compromised the backend system © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Logic flaws Logic flaws are due to faulty developer assumptions, i.e. not thinking like an attacker • • • • • • 24 Changing an arbitrary user’s password Bypassing multi-step authentication Free product by skipping payment step Product + refund by submitting negative number Defeating a business limit by entering a high negative number Getting a bulk discount on only one item by modifying the cart manually afterwards © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Logic flaw defense Logic flaws are avoided by performing exhaustive vulnerability assessments before going to production • • • • • 25 Fully understand the anticipated flow of the application Assume the mind of the attacker Identify places that developers likely made assumptions Attempt to take advantage of those assumptions As a developer, think in terms of abuse vs. just regular use © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Poor TLS implementations Many mobile developers are allowing SSL communication with any host • • • • • 26 Trusting any certificate it sees Allows expired certificates Allows trivial MiTM attacks Can connect to HTTPS once, and then fall back Once in the middle, attackers can model your app’s functionality enroute to breaking it © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Poor TLS implementation TLS protection has multiple levels of security • • • • • 27 Ensure HTTPS is always enabled Attempt to match the name of the remote certificate Certificate pinning* Recognize that nothing is fool-proof, and adjust according to your app’s specific needs Remember that pinning was a defense against compromised CAs, not against MiTM © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Promiscuous client-side storage Perhaps the most abused functionality is client-side storage • • • • • 28 Storage of credentials in plist files, SQLite databases Failure to use KeyChain to store credentials Storage of sensitive application data on filesystem Apps (e.g.: banks) storing their images in the public folder rather than in their sandbox Applications logging to the system log, but sending sensitive app data along with it © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Promiscuous client-side storage Q: What data on your iOS device is protected by the built-in encryption, i.e. the passcode? 29 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Promiscuous client-side storage A: By default, only email and texts. 30 In other words, most application data being stored on an iOS device is available to anyone who steals your phone—even if it is locked and has a passcode. © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Promiscuous client-side storage DEMO 31 • • • • • Corporate issued iPhone Latest software (6.1.4) Not jailbroken Locked With passcode © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Promiscuous client-side storage Be cautious of anything you save— anywhere—including on the client-side • • • • • 32 Ensure you’re using the platform-recommended solution to store credentials Ensure you use the Data Protection API to store any sensitive data; it will not be protected by default: (See: NSFileProtectionComplete in developer documenetation) Ensure you are storing everything from your app into the app sandbox so it cannot be read by other applications Check all logging functionality and note what you’re sending Observe your log files within the XCode log viewer and ensure you are not storing anything sensitive © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Failure to harden binaries There are a number of binary defenses that developers are not implementing 33 • ASLR PIE (memory randomization) • Stack Smashing Protection Enabled (Canary-based) • Automatic Reference Counting (memory resources) • Binary debug not disabled – User path information disclosure © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Failure to harden binaries Use all defenses possible to harden your binaries before release 34 While some are not critical security issues, they still can have an impact on the overall quality of your application © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Privacy violations Many applications violate privacy without developers being aware • • • • • • 35 Does the application access GeoLocation data? Does the application access your Address Book? Does the application access your Photos? If so, what is your app doing with this data? Does your application use analytics engines? If so, what does it send there? (UUID, app data?) © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Privacy violations Go with an absolute least-privilege approach • • 36 Don’t access any data that could be considered private if you don’t need it There are applications out there that can evaluate what a given binary accesses (AppAuthority, HP Risker) © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Assumption of web obscurity A massive number of applications we see and compromise are compromised due to backend vulnerabilities • • • • • • 37 Promiscuous web services Full SQL statements right in web service calls (saved money on MSSQL Server Manager) Blatant SQLi, XSS, CSRF, File Includes, etc. Many developers assume “who’s coming here?” The datastores are often shared! Shared hosting means compromise of multiple customers © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Common vulnerabilities: Assumption of web obscurity Harden your web backend as if the mobile app didn’t even exist • • • • • 38 Remember how easy it is to MiTM a mobile app Assume everyone can see your traffic This means they can see all the paths and parameters for your backend Assume attackers will come knocking Consider the risks of shared hosting, as others might not be taking these steps—even if you did © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways It’s an interesting time for mobile security • • • 40 Everyone’s heading to mobile, and the attackers are following Mobile is on the leading edge of development, so mobile projects are especially susceptible to security shortcuts Most non-scrutinized applications have major vulnerabilities that are easily found © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways It’s an interesting time for mobile security • • • • 41 Think like an attacker and follow some basic steps to help you evaluate your own applications without much cost Assume the attacker has access to the device and visibility of all traffic going to and from the server, and code accordingly (learn from cryptography) As part of a threat modeling step, track your sensitive data through your app, from user to device to network to server; see where it’s vulnerable Don’t store PII if you don’t have to © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways It’s an interesting time for mobile security • • • • 42 Remember that you must explicitly use the Data Protection APIs otherwise your data will still be available to a thief Don’t be intimidated by “mobile” security; the fundamentals are the same Use industry-tested methods for implementing security; be extremely weary of DIY solutions for input validation, encryption, authentication, etc. Take advantage of the resources available to help you, e.g.: platform secure coding guides, OWASP, etc. © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways: Let us help HP Fortify on Demand • • • • • 43 Cloud-based application security testing Both static and dynamic testing, using automated and manual techniques Integrates with your SDLC and build environment to provide critical security checkpoint Single portal for code uploads and reviewing results Test your apps for free at: https://fortifymyapp.com © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Takeaways Resources iOS Security Guide http://images.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Security_Oct12.pdf Android Security Guide http://source.android.com/tech/security/ OWASP Mobile Top 10 https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Mobile_Security_Project OWASP iOS Developer Cheat sheet https://www.owasp.org/index.php/IOS_Developer_Cheat_Sheet 44 © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
    • Thank you © Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.