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SCIENCE OF SPEED: RESEARCH MEETS   APPLICATION      Mike Young, PhD     HPC - Athletic Lab    Cary, North Carolina
• What   limits speed?   • Examination   of force• Research   review      • Mechanics   of speed• Ask   the experts      •...
WHAT LIMITS  SPEED?
SPEEDIS THERE A LIMIT?
SPRINTING• Complex   motor skill• High   neuromuscular demand
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride ...
INFLUENCING FACTORS• Environmental                  • Dynamic     mobility• Physical                       • Neuromuscular...
THE MEAT       MACHINE•   Absorb shock and control vertical    collapse during support•   Balance and control of upper    ...
Neurom       usculaCoordi        r       nation
Bosch & Klomp (2006)
Research Review
MA ’AM                  TS   ,          E   FAC     ST THJU
KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8   m/s• Ground    Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45    steps for sub 9.80 100m• ...
KINETIC PARAMETERS• Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight• Muscle       forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
•Gravity....u•We wor k      gh•Fat don’t    to overc                       ome gra           fly                 v         ...
= more    speed•More    force             le across speeds         me is co  mparab• Air ti   imb spe    ed....meh•L      ...
lates with speed      e length corre            or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
do  t he  ha tW          ts   e xp er            sa y?  a ve  to h
Loren Seagrave
Stride length is determined by     the quality of force application       during ground contact. The     quality of this f...
To go faster, youneed more force             Charlie Francis
Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end    speed and that in turn   influences the ability to maintain a ...
Proper force   application results   in stride length and        frequency         increasesTom Tellez
The main characteristic of elite   sprinting is optimizing efficiency of     the anatomical properties of the  body. At the...
The key to human speed is   simple: applying large mass-      specific forces to the           ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics...
The Force isPowerful!
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride ...
STRIDE LENGTH &                 FREQUENCY• Stride   length and frequency are linked• Force      applied at ground contact ...
STRIDE LENGTH &              FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased   stride length • ...
SPRINT MATH• Stride   frequency is comprised of two components:  1. Ground contact time  2. Flight time• The   best sprint...
POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces       applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed  • Increases   ...
EXAMINING FORCE• Force   is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
FORCE DEVELOPMENT &            SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the app...
MECHANICS OF SPEED
N   at     ur       eN ur   tu     re
Loren Seagrave
Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity             Dr. Ralph Mann
MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting   well is a combination of nature and nurture• There      are reflexive and innate compon...
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
GOALS OF SPRINTING• Preserve   stability• Minimize   braking forces• Increase   vertical propulsive forces
PRESERVING STABILITY
MINIMIZE BREAKING FORCES• Decreases   horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed...
EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
VERTICAL PROPULSIVE              FORCES• Increased   vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits  • Greater   disp...
Boing?
VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM   reaches ap...
To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off      the ground.                 C...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
VS
AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD         MECHANICS• Better   sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight      times stay the same without...
POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder & Mast of the Body
The first most important          aspect of speed is       posture. Second, foot        placement at ground      contact, ...
POSTURE• Movements   of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensur...
POSTURE• Postural    Stabilization• Postural Alignment  • Relaxation  • Freedom      of movement  • Elastic   energy produ...
PELVIC MOTION• The  pelvis should rotate in all three planes
IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
ARM SWING• No   horizontal impulse• Vertical   impulse• Counterbalance              angular momentum of upper body
SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
POSTURE• Posture • Trunk    Erect • Head     Level • Hips Tall
GROUND CONTACT• Upright   posture• Minimize         horizontal distance between foot and hips• Legs   together• Heel   high
STANCE PHASE• Upright       posture• Tall   hips• Vertical      forces• Swing    leg active
STANCE PHASE• Upright   posture• Stepping   over knee
STANCE PHASE• Upright   posture• High   knee• Swing   leg unfolds
TOE OFF• Projection    of non-support hip• High   knee• Neutral   / dorsiflexed ankle• Minimal   backside mechanics
FLIGHT• Appropriatevertical displacement• Preparation   for ground contact • Downward      acceleration of   thigh • Neutr...
TECHNICAL POINTS• Fix   posture• Emphasize      vertical pushes  • Push   up• Elbows   in front of the body• High   hips  ...
SPRINT DRILLS     FOR ENHANCING MECHANICS?
ENHANCING PHYSICAL           CAPACITIES• SPRINT!• Strength   and power development• Mid-section   strength
TO SPRINT FASTER.....SPRINT
STRENGTH
OLYMPIC LIFTS
an ci ngE nh     en tr  icE cc     ac it iesC ap
ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
PLYOMETRICS
COMPLEXES
ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
OVERSPEED SPRINTING?
DEPTH DROPS
CLOSING POINTS•   Sprint performance is maximized when largest possible forces are    applied in appropriate direction ove...
THANK YOU.MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
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Science of Speed: Research Meets Application

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation on the science of speed as presented at the Rice Speed Symposium.

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Transcript of "Science of Speed: Research Meets Application"

  1. 1. SCIENCE OF SPEED: RESEARCH MEETS APPLICATION Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
  2. 2. • What limits speed? • Examination of force• Research review • Mechanics of speed• Ask the experts • Application of concepts
  3. 3. WHAT LIMITS SPEED?
  4. 4. SPEEDIS THERE A LIMIT?
  5. 5. SPRINTING• Complex motor skill• High neuromuscular demand
  6. 6. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride length or stride frequency will increase speed • Variables are interdependent in a loosely inverse relationship
  7. 7. INFLUENCING FACTORS• Environmental • Dynamic mobility• Physical • Neuromuscular efficiency • Anthropometry • Mechanical • Relative strength and power • Elasticity
  8. 8. THE MEAT MACHINE• Absorb shock and control vertical collapse during support• Balance and control of upper extremity• Forward and upward propulsion• Control direction changes in center of mass
  9. 9. Neurom usculaCoordi r nation
  10. 10. Bosch & Klomp (2006)
  11. 11. Research Review
  12. 12. MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
  13. 13. KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m• Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz• Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec• Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.5m
  14. 14. KINETIC PARAMETERS• Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight• Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  15. 15. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh•Fat don’t to overc ome gra fly v ity
  16. 16. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L is KING •Ver ti cal force
  17. 17. lates with speed e length corre or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
  18. 18. do t he ha tW ts e xp er sa y? a ve to h
  19. 19. Loren Seagrave
  20. 20. Stride length is determined by the quality of force application during ground contact. The quality of this force application is related to the degree of stiffness in the supporting leg as well as the speed of forward flexion of the free legGary Winckler
  21. 21. To go faster, youneed more force Charlie Francis
  22. 22. Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
  23. 23. Proper force application results in stride length and frequency increasesTom Tellez
  24. 24. The main characteristic of elite sprinting is optimizing efficiency of the anatomical properties of the body. At the intramuscular level, this means making optimum use of elastic properties of muscles. At the intermuscular level, it is transporting elastic energy from one leg to the other in the flight phase and directing the GROUND REACTION FORCES in stance.Frans Bosch
  25. 25. The key to human speed is simple: applying large mass- specific forces to the ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
  26. 26. Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics. Thatsaid, the most important factor isthe genetic ability to generatelarge amounts of explosive force. Dr. Ralph Mann
  27. 27. The Force isPowerful!
  28. 28. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride length or stride frequency will increase speed • Variables are interdependent in a loosely inverse relationship
  29. 29. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked• Force applied at ground contact is most important determinant of running speed• Speed of movement of limbs is of little importance
  30. 30. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
  31. 31. SPRINT MATH• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: 1. Ground contact time 2. Flight time• The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ◦ Greater frequency
  32. 32. POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed • Increases stride length and frequency• Best sprinters apply more force in a shorter period of time
  33. 33. EXAMINING FORCE• Force is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
  34. 34. FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time • Minimize horizontal braking forces • Increase vertical propulsive forces
  35. 35. MECHANICS OF SPEED
  36. 36. N at ur eN ur tu re
  37. 37. Loren Seagrave
  38. 38. Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
  39. 39. MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting well is a combination of nature and nurture• There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
  40. 40. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
  41. 41. BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
  42. 42. GOALS OF SPRINTING• Preserve stability• Minimize braking forces• Increase vertical propulsive forces
  43. 43. PRESERVING STABILITY
  44. 44. MINIMIZE BREAKING FORCES• Decreases horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
  45. 45. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
  46. 46. VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCES• Increased vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits • Greater displacement • More effective ground contact position • Better maintenance of momentum
  47. 47. Boing?
  48. 48. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM reaches apex in flight • COM low point during support
  49. 49. To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
  50. 50. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration• Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
  51. 51. VS
  52. 52. AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD MECHANICS• Better sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight times stay the same without an increase in ground contact time
  53. 53. POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder & Mast of the Body
  54. 54. The first most important aspect of speed is posture. Second, foot placement at ground contact, third allowing the hip extensors to work and fourth relaxationTom Tellez
  55. 55. POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
  56. 56. POSTURE• Postural Stabilization• Postural Alignment • Relaxation • Freedom of movement • Elastic energy production
  57. 57. PELVIC MOTION• The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
  58. 58. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  59. 59. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  60. 60. ARM SWING• No horizontal impulse• Vertical impulse• Counterbalance angular momentum of upper body
  61. 61. SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
  62. 62. POSTURE• Posture • Trunk Erect • Head Level • Hips Tall
  63. 63. GROUND CONTACT• Upright posture• Minimize horizontal distance between foot and hips• Legs together• Heel high
  64. 64. STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• Tall hips• Vertical forces• Swing leg active
  65. 65. STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• Stepping over knee
  66. 66. STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• High knee• Swing leg unfolds
  67. 67. TOE OFF• Projection of non-support hip• High knee• Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle• Minimal backside mechanics
  68. 68. FLIGHT• Appropriatevertical displacement• Preparation for ground contact • Downward acceleration of thigh • Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle
  69. 69. TECHNICAL POINTS• Fix posture• Emphasize vertical pushes • Push up• Elbows in front of the body• High hips • Run tall
  70. 70. SPRINT DRILLS FOR ENHANCING MECHANICS?
  71. 71. ENHANCING PHYSICAL CAPACITIES• SPRINT!• Strength and power development• Mid-section strength
  72. 72. TO SPRINT FASTER.....SPRINT
  73. 73. STRENGTH
  74. 74. OLYMPIC LIFTS
  75. 75. an ci ngE nh en tr icE cc ac it iesC ap
  76. 76. ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
  77. 77. PLYOMETRICS
  78. 78. COMPLEXES
  79. 79. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
  80. 80. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
  81. 81. OVERSPEED SPRINTING?
  82. 82. DEPTH DROPS
  83. 83. CLOSING POINTS• Sprint performance is maximized when largest possible forces are applied in appropriate direction over very short periods of time• Attaining and maintaining appropriate posture will allow the athlete to maintain stability, minimize breaking forces and increase ground contact forces• Enhancement of physical capacities with an emphasis on eccentric force capacities is beneficial
  84. 84. THANK YOU.MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM

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