• 78% of US adults get less than 30 minutes of light to moderate exercise ﬁve+ week• Less than 10% exercise vigorously at least three times a week• 50+% of deaths in US are attributable to these and other lifestyle choices
COOPER INSTITUTE STUDY• 1,700 ofﬁcers examined 1983 to 1993• Ofﬁcers’ average ﬁtness levels are below normal in aerobic ﬁtness, body fat, and abdominal strength• Law enforcement ofﬁcers are less ﬁt in most areas than half of all U.S. citizens
• 20% of the average law enforcement agency’s workforce is responsible for 80% of the cost of the accidents
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS• US Army• US Olympic Committee
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS• US Army• US Olympic Committee• NC Justice Academy
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS• US Army• US Olympic Committee• NC Justice Academy• NC Volleyball Academy
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS• US Army• US Olympic Committee• NC Justice Academy• NC Volleyball Academy• CASL
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS • South African Olympic• US Army Committee• US Olympic Committee• NC Justice Academy• NC Volleyball Academy• CASL
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS • South African Olympic• US Army Committee• US Olympic Committee • Chinese Olympic• NC Committee Justice Academy• NC Volleyball Academy• CASL
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS • South African Olympic• US Army Committee• US Olympic Committee • Chinese Olympic• NC Committee Justice Academy • NFL & UFL Signees• NC Volleyball Academy• CASL
CURRENT & RECENT CLIENTS • South African Olympic• US Army Committee• US Olympic Committee • Chinese Olympic• NC Committee Justice Academy • NFL & UFL Signees• NC Volleyball Academy • Summer and Winter• CASL Olympic Athletes
HPC-ATHLETIC LAB PHILOSOPHY• Balanced and comprehensive training• Address all aspects of human performance• Evidence-based• Results-driven• Technology-enhanced
On the ﬁelds of friendly strife aresown the seeds that on other days andother ﬁelds will bearthe fruits of victory. General MacArthur
MEANS & METHODS• Initial assessment & screening• Development of training protocol utilizing industry ‘best-practices’• Monitoring of physical development and quantiﬁcation of training load using advanced technology (HOT SPOT, Free Lap, HR Monitors, etc)• Mental Skills Training (Imagery, Cognitive behavior, Relaxation, etc)• Bridging the gap to job performance (motivation, mental skills, relaxation, etc)
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: OVERLOAD• The Principle of Overload states that if adaptation is desired from training, the training stimulus must be greater than that to which the body is accustomed. •Increases in ﬁtness levels must be preceded by overload. •Overload should not be achieved indiscriminately, but through a planned,
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: OVERLOAD• The Principle of Reversibility states that if the training stimulus falls below that which the body is accustomed, a negative adaptation occurs and ﬁtness is lost.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: OVERLOAD• The Principle of Rest and Recovery states that rest and recovery opportunity is necessary to the adaptive process, and that these must be included in a systematic fashion. •The inclusion of rest and recovery should not be left to chance, and a skilled Trainers knows how to rest certain body systems while training others so that time spent in non-training status is minimized.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: ADAPTATION• Adaptation is the goal of every training program.• Adaptation means that the body will change when stress is placed upon it in a manner that will enable it to better handle subsequent stress.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: SPECIFICITY OF ADAPTATION Adaptation is speciﬁc to the stress or stimulus placed upon the body. ◦ The body will adapt in a manner that enables it to better cope with similar stress in the future, but the ability to deal with differing stresses remains unchanged or may diminish.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: SPECIFICITY OF ADAPTATION Adaptation is speciﬁc to the stress or stimulus placed upon the body. ◦ It is crucial that the training stimulus send a clear message to the body as to what type of adaptation is desired. ◦ If stimuli send conﬂicting messages, positive adaptation will occur by chance only.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: ADAPTATION TIME FRAME Time Frames for Adaptation have a great effect on how we design training. ◦ When the body is repeatedly subjected to stimuli of the same type, optimal adaptation usually occurs within 21-28 days. ◦ After this time, adaptation is minimal. This seems to imply changes in the training should occur periodically in accordance with these time frames.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: ADAPTATION• Matveyev’s Model is a graphic representation of the body’s response to an exercise stimulus. •When a training stimulus is applied, the stress results in an immediate decrease in ﬁtness. •After this initial decrease, as the body recovers and adapts, the ﬁtness level increases. •This continues to a state where the previous
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: ADAPTATION• Matveyev’s Model is a graphic representation of the body’s response to an exercise stimulus. •Over time, if the body is not stressed again, it eventually regresses to its previous level of ﬁtness. •Excessive stimuli may depress the ﬁtness level too much, compromising the quality of the supercompensation.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGN: SUPERCOMPENSATION SupercompensationStimulus A B C D Homeostasis Compensation (recovery) Fatigue Matveyev’s/Yakolev’s Model of Supercompensation
SUPERCOMPENSATION BIOLOGICAL STATE SUPERCOMPENSATION BEFORE STIMULUS B A CFATIGUE COMPENSATION (RECOVERY) NEW STIMULUS APPLIED: TRAINING TOO EASY TRAINING ADEQUATE A - TOO EARLY TRAINING TOO HARD B - ON TIME C - TOO LATE
PLANNING THE SESSION• Training Themes •Each session should have some type of theme •Activities grouped into a training session should have one or more common traits. • For example, a session may emphasize explosive speed activities while another may emphasize energy system ﬁtness, etc.
PLANNING THE SESSION• Warm-up and Cool-down •Each session should have a warm-up and cool- down. •The warm-up’s purpose is to prepare the body for more intense activities. •The cool-down’s purpose is to return the body slowly to a resting state.
PLANNING THE SESSION• Training Units are the individual elements of a training session should be logically sequenced.• Following is a suggested order for sequencing the units in any given session. Keep in mind that all of these may not be included in any one session: •Warm-up Activities •Technical Work
PLANNING THE SESSION• Rest and Recovery should be a part of the session. •This may take the form of breaks between units and/or repetitions of work. •While training endurance may demand incomplete recoveries between repetitions at times, the majority of training activities require quality effort to be valuable.
INTRODUCTION• In this section we will examine the science of Training Theory. Training Theory is the study of the applications of sports science to the design of athletic training.• We will examine terminology, concepts, and guidelines for developing effective training programs.
THE CONCEPT OF PERIODIZATION• Periodization is deﬁned as the process of planning training in order to produce high levels of performance at designated times. •There are several major concepts associated with the process of periodization....
THE CONCEPT OF PERIODIZATION•Planning is perhaps the most important step in insuring the effectiveness of the training program.•Planning enables a trainer to control training variables and parameters in a manner that guarantees the best chance for success.
THE CONCEPT OF PERIODIZATION•Record keeping is another crucial part of the periodization process. This enables the trainer to monitor training loads accurately, and to modify training from cycle to cycle and year to year.•Peaking refers to designing training so that the best performances come at the most crucial tests
FUNDAMENTAL TERMS ANDCONCEPTS: VOLUME AND INTENSITY• Volume is total the amount of training done over a period of time. Volume is usually measurable.• Intensity is the difficulty and degree of demand of training done. Intensity is easily measurable in some types of training, while more subjective in others. •Much of training design involves manipulation of these two parameters of training.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTILATERAL TRAINING• There are 5 Components of Training, known as Biomotor Elements that are qualities essential to high performance in athletics. •Strength is the ability to produce force. •Speed is the ability to move the body and body parts rapidly.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTILATERAL TRAINING•Endurance or Work Capacity is the ability to withstand fatigue.•Flexibility is the ability to achieve large ranges of motion in the joints.•Coordination (i.e agility) is the ability to perform skills efficiently and accurately.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TO TRAINING: MULTILATERAL TRAINING• The Multilateral Training Philosophy: •All of the components contribute in some way to performance, so all should be developed through training in order to improve performance. •These components are also interdependent, so development of any of these systems is impossible without parallel improvements in others.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTILATERAL TRAINING The Multilateral Training Philosophy: ◦ The basic premise of multilateral training is that we must address all of these components, over time. ◦ Achievement of “balanced training” is as crucial as the absolute development level of any single component.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTI-SYSTEM TRAINING• The body systems are physiological systems essential to performance in athletics. Development of these systems is essential to performance improvement.
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTI-SYSTEM TRAINING• The Multi-System Training Philosophy: •All of the systems contribute in some way to performance, so all should be developed through training in order to improve performance. •These components are also interdependent, so development of any of these systems is impossible without parallel improvements in
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TOTRAINING: MULTI-SYSTEM TRAINING• The Multi-System Training Philosophy: •The basic premise of multi-system training is that we must address all of these components, over time. •Achievement of “balanced training” is as crucial as the absolute development level of any single system.
STRENGTH TRAININGCONSIDERATIONS FOR LAWENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL
WHAT IS STRENGTH?• Strength is the ability to apply force• Strength is the outcome of: 1. Neuromuscular efficiency and coordination 2. Contractile properties of the muscle 3. Musculoskeletal leverage
PERFORMANCE IN UNDER 30 WORDS The key to performance is being able toapply large forces in the desired direction over short periods of time through optimal ranges of motion
FUNDAMENTAL TRAINING PRINCIPLES• Overload: Athletes must be progressively challenged• Adaptation: Positive or negative changes that occur in response to a training stimulus• Recovery: Rest or recovery necessary for adequate adaptation• Speciﬁcity: Training adaptations are speciﬁc to
FUNDAMENTAL TRAINING PRINCIPLES• Detraining: Loss of ﬁtness due to inadequate or infrequent stimulus• Reversability: Occurs as a result of detraining Loss of previously gained ﬁtness• Volume: The total quantity of work performed• Intensity: The quality of work done relative to an athlete’s maximal effort
LONG TERM DEVELOPMENT• Don’t sell the farm to buy the tractor• Follow appropriate progressions• Overload is vital to improvement but must be done cautiously for older or untrained individuals
BENEFITS OF STRENGTH TRAINING• Increased muscle strength and endurance• Enhanced running economy• Test performance improvement• Better cardio respiratory function• Injury prevention• Stronger bones
POPAT• General physical ﬁtness• Test familiarity• Effort distribution• Speciﬁc skills: •Dragging •Crawling
COOPER TEST• Vertical Jump• Maximum Bench Press or Maximum Push Ups• 1 minute Sit Up• 300m Run• 1.5 mile Run
VERTICAL JUMP• Test familiarity• Use of arms• Depth of squat• Training considerations
ONE MINUTE SIT UP• Technique• Training strategies
MAXIMUM PUSH UPS• Technique• Pacing strategies• Importance of core strength• Training strategies
MAXIMUM BENCH PRESS• Technique• Training strategies
CLOSING POINTS• The need for performance-based ﬁtness in law enforcement is high• Our qualiﬁcations and staff are unsurpassed in NC• HPC-Athletic Lab can provide sport science and training services to meet any need