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Enterprise 20/20: A collaborative book experience about the future of the enterprise

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Think about all the change that has occurred in the last 10 years – from the societal to the individual, from the economic to the technological. These changes have not just affected the enterprise, …

Think about all the change that has occurred in the last 10 years – from the societal to the individual, from the economic to the technological. These changes have not just affected the enterprise, they’ve redefined it. And of course, the rate of change is only accelerating.
So, what will a successful enterprise look like in 15 years? Or 10? Or even 5? How will it interact with customers, engage partners and empower employees? How might its business models, operating principles and organizational structures differ from today’s enterprise?
To imagine the future of the enterprise, we must understand the forces that are transforming our world and the technological innovations that are shaping the future. How will our professional and personal lives be different? And in what new and unexpected ways will technology work for us?
If we gather thousands of thinkers from the enterprise community, provoke one another to discuss the global, social, business and technological trends that are beginning to emerge – and help each other arrive at some consensus – then each of us will not only be better prepared to bring the challenges of the future into focus, but also help our organizations do the same.

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  • 1. Outlook 2
  • 2. Think about all the change that has occurred in the past 10 years — fromthe societal to the individual, from the economic to the technological. Thesechanges have not just affected the enterprise, they’ve redefined it. And ofcourse, the rate of change is only accelerating.
  • 3. So, what will a successful enterprise look like in15 years? Or 10? Or even 5?How will it interact with customers, engage partners andempower employees? How might its business models,operating principles and organizational structures differfrom today’s enterprise? 4
  • 4. To imagine the future of the enterprise, we mustunderstand the forces that are transforming our world 
and the technological innovations that are shaping 
the future. How will our professional and 
personal lives be different? And in what 
new and unexpected ways will technology 
work for us?Individually, we are at best nearsighted tochanges that will affect the enterprisein 2020 and beyond. 5
  • 5. But if we gather thousands of thinkers from the enterprisecommunity, provoke one another to discuss the global,social, business and technological trends that are beginningto emerge—and help each other arrive at some consensus—then each of us will be better prepared not only to bringthe challenges of the future into focus, but also to help ourorganizations do the same. 6
  • 6. Enterprise 20/20 is a collaborative effort to imagine,discuss and debate the future of the enterprise.This six-month experiment—presented by HP anddriven by the enterprise visionaries, industry leadersand technology experts who make up our communityof customers—will result in a full-length, cloud-enabledbook about what it will take for enterprises to succeedin 2020 and beyond. 7
  • 7. Together, we will examine trends, challenge assumptionsand ultimately drill down to the very issues that matter most—to the boardroom, the applications team, the marketingdepartment, the IT operations center and the CIO’s office. 8
  • 8. WorldWhen you think of 2020 what comes to mind? Forsome, “20/20” means perfect vision. For others,2020 is a not-too-distant point in the future, just farenough to be somewhat fuzzy—or, depending onyour point of view, completely obscure. 9
  • 9. 1.2 WorldImagining the world of tomorrow means lookingat the world of today, learning from the lessonsof others, and being open to challengingnew ideas.Here are six trends we think will shape 
our world by 2020: 10
  • 10. 1.2 World1 Young and old, more people will live on and shape our planet.Between now and 2020, nearly 1 billion youth will reach adulthooda. Enterprise implicationsThis next generation of parents, leaders, workers and educators will The digital youth entering the workforce will expect what today’s digitalfind themselves surrounded by more people. Older people, younger natives expect: intuitive, 24x7 mobile access to information and thepeople, richer and poorer people. use of social tools to improve their effectiveness.Many of these people will come of age in developing nations. But what Active seniors will bring valuable experience to the workforce, providedwill be different is that they will have grown up more aware of their we design flexible environments (virtual or mobile offices) and applyworld, connected through media and mobility to a global grid and a our ingenuity to delivering effective and efficient health care.context to match. To address the consumer preferences of the social media-savvyAnd with the exposure will come the desire for change – for access to generation, enterprises will need to extract meaning from the massivemore and better goods and services, education, opportunities and amounts of text, video and audio content that exists. And targetinghealthier, richer lives. consumers, while negotiating their strong desire for privacy, will require smarter analytics and more computing power than ever before.Simultaneously, we’ll see the graying of the population in so-calleddeveloped countries. In total we’ll have nearly 7.6 billion people,including 23% more people over 75 years old, 30% more people over80 years old and 58% more over 90 years oldb. These seniors will bemore active and will work longer whether because of better health,financial need or personal passion. 11
  • 11. 1.2 WorldWe should expect to see global tastes in fashion and entertainment Enterprise implicationsmore influenced by these newly dominant economies. The increasing As more countries challenge the West’s economic power, enterprisesconnectedness of our 20/20 world will have a major impact on the rate everywhere must rapidly react, plug into and reach the newly dominantat which attitudes and tastes from one culture assimilate globally. cultures in the world of 2020.“Likes” will promote Chinese pop artists, Indian fashion labels, andRussian consumer goods at a rate unimagined to advertising Success will require a blend of hiring people who grew up in theseexecutives from the previous century, buoyed by pride in local heroes, growth economies as well as flexible and adaptable businessstyles and products, and social networks combined with digital reach processes that develop products, services and messages to meet localconnecting millions. preferences, tastes and needs. Enterprises will require advanced analytics and flexible business processes (most likely comprised of cloud-based services) to adapt to rapidly emerging and varying market opportunities. 14
  • 12. 1.2 World3 Resource scarcity will make us more resourceful.Necessity breeds invention. Scarcity of natural resources, from energyand water to precious metals to arable land, will be starting points for Population growth and the riseinnovation. Population growth and the rise of the middle class is driving of the middle class is drivingconsumption around the globe. consumption around the globe.As our existing resources become scarcer and more expensive, we willfind new ways to improve our lives and the health of our world,knowing that failure will lead to austerity, or worse. Enterprise implications Enterprises will capitalize on new product and services opportunities inWe foresee our society innovating new means of energy production, existing markets that are challenged by resource scarcity. Already,creating more comfortable and energy-efficient housing options to venture capitalists are betting billions of dollars on new energysupport our ongoing migration to cities, and eliminating shortages of concepts, and enterprises will apply new techniques to improve yieldseducated workers by using the Internet to boost literacy rates and on everything from agricultural production to resource extraction.marketable skills. For internal improvement, enterprises will employ energy- and water- efficient strategies even as they grow compute, storage and network capacity to meet the growing demands of an increasingly digital populace and business environment. Increased use of cloud computing will provide flexibility to tap spare capacity with limited waste. 15
  • 13. 1.2 World4 Most of us will live in cities.Urban areas will be home to more than 60% of the world’s population In particular, they hold the promise of lower carbon footprints perby 2020c, up from about 50% in 2007d. This includes more than 70 dweller and convenient physical access to services includingcities with more than 5 million residents and more than 25 megacities education, health care and transportation. Also, the population densitywith 10 million-plus residentse. of cities makes access to high-bandwidth Internet more affordable to provide and consume, which in turn provides convenient digital accessCities have their problems, including the potential for inadequate to goods, services and markets.housing, congestion and pollution. But well-run cities have attributesthat will improve living conditions and our planet over time. 16
  • 14. 1.2 WorldEnterprise implicationsIncreasingly, high-bandwidth access to over half of the world’spopulation provides numerous opportunities for enterprises:• Enterprises will engage and interact with customers (and citizens) in rich, expressive, multi-media experiences 24x7. Imagine consumers around the globe trying your latest athletic shoe in a digital 3D augmented-reality experience.• Enterprises will design rich virtual working environments to engage the best and brightest employees or contractors – wherever they reside.• At the same time government agencies and businesses alike will need to bring design and technology solutions to improve housing and transportation systems, solve traffic gridlock, to increase energy efficiency of buildings and find ways to use mobile and other solutions to serve the 40% still in towns and rural areas. The use of sensors to manage traffic flow and lighting in cities has already started, but should be even more intelligent with the technologies emerging by 2020. 17
  • 15. 1.2 World5 We’ll lose our village connections, but gain cyber connections.Our connectedness and the pervasiveness of information continue to Enterprise implicationshave positive impact. Social media is increasingly informing marketing Increasingly, enterprises will amplify their intellectual property byand new product development, but it is also widely credited as a major creating virtual value chains of specialists—contractors, smallfacilitator of the Arab Spring of 2011. businesses, other enterprises—that can help them take ideas to value rapidly. Social collaboration and the cloud will enable these virtual valueIn 2020 we’ll see it in even wider use to connect people with their chains to rapidly assemble, collaborate and realize new marketpersonal and professional contacts, as well as communities of interest, opportunities, then dissolve and reintegrate around the next opportunity.businesses and governments. People will increasingly take advantageof bandwidth enhancements to express themselves in rich multimedia Sentiment analysis across social networks will help elected officials andwithout being constrained by character counts. marketers stay in touch with the citizens and markets they serve. In addition, use of social networks to support election candidates will beYet there will be tension as increasingly busy lives and the deluge of commonplace around the globe.information threaten to overload our brains. The digitally savvycitizens of 2020 will appreciate the people, enterprises and Enterprises will need to make sure they engage effectively—in a timelygovernment agencies who engage selectively and intelligently helping and targeted fashion. The replacement of text-based socialthem balance the glut of information with their poverty of attention. communications (SMS, tweets) with video messages at global scale will necessitate the use of advanced analytics that render a precise understanding of the meaning and sentiment embedded in unstructured information. The popularity of video as a communication medium will also drive demand for more compute, network and storage capacity. 18
  • 16. 1.2 World6 We will wrestle with our often conflicting needs for security, privacy and open access to information.As we share more of our personal data across social network sites, In 2020, the threat of identity misuseonline retail, banking, utilities and municipal services in 2020, thethreat of identity misuse and cyber crime will be ever present. Sensors and cyber crime will be ever present.we wear to monitor our health and that line the streets to control trafficas well as the mobile devices we carry will feed millions of updates tosystems that can be used for good — or misused for ill. Regulators will try to protect the populace from cyber criminals, rogueBusinesses and governments will try to balance the demands of traders and nefarious corporations. Executives will be held personallycustomers and citizens for constant access to information while responsible for managing the tradeoffs between ensuring the welfaremaintaining appropriate security and privacy controls. But hackers, of their customers, employees and personal reputations, andcyber criminals and cyber terrorists will continue to troll for new ways leveraging the value of personal information.to target organizations with denial of service attacks and data theft. 19
  • 17. 1.2 World Hackers, cyber criminals and cyber terrorists will continue to troll for new ways to target organizations. Enterprise implications Boards and enterprises that haven’t already done so will appoint C-level executives to manage security, privacy, risk and compliance. Commercial and government organizations will outsource sensitive IT processes to secure cloud providers. These providers will employ former national intelligence specialists to continuously monitor and safeguard information at every level from infrastructure through to software applications. We will find new ways to help customers, employees and citizens understand and make tradeoffs between access and security. 20
  • 18. Technology“How can I help you?” This phrase sums up technology in 2020—systems that will workalongside us, helping us to maximize scarce resources, to process the deluge of sensor-and human-generated information and to gain insights to make progress rapidly. 22
  • 19. 1.3 TechnologyLooking at technologies that may be available by2020, and considering how they’ll help us realize ourfullest potential, is how we’ll solve the challenges ofthe next decade. 23
  • 20. 1.3 Technology1 Cognitive systems as human partners.Autonomous transportation systems will manage vehicle flow through amegacity of 20 million people. This will be made possible by combininga vast array of traffic sensors, advanced real-time analytics and theimmense computing power required to perform cognitive decisionmaking on the fly and at scale.Enterprise implicationsAs we increase our population densities, we must manage the systemsthat support us. We must know “what’s happening out there” in detail.And we must optimize our systems so that we don’t waste resourceswhile striving to improve our quality of life (one without shortages andhuge delays).We will see these cognitive systems used to manage utilities, emergencyservices and crime prevention. We’ll also see ultra-optimized supplychains where we know the position of every item in the chain. 24
  • 21. 1.3 Technology2 Computation re-imagined.The amount of data in the world is set to increase by 44 times from2009 to 2020f. This is due to the growth in unstructured data and thewidespread use of sensors to tell us “what’s going on out there.”Gathering all this data, analyzing it and then interacting with a worldof mobile humans is not possible with today’s computing andnetwork technology.By 2020, new computer/storage blocks will allow us to take in andprocess huge amounts of data in real time. And networks, especiallymobile networks, will be faster and able to securely handle the 33-fold increase in traffic we will see from 2010 to 2020g.The amount of data in the worldis set to increase by 44 times from2009 to 2020. 25
  • 22. 1.3 TechnologyEnterprise implicationsOur development systems must evolve to program arrays of hundredsof thousands of processors optimally.Our existing IT management systems won’t scale to manage suchenvironments. IT management in 2020 will be very good at flexing —adjusting to peak demands that could be 20, 50 or 100 times thenormal run rate.These systems must also be self-healing. We see this technologyevolving today with run-book automation; but to handle the systems of2020, self-adjusting and self-healing must be programmed in duringdevelopment, not bolted on after release.IT management in 2020 will be verygood at flexing - adjusting to peakdemands that could be 20, 50 or100 times the normal run rate. 26
  • 23. 1.3 Technology3 Insights to help humans.By 2020, robotic medical assistants will make the hospital rounds,detecting signals from sensors attached to patients. These assistantswill talk to “medi-cloud” systems that process the information to provideinsights and alerts to medical staff.We will augment and enhance our existing businesses by betterunderstanding our customers and the changes in our markets. We willinvent entirely new businesses by exploiting information at a velocityand on a scale that was previously unattainable. In the two decadespreceding 2020, some of the most successful Internet search, socialnetworking and gaming companies were built on the foundation of real-time analytics of large-scale data. 27
  • 24. 1.3 Technology As data continues to expand through increased human usage, people will increasingly value the time savings and convenience afforded by a system that understands our current needs and then, via micro- segmentation, targets content and offers based on those precise needs. By 2020, our scarcest resource will be our own attention spans. These systems will focus us on the things that are important. By 2020, our scarcest resource will be our own attention spans. Enterprise implications Product and service designers will need to design systems that: • Determine the human user’s current situation • Understand precisely what the person wants; and • Use powerful analytical ability to make highly focused and insightful suggestions. 28
  • 25. 1.3 Technology4 Personalizing the power of the cloud.By 2020, most of us will have mobile devices. These devices will be Mobile traffic multiplies6able to see what we are looking at, understand our gestures and Mobile traffic forecast in EB (exabytes) (1 EB = 1,000,000 terabytes)reliably know what we are asking. Yet they will lack the elastic, 2020scalable computing power and linkages to huge stores of 127 exabytesunstructured and sensor data that the back-end cloud will have. 2010 3.8 exabytes 33X INCREASE 30
  • 26. 1.3 TechnologyThis combination of advanced mobile front-ends and analysis-capable By 2020, our mobile devices willback-end cloud capability, however, will mean that applications willknow our wants and needs — in some cases, even before we do. be able to display 3D for us.Today, our mobile devices present information and conclusions to us ina way that is flat — literally. Humans can reason in 3D much morereadily, because that’s how we interact with the physical world. By Enterprise implications2020, our mobile devices will be able to display 3D for ush. Applications will be based on a client/cloud model. These applications will support a range of clients — mobile, smart TV, gaming device orFor example, an architect works with an architectural cloud service via laptop. The applications will connect to domain-specific back ends likeher mobile device. The resulting design is projected in 3D by the the aforementioned architecture cloud. We will be able to move frommobile device. Such technology is already in use for cancer drug mobile to smart TV to laptop seamlessly — the cloud service willdesign — but it’s very expensive and most certainly not mobile. remember our state as we “client hop,” and the application will scale our capabilities to match our current client. 31
  • 27. 1.3 Technology5 Dynamic services.By 2020, many more business opportunities will be served by clustersof affiliated specialists — individual consultants or small businessesthat join together to bring a product or service to market. Take, forexample, the explosion of mobile apps in this decade — frequentlythey’re built not by large integrated companies, but by an entrepreneurwho contracts out the design, animation, programming and back-endcloud services to various experts who coalesce to create and deliverthe app. People will increasingly work as “free agents” or will form intoclusters of small-to-midsize businesses (SMBs). In order to createproducts and deliver services, these dynamic mosaics of specialistswill be linked by advanced collaboration tools.The business processes that IT delivers will likewise be mosaics —mosaics linked by process management and integration technology.CIOs will thus become innovators, designing business processes andorchestrating services (as well as architecting the reliability, securityand cost/performance of these processes and services). 32
  • 28. 1.3 TechnologyEnterprise implications Service providers that offer cloud services to support SMBs will evolve.The speed with which teams can be formed from pools of affiliated They will provide aggregation services allowing SMBs to simply “plugspecialists will be a competitive advantage to the enterprise, as will be in and go,” creating fully functioning companies within a day.the degree to which groups are creative and productive. The enterprisethus needs to ensure it has excellent tools and processes to support Cloud will become common, secure and reliable. This will allow IT tosuch working methods. evolve from being a support function to becoming a key participant in business teams. Highly geared business process and application design tools, coupled with a rich array of cloud services, will allow IT to quickly create solutions that give the business competitive advantage.People will increasingly work as This will require a change of skills in the IT department, from people focused on operations, to people with skills at the intersection between“free agents” or will form into business analyst and IT designer.clusters of small-to-midsize We believe this is an exciting time for IT—the ability to injectbusinesses (SMBs). competitive advantage into business teams will mean that IT is highly valued by the business. 33
  • 29. 1.3 Technology6 Cyber-physical Systems.A pharmaceutical factory control system uses an array of sensors to Cyber-physical systems will accountconserve water, energy and material used in its factory. The systemreduces waste produced by the factory and ensures adherence to all for an increasing proportion ofrelevant eco-compliance levels. building, factory and vehicle costsBy 2020, we will all be acutely aware of the limits on our physicalresources — water, energy, minerals and food. We will employ cyber- as well as value.physical systems (systems built from and based on the synergy ofphysical and computational components) to better control our effect onthe environment and our use of resources. Enterprise implicationsWe will use them in buildings, transportation and factories. They will Many products in 2020 will have a high cyber-physical content. We arereduce the waste of spoilage in food and pharmaceuticals. already seeing this in cars — the start-stop and temperature-control systems in engines have increased energy efficiency. But construction, food production and pharmaceutical companies of the future must use these systems too. Cyber-physical systems will account for an increasing proportion of building, factory and vehicle costs as well as value. 34
  • 30. 1.3 Technology7 Security and privacy.In a world where everyone is connected, where there are 1 trillionsensors and huge increases in the amount of data being stored andanalyzed, today’s security systems won’t be able to protect our privacyor keep us safe from determined cyber attackers.By 2020, security systems will be more adaptive and dynamic in orderto automatically thwart attacks from an ever-increasingly sophisticatedthreat landscape. Security systems will harness intelligence toproactively anticipate and take action against cyber threats – they willfind risk before it finds you.Security systems will harnessintelligence to proactively anticipateand take action against cyber threats. 35
  • 31. EnterpriseDriven by world trends, and supported by newtechnologies, enterprises in 2020 will differphysically and functionally from today’senterprises. 38
  • 32. 1.4 Enterprise1 We’ll work in virtual offices on virtual teams.The days of the grinding commute to the exurb campus or theprestigious downtown skyscraper are numbered. Concerns about fuelshortage and availability of land in megacities cause enterprises in 2020to radically rethink their real-estate strategies. Ubiquitous cloudcomputing has removed the need for every business to have its owndata center; bandwidth supports remote working; and the MillennialGeneration is fully attuned to being productive and cooperative withoutconstant physical interaction.As discussed in the technology section, the dynamic mosaics ofspecialists connected by collaboration tools become dominant in theenterprise. The ratio of full-time employees to contracted specialists willshift dramatically. Today we see IT departments of global corporationsstaffed by a mere dozen employees; what impact will we see on otherbusiness functions? Will we see the end of the monolithic corporationwith hundreds of thousands of full-time employees? 39
  • 33. 1.4 Enterprise2 We’ll rely more on systems of engagement than systems of record.In 2011, Geoffrey Moore published a paper detailing systems of The real-time impact of social mediaengagement and their role in the future of ITi. By 2020, withdemographic shifts, access to high bandwidth and embrace of on brand reputation and the instantsocial networking, systems of engagement will be mainstream,as enterprises seek to cultivate their relationships with customers feedback on concepts and launchesaround the globe. The real-time impact of social media on brand will require full-time monitoringreputation and the instant feedback on concepts and launches willrequire full-time monitoring and analysis. and analysis. Already cited by several sources, some enterprises will appoint Chief Listening Officers, who will tap into social media and other communication platforms to better understand changing customer needs and tastes. 40
  • 34. 1.4 Enterprise3 We’ll use data in real-time and only preserve what’s needed.In past decades, IT focused on accumulating more and more data in We will combine marketing, IT and legal expertise to identify what dataERP/MRP/CRM systems and on deploying tools to mine it. must be stored; to determine how long and where to store the data; and to find new strategies to reduce information lifecycleIncreasingly, sales and marketing teams will extract more value in the management costs.instant from transient data in social media, web, sensor and mobileinteractions, and enterprises overall will “offshore” their data tothe cloud. 41
  • 35. 1.4 Enterprise4 We’ll turn changing demographics into business opportunities.The major demographic shifts of 2020 throw new sets of customerneeds into focus. By employing managers with a culturalunderstanding of Brazil, Russia, India, China and so forth, and bycapturing trends in social media, enterprises in 2020 will easily tap intothe needs of these emerging middle classes. But the more digitallyisolated and retired sectors of society represent an increasinglyprofitable segment. Enterprises in 2020 need to tune in to the growingnumbers of seniors to create products and services for people whomay live in retirement for as long as they were in employment.The more digitally isolated andretired sectors of society representan increasingly profitable segment. 42
  • 36. 1.4 Enterprise5 We’ll finance, measure and value our businesses differently.The enterprise of 2020 is fundamentally different in terms of tangibleassets and direct control of labor. As the mosaic approach becomesthe norm, the CFO must be able to report on the company’s ability todeliver ongoing value with fewer “in-house” resources. Future stockmarket valuations will likely be influenced by perceptions of anenterprise’s ability to influence social media networks and capitalizeon insight from them. Will we see some form of Klout scorefor enterprises?Finally, it will become increasingly important, and likely legislated, tomeasure and report transparently on total environmental impact ofbusiness operations. 44
  • 37. 1.4 EnterpriseWhat you need to succeed9Most valuable skills and capabilities that IT Teams will need in 2020 Valuable Neutral Not valuable Skills in helpingBusiness the business deal Business Process Business ServicesPlanning and with technology Design and IT Service Project Portfolio Requirements Agile Risk Monitoring &Strategy complexity Communications Composition Management Management Management Development Management Assurance 45
  • 38. 1.4 Enterprise6 We’ll manage talent in new ways.In previous decades, leaders and HR managers focused on employeerecruitment, development and long-term retention. In 2020, enterpriseswill shift focus to engaging fluid groups of labor — “supertemps” whowill take on strategic projects for a relatively short period. The HRleaders of 2020 must address the following questions: Who are the“rock-star” supertemps? How do we ensure they keep dataconfidential? How do we get them to come back for future projects?How do we feel about sharing our talent with rivals? HR will evolve intomore of a community management role, doubtless supported by smartsocialIn 2020, enterprises will shiftfocus to engaging fluid groupsof labor - “Supertemps.” 46
  • 39. DiscussionAs we look to 2020, we are excited about thepromise technology holds to help us addressthe opportunities and challenges in our rapidlychanging world. As professionals, we have aresponsibility to look forward, to play outscenarios and challenge one another tosharpen our vision. 48
  • 40. Coming from different countries, different industries, from inside and outside IT, we each bring a unique perspective to the question we’re proposing:“What will matter in 2020?” 49
  • 41. 1.6 SourcesGraphics1. http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban 2020 1.html 7. IDG Research Services, IT Executives Vision, conducted for HP, for 20/20, May 20122. The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries, Homi Kharas, Brookings Institution, June, 2011 8. US Census Bureau3. Guardian UK 9. IDG Research Services, IT Executives Vision, conducted for HP, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/mar/02/cctv-cameras-watching-surveillance for 20/20, May 20124. IDG Research Services, IT Executives Vision, conducted for HP, for 20/20, May 2012 Text5a National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, 2030 Report http://www.nistep.go.jp/ a. Source: US Census Bureau5b Guardian UK, Launching a New Kind of Warfare b. Source: US Census Bureau http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/oct/26/ guardianweeklytechnologysection.robots c. Source: Frost and Sullivan, “50th Anniversay: 50 Predictions for 50”, 20115c BBC News d. Source: UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), Demographic, Social 
 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6425927.stm and Economic Indicators, 20075d BBC News e. Source: City Mayors, The world’s largest cities and urban areas in 
 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6425927.stm 2020, 20125e National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, 2030 Report f. Source: IDC iView, The Digital Universe Decade – Are You Ready? http://www.nistep.go.jp/ May 20105f Techcasts, Technology Forecast Results g. Source: UMTS Forum, “ Mobile traffic forecasts 2010-2020 (commissioned 
 http://www.techcast.org/Forecasts.aspx research conducted by IDATE), January 20115g ScienceDaily, Scientists Developing Robotic Hand of the Future h. Source: Display Search, “3D Display Technology and Market Forecast 
 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110629083237.htm Report”, 20105h Marshall Brain, Robotic Nation i. Source: Forbes Magazine, Systems of Engagement and the Future of IT, 
 http://www.marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm Geoffrey Moore, 20125i Guardian UK, Launching a New Kind of Warfare http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/oct/26/ “The views set forth in this publication are not necessarily those of Hewlett-Packard guardianweeklytechnologysection.robots Company or its affiliates (HP), but are the collective views of contributors to this publication, some of which have been curated by HP. Because the content of this publication is future-6. UMTS Forum, Mobile Traffic Forecasts 2010-20/20, January 2011 looking, it, by definition, makes certain presuppositions and assumptions, some or all of which may or may not be realized.” 51