History of computing hardware
Overview• Mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations were then called calculatingmachines, by proprietary n...
Earliest true hardware• Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-onecorrespon...
Earliest true hardware• An abacus-like device used for multiplication and division• The slide rule was invented in the 162...
1801: punched card technology• Charles Babbage moved on from developing his differenceengine to a general purpose design, ...
1880s: punched card data storage• The American Herman Hollerith invented data storage on a medium that could then be read ...
Desktop calculators• Lewis Fry Richardsons interest in weather prediction ledhim to propose human computers and numerical ...
Advanced analog computers• Analog computers had an advantage over early digital computers in that they could be used tosol...
Early electronic digital computation• The era of modern computing began with a flurry of development before and during Wor...
Zuse• Konrad Zuse started construction in 1936 of his first Z-series calculators featuring memory andprogrammability• Zuse...
Colossus• The British at Bletchley Park achieved a number of successes at breaking encrypted Germanmilitary communications...
American developments• Shannons thesis founded practical digital circuit design• Stibitz was able to send the Complex Numb...
ENIAC• The US-built ENIAC was the first electronic general-purpose computer• It combined, for the first time, the high spe...
First-generation machines• The first working von Neumann machine was the Manchester Baby or Small-ScaleExperimental Machin...
Commercial computers• The first commercial computer was the Ferranti Mark 1• The main improvements over the Manchester Mar...
Commercial computers• The UNIVAC I was delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau• IBM announced the IBM 701 Electronic Data Proc...
Second generation: transistors• Problems with the reliability of early batches of point contact and alloyed junction trans...
Post-1960: third generation and                    beyond• The explosion in the use of computers began with third-generati...
Post-1960: third generation and                    beyond• It became possible to simulate analog circuits with the simulat...
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History of Computing Hardware

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History of Computing Hardware

  1. 1. History of computing hardware
  2. 2. Overview• Mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations were then called calculatingmachines, by proprietary names, or even as they are now, calculators• It was those humans who used the machines who were then called computers• Calculators have continued to develop• The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator toset up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device toobtain the result• A sophisticated example is the slide rule in which numbers are represented as lengths on alogarithmic scale and computation is performed by setting a cursor and aligning sliding scales,thus adding those lengths
  3. 3. Earliest true hardware• Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-onecorrespondence with our fingers• These include the Antikythera mechanism and the astrolabe from ancient Greece• Hero of Alexandria made many complex mechanical devices including automata and aprogrammable cart
  4. 4. Earliest true hardware• An abacus-like device used for multiplication and division• The slide rule was invented in the 1620s to allow multiplication and division operations to becarried out significantly faster than was previously possible• Blaise Pascal started some pioneering work on calculating machines• Leibniz said It is unworthy of excellent men to lose hours like slaves in the labor of calculationwhich could safely be relegated to anyone else if machines were used .• Many subsequent designs were based on the decimal system
  5. 5. 1801: punched card technology• Charles Babbage moved on from developing his differenceengine to a general purpose design, the Analytical Engine,which drew directly on Jacquards punched cards for itsprogram storage• It was a general-purpose programmable computer,employing punch cards for input and a steam engine forpower, using the positions of gears and shafts to representnumbers• This was a major problem• The project dissolved in disputes with the artisan who builtparts and ended with the decision of the British Governmentto cease funding
  6. 6. 1880s: punched card data storage• The American Herman Hollerith invented data storage on a medium that could then be read bya machine• He settled on punched cards
  7. 7. Desktop calculators• Lewis Fry Richardsons interest in weather prediction ledhim to propose human computers and numerical analysis tomodel the weather• Future Nobel laureate Richard Feynman was the supervisorof human computers who understood the use of differentialequations which were being solved for the war effort• The first all-electronic desktop calculator was the BritishANITA Mk . VII• Friden introduced the four-function EC-130
  8. 8. Advanced analog computers• Analog computers had an advantage over early digital computers in that they could be used tosolve complex problems using behavioral analogs while the earliest attempts at digitalcomputers were quite limited• Some of the most deployed analog computers included devices for aiming weapons, such asthe Norden bombsight, and fire-control systems, such as Arthur Pollens Argo system for navalvessels
  9. 9. Early electronic digital computation• The era of modern computing began with a flurry of development before and during World WarII• Machines such as the Z3, the Atanasoff Berry Computer, the Colossus computers, and theENIAC were built by hand using circuits containing relays or valves, and often used punchedcards or punched paper tape for input and as the main storage medium• They have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine
  10. 10. Zuse• Konrad Zuse started construction in 1936 of his first Z-series calculators featuring memory andprogrammability• Zuses purely mechanical, but already binary Z1, finished in 1938, worked reliably due toproblems with the precision of parts
  11. 11. Colossus• The British at Bletchley Park achieved a number of successes at breaking encrypted Germanmilitary communications• The bombe, designed by Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman, after the Polish cryptographicbomba by Marian Rejewski, came into productive use in 1941• The Lorenz SZ 40/42 machine was used for high-level Army communications, termed Tunnyby the British
  12. 12. American developments• Shannons thesis founded practical digital circuit design• Stibitz was able to send the Complex Number Calculator remote commands over telephonelines by a teletype• Some participants in the conference who witnessed the demonstration were John vonNeumann, John Mauchly, and Norbert Wiener
  13. 13. ENIAC• The US-built ENIAC was the first electronic general-purpose computer• It combined, for the first time, the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmedfor many complex problems• ENIACs development and construction lasted from 1943 to full operation at the end of 1945• One of the major engineering feats was to minimize tube burnout
  14. 14. First-generation machines• The first working von Neumann machine was the Manchester Baby or Small-ScaleExperimental Machine, developed by Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn at the University ofManchester in 1948 as a test bed for the Williams tube• It was also capable of tackling real problems• EDSAC was actually inspired by plans for EDVAC, the successor to ENIAC
  15. 15. Commercial computers• The first commercial computer was the Ferranti Mark 1• The main improvements over the Manchester Mark 1 werein the size of the primary storage, secondary storage, afaster multiplier, and additional instructions• A second machine was purchased by the University ofToronto• The directors of J. Lyons Company, a British cateringcompany famous for its teashops but with strong interests innew office management techniques, decided to take anactive role in promoting the commercial development ofcomputers
  16. 16. Commercial computers• The UNIVAC I was delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau• IBM announced the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, the first in its successful700/7000 series and its first IBM mainframe computer• Efficient execution using drum memory was provided by a combination of hardwarearchitecture• It was widely used in the CPUs and floating-point units of mainframe and other computers,such as the Manchester Atlas and the IBM 360 series• IBM introduced its first magnetic disk system, RAMAC in 1956
  17. 17. Second generation: transistors• Problems with the reliability of early batches of point contact and alloyed junction transistorsmeant that the machines mean time between failures was about 90inutes• Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relativelycompact space• Transistorized electronics improved not only the CPU, but also the peripheral devices
  18. 18. Post-1960: third generation and beyond• The explosion in the use of computers began with third-generation computers, making use ofJack St. Clair Kilbys and Robert Noyces independent invention of the integrated circuit• It is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004, designedand realized by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stanley Mazor at Intel
  19. 19. Post-1960: third generation and beyond• It became possible to simulate analog circuits with the simulation program with integratedcircuit emphasis, or SPICE on minicomputers, one of the programs for electronic designautomation• In April 1975 at the Hannover Fair, was presented the P6060 produced by Olivetti, the worldsfirst personal computer with built-in floppy disk: Central Unit on two plates, code names PUCE1/PUCE2, TTL components made, 8 single or double floppy disk driver, 32 alphanumericcharacters plasma display, 80 columns graphical thermal printer, 48 Kbytes of RAM, BASIClanguage, 40 kilograms of weight• MOS Technology KIM-1 and Altair 8800 were sold as kits for do-it-yourselfers• Systems as complicated as computers require very high reliability• Others read John von Neumanns First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, and immediatelystarted implementing their own systems
  20. 20. Thanks!

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