Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Strength Training for Triathletes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Strength Training for Triathletes


Published on

This presentation was given at a USA Triathlon CEU seminar at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC. The presentation details the importance of high intensity strength training for increased performance in …

This presentation was given at a USA Triathlon CEU seminar at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC. The presentation details the importance of high intensity strength training for increased performance in multi-sport athletes. The presentation is research based with training recommendations that are easy to implement.

Published in: Sports

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Resistance Training for Triathlon Performance
    Michael Young, PhD
    HPC-Athletic Lab
  • 2. Introduction
    A roadmap with definitions
  • 3. Produces beneficial changes on muscuskeletal and endocrine system
    Non-impact means of training
    Introduces training variety
    Can address imbalances and asymmetries
    Reduces likelihood of injuries
    Enhances performance through improved neuromuscular efficiency
    Benefits of Resistance Training
  • 4. Research Review
  • 5. Muscular Strength: The ability to produce force
    Muscular Endurance: The ability to sustain high work loads
    Power: The ability to perform large amounts of work over short periods of time
  • 6. Periodization: The planning of training variables to attain a specific goal in a predetermined period of time
    Intensity: The degree an activity approximates an absolute maximal effort
    Volume: The quantity of work performed
  • 7. Running Economy: A measure of how efficiently a person uses oxygen while running at a given pace
  • 8. The following factors affect running economy:
    Vertical motion while running
    Technique and type of activity
    Fitness and training
    Individual factors
    Weight of clothing and shoes
    Environmental conditions
    Neuromuscular efficiency
    Factors affecting Running Economy
  • 9. Neuromuscular Efficiency: The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system
  • 10. Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running
    Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
    Mechanisms of Benefit
  • 11. Research Review
    Ensuring evidence-based practice
  • 12. Training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency
    Efficiency increased through muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria
    Hopker J, Passfield L, Coleman D, Jobson S, Edwards L, Carter H.The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):845-50.
    Research Review
  • 13. Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than novices
    Interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon)
    In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling due to physiological stress and loss of coordination
    Bonacci J, Chapman A, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):903-21.
    Research Review
  • 14. Explosive strength training vs heavy strength training
    A short period of traditional strength training can improve running economy in well-trained runners and seems to be more efficient for the improvement of running economy
    Guglielmo LG, Greco CC, Denadai BS. Effects of strength training on running economy. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;30(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Oct 30.
    Research Review
  • 15. High resistance/low repetition vs low resistance/high repetition vs cycling-only
    10-week training program
    All 3 groups followed the same cycling plan, but resistance trained groups added weights
    High resistance group made larger gains in leg press, but no significant difference for lactate values or economy
    Jackson NP, Hickey MS, Reiser RF 2nd. High resistance/low repetition vs. low resistance/high repetition training: effects on performance of trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Feb;21(1):289-95.
    Research Review
  • 16. Meta-analysis:
    2.9% improved performance
    4.6% improved running economy (range = 3-8.1%)
    Resistance training has a positive effect on endurance running performance and running economy
    Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):2036-44.
    Research Review
  • 17. Just endurance running vs. endurance + explosive lifting
    Total training volume kept same; 9 weeks of training
    Simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance trainingimproves 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes withoutchanges in their O2 max.
    LeenaPaavolainen, KeijoHäkkinen, IsmoHämäläinen, Ari Nummela, and HeikkiRusko. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power J ApplPhysiol 86: 1527-1533, 1999; Vol. 86, Issue 5, 1527-1533, May 1999.
    Research Review
  • 18. Evidence supporting Training Resistance
    K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008
    G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.
    J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,  and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.  JSCR 2008.
    And MORE
    Evidence against Resistance Training
    Research Summary
  • 19. Methods of Strength Development
    Best practices for using strength development for neuromuscular efficiency
  • 20. 1-3x/ week
    Short but intense workouts
    15-40 minutes per session is sufficient
    Focus on high resistance / low rep or explosive
    Train the entire body
    Use appropriate rest intervals
  • 21. Core strength relates to the functional capacity and positioning of the the core of the body
    Core strength should be trained for stability using both static and dynamic movements
    Whole body movements that require mid-line stabilization are excellent at developing core strength in a functional manner
    Core Strength
  • 22. Core Training
  • 23. Core Training
  • 24. Core Training
  • 25. Muscles do not act in isolation
    Train movements not muscles
    Address asymmetries and imbalances
    Training Holistically
  • 26. Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion
    ~50 / 50 split upper / lower body
    Upper body:
    Presses (Bench press, shoulder press, DB incline, etc)
    Pulls (Pullups, Rows, Pulldowns, etc)
    Lower body:
    Squats (front, back, overhead, etc)
    Pulls (deadlifts, olympic lifts)
    Unilateral (lunges, stepups, split squats)
    Exercise Selection
  • 27. Exercise Selection
  • 28. Exercise Selection
  • 29. Exercise Selection
  • 30.
  • 31. Neuromuscular adaptations occur best at higher exercise intensities
    Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
  • 32. Weight gain should be minimized
    Any changes in weight are largely a byproduct of macronutrient intake ratios and caloric intake
    Weight Gain Concerns
  • 33. Integration of Concepts
    A primer on incorporating strength development concepts in to triathlon training
  • 34. The body will adapt to stress
    Continually increasing stressors must be applied for continued adaptation
  • 35. Volume and intensity should always operate in an inverse relationship
    Attempting to maintain both high concurrently may lead to overtraining
    Volume will start higher and drop off
    Intensity will start lower and increase
    Periodization of Strength
  • 36. Strength for the sake of strength is meaningless
    Know the goal
    Use resistance training for strength not endurance
    Specificity of action and movement is important
    Other Considerations
  • 37. Questions
  • 38. mike@hpcsport.comwww.elitetrack.com