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Science of Speed: Research Meets Application
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Science of Speed: Research Meets Application

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation on the science of speed as presented at the Rice Speed Symposium.

This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation on the science of speed as presented at the Rice Speed Symposium.

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    Science of Speed: Research Meets Application Science of Speed: Research Meets Application Presentation Transcript

    • SCIENCE OF SPEED: RESEARCH MEETS APPLICATION Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
    • • What limits speed? • Examination of force• Research review • Mechanics of speed• Ask the experts • Application of concepts
    • WHAT LIMITS SPEED?
    • SPEEDIS THERE A LIMIT?
    • SPRINTING• Complex motor skill• High neuromuscular demand
    • FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride length or stride frequency will increase speed • Variables are interdependent in a loosely inverse relationship
    • INFLUENCING FACTORS• Environmental • Dynamic mobility• Physical • Neuromuscular efficiency • Anthropometry • Mechanical • Relative strength and power • Elasticity
    • THE MEAT MACHINE• Absorb shock and control vertical collapse during support• Balance and control of upper extremity• Forward and upward propulsion• Control direction changes in center of mass
    • Neurom usculaCoordi r nation
    • Bosch & Klomp (2006)
    • Research Review
    • MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
    • KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m• Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz• Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec• Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.5m
    • KINETIC PARAMETERS• Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight• Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
    • •Gravity....u•We wor k gh•Fat don’t to overc ome gra fly v ity
    • = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L is KING •Ver ti cal force
    • lates with speed e length corre or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
    • do t he ha tW ts e xp er sa y? a ve to h
    • Loren Seagrave
    • Stride length is determined by the quality of force application during ground contact. The quality of this force application is related to the degree of stiffness in the supporting leg as well as the speed of forward flexion of the free legGary Winckler
    • To go faster, youneed more force Charlie Francis
    • Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
    • Proper force application results in stride length and frequency increasesTom Tellez
    • The main characteristic of elite sprinting is optimizing efficiency of the anatomical properties of the body. At the intramuscular level, this means making optimum use of elastic properties of muscles. At the intermuscular level, it is transporting elastic energy from one leg to the other in the flight phase and directing the GROUND REACTION FORCES in stance.Frans Bosch
    • The key to human speed is simple: applying large mass- specific forces to the ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
    • Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics. Thatsaid, the most important factor isthe genetic ability to generatelarge amounts of explosive force. Dr. Ralph Mann
    • The Force isPowerful!
    • FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS?• Speedis a function of the product of stride length and stride frequency • Increasing either stride length or stride frequency will increase speed • Variables are interdependent in a loosely inverse relationship
    • STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked• Force applied at ground contact is most important determinant of running speed• Speed of movement of limbs is of little importance
    • STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
    • SPRINT MATH• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: 1. Ground contact time 2. Flight time• The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ◦ Greater frequency
    • POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed • Increases stride length and frequency• Best sprinters apply more force in a shorter period of time
    • EXAMINING FORCE• Force is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
    • FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time • Minimize horizontal braking forces • Increase vertical propulsive forces
    • MECHANICS OF SPEED
    • N at ur eN ur tu re
    • Loren Seagrave
    • Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
    • MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting well is a combination of nature and nurture• There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
    • FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
    • BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
    • GOALS OF SPRINTING• Preserve stability• Minimize braking forces• Increase vertical propulsive forces
    • PRESERVING STABILITY
    • MINIMIZE BREAKING FORCES• Decreases horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
    • EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
    • VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCES• Increased vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits • Greater displacement • More effective ground contact position • Better maintenance of momentum
    • Boing?
    • VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM reaches apex in flight • COM low point during support
    • To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
    • INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration• Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
    • VS
    • AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD MECHANICS• Better sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight times stay the same without an increase in ground contact time
    • POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder & Mast of the Body
    • The first most important aspect of speed is posture. Second, foot placement at ground contact, third allowing the hip extensors to work and fourth relaxationTom Tellez
    • POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
    • POSTURE• Postural Stabilization• Postural Alignment • Relaxation • Freedom of movement • Elastic energy production
    • PELVIC MOTION• The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
    • IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
    • IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
    • ARM SWING• No horizontal impulse• Vertical impulse• Counterbalance angular momentum of upper body
    • SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
    • POSTURE• Posture • Trunk Erect • Head Level • Hips Tall
    • GROUND CONTACT• Upright posture• Minimize horizontal distance between foot and hips• Legs together• Heel high
    • STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• Tall hips• Vertical forces• Swing leg active
    • STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• Stepping over knee
    • STANCE PHASE• Upright posture• High knee• Swing leg unfolds
    • TOE OFF• Projection of non-support hip• High knee• Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle• Minimal backside mechanics
    • FLIGHT• Appropriatevertical displacement• Preparation for ground contact • Downward acceleration of thigh • Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle
    • TECHNICAL POINTS• Fix posture• Emphasize vertical pushes • Push up• Elbows in front of the body• High hips • Run tall
    • SPRINT DRILLS FOR ENHANCING MECHANICS?
    • ENHANCING PHYSICAL CAPACITIES• SPRINT!• Strength and power development• Mid-section strength
    • TO SPRINT FASTER.....SPRINT
    • STRENGTH
    • OLYMPIC LIFTS
    • an ci ngE nh en tr icE cc ac it iesC ap
    • ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
    • PLYOMETRICS
    • COMPLEXES
    • ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
    • ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
    • OVERSPEED SPRINTING?
    • DEPTH DROPS
    • CLOSING POINTS• Sprint performance is maximized when largest possible forces are applied in appropriate direction over very short periods of time• Attaining and maintaining appropriate posture will allow the athlete to maintain stability, minimize breaking forces and increase ground contact forces• Enhancement of physical capacities with an emphasis on eccentric force capacities is beneficial
    • THANK YOU.MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM