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Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
Strength Training for Triathletes
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Strength Training for Triathletes

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This presentation was given at a USA Triathlon CEU seminar at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC. The presentation details the importance of high intensity strength training for increased performance in …

This presentation was given at a USA Triathlon CEU seminar at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC. The presentation details the importance of high intensity strength training for increased performance in multi-sport athletes. The presentation is research based with training recommendations that are easy to implement.

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  • 1. Resistance Training for Triathlon Performance<br />Michael Young, PhD<br />HPC-Athletic Lab<br />
  • 2. Introduction<br />A roadmap with definitions<br />
  • 3. Produces beneficial changes on muscuskeletal and endocrine system<br />Non-impact means of training <br />Introduces training variety<br />Can address imbalances and asymmetries<br />Reduces likelihood of injuries<br />Enhances performance through improved neuromuscular efficiency<br />Benefits of Resistance Training<br />
  • 4. Research Review<br />Methods<br />Integration<br />Questions<br />Introduction<br />
  • 5. Muscular Strength: The ability to produce force<br />Muscular Endurance: The ability to sustain high work loads<br />Power: The ability to perform large amounts of work over short periods of time<br />Definitions<br />
  • 6. Periodization: The planning of training variables to attain a specific goal in a predetermined period of time<br />Intensity: The degree an activity approximates an absolute maximal effort<br />Volume: The quantity of work performed<br />Definitions<br />
  • 7. Running Economy: A measure of how efficiently a person uses oxygen while running at a given pace<br />Definitions<br />
  • 8. The following factors affect running economy:<br />Biomechanics<br />Vertical motion while running<br />Technique and type of activity<br />Fitness and training<br />Individual factors<br />Age<br />Gender<br />Race<br />Weight of clothing and shoes<br />Fatigue<br />Environmental conditions<br />Neuromuscular efficiency<br />Factors affecting Running Economy<br />
  • 9. Neuromuscular Efficiency: The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system<br />Definitions<br />
  • 10. Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running<br />Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy<br />Mechanisms of Benefit<br />
  • 11. Research Review<br />Ensuring evidence-based practice<br />
  • 12. Training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency<br />Efficiency increased through muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria<br />Hopker J, Passfield L, Coleman D, Jobson S, Edwards L, Carter H.The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):845-50. <br />Research Review<br />
  • 13. Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than novices<br />Interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon) <br />In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling due to physiological stress and loss of coordination<br />Bonacci J, Chapman A, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):903-21.<br />Research Review<br />
  • 14. Explosive strength training vs heavy strength training<br />A short period of traditional strength training can improve running economy in well-trained runners and seems to be more efficient for the improvement of running economy<br />Guglielmo LG, Greco CC, Denadai BS. Effects of strength training on running economy. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;30(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Oct 30.<br />Research Review<br />
  • 15. High resistance/low repetition vs low resistance/high repetition vs cycling-only <br />10-week training program<br />All 3 groups followed the same cycling plan, but resistance trained groups added weights <br />High resistance group made larger gains in leg press, but no significant difference for lactate values or economy <br />Jackson NP, Hickey MS, Reiser RF 2nd. High resistance/low repetition vs. low resistance/high repetition training: effects on performance of trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Feb;21(1):289-95.<br />Research Review<br />
  • 16. Meta-analysis: <br />2.9% improved performance<br />4.6% improved running economy (range = 3-8.1%)<br />Resistance training has a positive effect on endurance running performance and running economy<br />Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):2036-44.<br />Research Review<br />
  • 17. Just endurance running vs. endurance + explosive lifting<br />Total training volume kept same; 9 weeks of training <br />Simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance trainingimproves 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes withoutchanges in their O2 max. <br />LeenaPaavolainen, KeijoHäkkinen, IsmoHämäläinen, Ari Nummela, and HeikkiRusko. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power J ApplPhysiol 86: 1527-1533, 1999; Vol. 86, Issue 5, 1527-1533, May 1999.<br />Research Review<br />
  • 18. Evidence supporting Training Resistance<br />K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008<br />G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.<br />J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,  and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.  JSCR 2008.<br />And MORE<br />Evidence against Resistance Training<br />Research Summary<br />
  • 19. Methods of Strength Development<br />Best practices for using strength development for neuromuscular efficiency<br />
  • 20. 1-3x/ week<br />Short but intense workouts<br />15-40 minutes per session is sufficient<br />Focus on high resistance / low rep or explosive<br />Train the entire body<br />Use appropriate rest intervals<br />Methods<br />
  • 21. Core strength relates to the functional capacity and positioning of the the core of the body<br />Core strength should be trained for stability using both static and dynamic movements<br />Whole body movements that require mid-line stabilization are excellent at developing core strength in a functional manner<br />Core Strength<br />
  • 22. Core Training<br />
  • 23. Core Training<br />
  • 24. Core Training<br />
  • 25. Muscles do not act in isolation<br />Train movements not muscles<br />Address asymmetries and imbalances<br />Training Holistically<br />
  • 26. Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion<br />~50 / 50 split upper / lower body<br />Upper body:<br />Presses (Bench press, shoulder press, DB incline, etc)<br />Pulls (Pullups, Rows, Pulldowns, etc)<br />Lower body:<br />Squats (front, back, overhead, etc)<br />Pulls (deadlifts, olympic lifts)<br />Unilateral (lunges, stepups, split squats)<br />Exercise Selection<br />
  • 27. Exercise Selection<br />
  • 28. Exercise Selection<br />
  • 29. Exercise Selection<br />
  • 30.
  • 31. Neuromuscular adaptations occur best at higher exercise intensities<br />Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep<br />
  • 32. Weight gain should be minimized<br />Any changes in weight are largely a byproduct of macronutrient intake ratios and caloric intake<br />Weight Gain Concerns<br />
  • 33. Integration of Concepts<br />A primer on incorporating strength development concepts in to triathlon training<br />
  • 34. The body will adapt to stress<br />Continually increasing stressors must be applied for continued adaptation<br />Overload<br />
  • 35. Volume and intensity should always operate in an inverse relationship<br />Attempting to maintain both high concurrently may lead to overtraining<br />Volume will start higher and drop off<br />Intensity will start lower and increase<br />Periodization of Strength<br />
  • 36. Strength for the sake of strength is meaningless<br />Know the goal<br />Use resistance training for strength not endurance<br />Specificity of action and movement is important<br />Other Considerations<br />
  • 37. Questions<br />
  • 38. mike@hpcsport.comwww.elitetrack.comhttp://youtube.com/hpcsport<br />

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