Off-Season & In-Season Fitness Training for Football (Soccer)
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Off-Season & In-Season Fitness Training for Football (Soccer)

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This is Dr. Mike Young's slidedeck from his presentation at the Soccer Conference held in Dublin, Ireland at the Sports Surgery Clinic. Dr. Young presents fundamental concepts on fitness training for ...

This is Dr. Mike Young's slidedeck from his presentation at the Soccer Conference held in Dublin, Ireland at the Sports Surgery Clinic. Dr. Young presents fundamental concepts on fitness training for football and provides guidelines for coaches to follow. Dr. Young is the owner and Director of Performance at Athletic Lab sports performance training center. Previously, he was fitness coach for the NASL champion Carolina Railhawks and the Vancouver Whitecaps of the MLS.

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Off-Season & In-Season Fitness Training for Football (Soccer) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. OFF-SEASON & IN-SEASON TRAINING FOR FOOTBALL Mike Young, PhD @mikeyoung Athletic Lab
  • 2. ROADMAP • Fundamental principles • Physical demands of the sport • Application of concepts
  • 3. Fundamental Principles
  • 4. PLAN AHEA
  • 5. BUT....
  • 6. Write in Pencil
  • 7. GENERAL TRAINING ENHANCES FUNCTION [AND DECREASES LIKELIHOOD FOR INJURIES]
  • 8. Specific Training Enhances Performance [but potentially increases dysfunction]
  • 9. THE BEST WAYTO PREVENT SORENESS ISTO DOTHE THINGSTHAT ! MAKEYOU SORE
  • 10. RECOGNIZE&RESPECT DIFFERINGRATESOFDECAYFOR PHYSICALCAPACITIES
  • 11. Some things go bad quickly
  • 12. Others take much longer
  • 13. • Days 1-2: Beta-endorphin and adrenaline levels drop. Mood is affected negatively. • Days 3-5: Muscles lose elasticity. Aerobic capabilities drop off 5% by the fifth day off. • Days 7-9: Body’s ability to use oxygen (VO2 max) drops by 10%. Less oxygenated blood is pumped with each beat. • Day 10: Body’s metabolic rate begins to drop. Eat less or you’ll gain weight. • Days 11-13: Maximum heart rate and cardiac output decline by 15%. Muscle tone sees first appreciable loss. • Days 14-16: Mitochondrial activity (energy production) in muscle cells begins to decrease rapidly. Loss of muscle mass, strength and metabolic rate occurs. • Days 17-19: Body becomes less efficient at thermoregulation. You are forced to spend excess energy cooling off. • Days 20-21: VO2 max has dropped by about 20%. • Days 22-25: 10-15% loss of muscle mass and that lost mass is replaced by fat. • Days 27-29: Muscle strength drops by as much as 30%.
  • 14. RATES OF DECAY • Aerobic capacity! • Anaerobic lactic capacity! • Power! • Speed! • Maximum strength
  • 15. ACKNOWLEDGE & RESPECTTHE PHYSICAL STIMULUS OF GAMES
  • 16. BUT KNOWTHAT GAMES ARE NOTTHE BEST STIMULUS FOR FITNESS
  • 17. Performance is the outcome of fitness and fatigue
  • 18. UNDERSTAND THIS
  • 19. Fatigue Masks Fitness
  • 20. FAIR IS NOT EQUAL EQUAL IS NOT FAIR
  • 21. DON’T LET PLAYERS SLIP THROUGH THE CRACKS
  • 22. USE BUCKETS • Starters! • Reserves! • Non-dress! • Injured! • Mid-Season transfers! • Fast anaerobic players! • Aerobic players
  • 23. PHYSICAL DEMANDS
  • 24. • Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles) • Game is 80-90 minutes of continuous activity • 10-12km / 80-90 min = average pace of ~7km / hr (roughly 13’ mile pace)
  • 25. • Players cover average of 10-12km in a game (~6 miles) • Game is 80-90 minutes of continuous activity • 10-12km / 80-90 min = average pace of ~7km / hr (roughly 13’ mile pace) “Logical” conclusion.... run, run, run (slow & steady)
  • 26. Flaw of Averages
  • 27. FITNESS DEMANDS ANALYSIS OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERSMARCIN ANDRZEJEWSKI,1,2 JAN CHMURA,3 BEATA PLUTA,1 AND ANDRZEJ KASPRZAK2 1 Faculty of Methodology and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland; 2 KKS Lech Poznan´ S.A, Football Club, Poznan´, Poznan´, Poland; and 3 Faculty of Players’ Motor Activity, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, PolandABSTRACT Andrzejewski, M, Chmura, J, Pluta, B, and Kasprzak, A. Analysis of motor activities of professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 26(6): 1481–1488, 2012—The objective of this study was to determine the distance covered by professional soccer players during matches with the use of the computer- ized match analysis system Amisco ProÒ (version 1.0.2, Nice, France). Kinematic examination included the specification of the distance covered by 31 players participating in 4 matches in the Union of European Football Association during the 200 tactical, and mental preparation from the players (23). Recently, much attention has been paid to the selection of players possessing proper anthropometric and efficiency profiles, thus providing for the possibility of systematic workouts that allow players to achieve optimum perfor- mance. The preparation of a player is frequently focused on the improvement of technical or tactical skills at the expense of developing motor abilities (2,3,17,22,27). Lik team sports, soccer als
  • 28. ANALYSIS OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERSMARCIN ANDRZEJEWSKI,1,2 JAN CHMURA,3 BEATA PLUTA,1 AND ANDRZEJ KASPRZAK2 1 Faculty of Methodology and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland; 2 KKS Lech Poznan´ S.A, Football Club, Poznan´, Poznan´, Poland; and 3 Faculty of Players’ Motor Activity, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, PolandABSTRACT Andrzejewski, M, Chmura, J, Pluta, B, and Kasprzak, A. Analysis of motor activities of professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 26(6): 1481–1488, 2012—The objective of this study was to determine the distance covered by professional soccer players during matches with the use of the computer- ized match analysis system Amisco ProÒ (version 1.0.2, Nice, France). Kinematic examination included the specification of the distance covered by 31 players participating in 4 matches in the Union of European Football Association during the 200 tactical, and mental preparation from the players (23). Recently, much attention has been paid to the selection of players possessing proper anthropometric and efficiency profiles, thus providing for the possibility of systematic workouts that allow players to achieve optimum perfor- mance. The preparation of a player is frequently focused on the improvement of technical or tactical skills at the expense of developing motor abilities (2,3,17,22,27). Lik team sports, soccer als •Aerobic capacity is EXTREMELY important •Average intensity approaches lactate threshold •Mid-Fielders run the most
  • 29. FITNESS DEMANDS
  • 30. •Aerobic endurance improves distance covered, number of sprints, involvements with the ball
  • 31. FITNESS DEMANDS MATCH ACTIVITIES OF ELITE WOMEN SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE LEVELS MAGNI MOHR,1 PETER KRUSTRUP,1 HELENA ANDERSSON,2 DONALD KIRKENDAL,3 AND JENS BANGSBO 1 1 Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Department of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Department of Health Sciences, O¨rebro University, Sweden; 3 Center for Human Movement Science, Division of Physical Therapy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina ABSTRACT We sought to study the physical demands and match per- formance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players ity .1,300 times in a game correspond- total. The top- INTRODUCTION T he physical aspects of elite soccer players have been studied extensively in men (1,2,10,12,14– 18,22,25). Less information exists regarding the physical demands in women soccer players (5,6,7, 11,19,24). Body dimensions (8) and maximum aerobic power (6,8,11,23) of women players have been determined in several studies. In addition, some studies have examined the activity atch play (2,24). However, the main focus hich is believed to be
  • 32. MATCH ACTIVITIES OF ELITE WOMEN SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE LEVELS MAGNI MOHR,1 PETER KRUSTRUP,1 HELENA ANDERSSON,2 DONALD KIRKENDAL,3 AND JENS BANGSBO 1 1 Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Department of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Department of Health Sciences, O¨rebro University, Sweden; 3 Center for Human Movement Science, Division of Physical Therapy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina ABSTRACT We sought to study the physical demands and match per- formance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players ity .1,300 times in a game correspond- total. The top- INTRODUCTION T he physical aspects of elite soccer players have been studied extensively in men (1,2,10,12,14– 18,22,25). Less information exists regarding the physical demands in women soccer players (5,6,7, 11,19,24). Body dimensions (8) and maximum aerobic power (6,8,11,23) of women players have been determined in several studies. In addition, some studies have examined the activity atch play (2,24). However, the main focus hich is believed to be •Top-class players perform more high intensity runs than lesser peers •Fatigue develops temporarily & towards the end of a game •Defenders have lower work rates than mid-fielders & attackers
  • 33. FITNESS DEMANDS
  • 34. •Straight sprints are the most dominant powerful action in decisive offensive situations in elite soccer •Most decisive powerful movements ending in goals are made without the ball
  • 35. POSITIONAL DEMANDS ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) 6, 63-70 http://www.jssm.org Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer Jonathan Bloomfield 1 , Remco Polman 2 and Peter O'Donoghue 3 1 Sports Institute of Northern Ireland, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, UK, 2 Department of Sport, Health & Exercise Science, The University of Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, UK, 3 School of Sport, University of Wales Insti- tute Cardiff, Cardiff, UK Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands of English Football Association (FA) Premier League soccer of three different positional classifications (defender, midfielder and striker). Computerised time-motion video-analysis using the Bloomfield Movement Classification was undertaken on the purposeful movement (PM) performed by 55 players. Recogni- tion of PM had a good inter-tester reliability strength of agree- ment ( = 0.7277). Players spent 40.6 ± 10.0% of the match performing PM. Position had a significant influence o time spent sprinting, running, shu still (p < 0.0 age, stature, body mass and body mass index have been recently identified between elite players of different posi- tions suggesting that players of particular size and shape may be suitable for the demands of the various playing positions (Bloomfield et al., 2005). In this respect, posi- tional role appears to have an influence on total energy expenditure in a match, suggesting different physical, physiological and bioenergetic requ enced by play Research article
  • 36. ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) 6, 63-70 http://www.jssm.org Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer Jonathan Bloomfield 1 , Remco Polman 2 and Peter O'Donoghue 3 1 Sports Institute of Northern Ireland, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, UK, 2 Department of Sport, Health & Exercise Science, The University of Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, UK, 3 School of Sport, University of Wales Insti- tute Cardiff, Cardiff, UK Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands of English Football Association (FA) Premier League soccer of three different positional classifications (defender, midfielder and striker). Computerised time-motion video-analysis using the Bloomfield Movement Classification was undertaken on the purposeful movement (PM) performed by 55 players. Recogni- tion of PM had a good inter-tester reliability strength of agree- ment ( = 0.7277). Players spent 40.6 ± 10.0% of the match performing PM. Position had a significant influence o time spent sprinting, running, shu still (p < 0.0 age, stature, body mass and body mass index have been recently identified between elite players of different posi- tions suggesting that players of particular size and shape may be suitable for the demands of the various playing positions (Bloomfield et al., 2005). In this respect, posi- tional role appears to have an influence on total energy expenditure in a match, suggesting different physical, physiological and bioenergetic requ enced by play Research article •Players spent 48.7± 9.2% of purposeful movement going directly forward •726 ± 203 turns in a game•Upwards of 40% of purposeful movement is spent walking or slowly jogging
  • 37. Conclusions... Different positions may require different levels & types of fitness Aerobic demand of the sport is high Anaerobic lactate component is less than what many believe*
  • 38. Conclusions... Linear sprinting is a HUGE determinant of goal scoring ! Speed without the ball may be a bigger determinant of scoring ability than speed with the ball
  • 39. Conclusions... The game is primarily characterized as short bursts of high intensity straight ahead acceleration punctuated by intermittent rest periods of very low & moderate activity
  • 40. Conclusions... Due to the intermittent high intensity efforts with insufficient recovery, the sport can best be classified as an alactic-aerobic sport
  • 41. Application of Concepts
  • 42. The key to training in team settings is pushing player appropriate level of overload simultaneously managing fatigue allow for adaptations
  • 43. Due to the nature of today’s high level game, traditional periodization models with clear cut in-seasons & off-seasons are antiquated & obsolete
  • 44. IT’S MORE APPROPRIATE TO THINK OF AN ONGOING PROCESS WITH WINDOWS OF OPPORTUNITY
  • 45. FINDING WINDOWS REQUIRES LOOKING FORTHEM • Game load • Travel stress • Strength training load • Objective indicators • Subjective indicators • Schedule
  • 46. Biologically DictatedPeriodization
  • 47. “OFF-SEASON” TRAINING IS NOTHING MORE THAN A VERY BIG WINDOW
  • 48. “OFF-SEASON” TRAINING IS A CHANCE TO “PUT HAY IN THE BARN”
  • 49. “IN-SEASON”TRAINING IS A BALANCING ACT
  • 50. “IN-SEASON”TRAINING • Maintain fitness while minimizing likelihood for soreness & fatigue for those who need to be available! • Set personalized objective fitness thresholds for training & remediate when they aren’t attained ! • Consider pre-game training for those not selected! • Post-game training for bench players who see minimal or no time
  • 51. Points of Training Emphasis Considerable emphasis should be given to developing: Aerobic capacity Alactic Anaerobic abilities (especially linear speed) Limited (but beneficial) training should be done to enhance anaerobic
  • 52. AEROBIC FITNESS
  • 53. Aerobic Capacity Aerobic capacity fuels theability to perform repeatedhigh intensity efforts whenthe rest interval betweenefforts is insufficient forcomplete recovery
  • 54. • Intensity must be sufficiently low that you are training aerobic pathways and not glycolytic! • Durations must be sufficiently long that you are providing an adequate stimulus! • For non-continuous efforts, rest intervals must be appropriate to achieve the desired outcome...too long or too short and you won’t provide the desired stimulus AEROBIC FITNESS
  • 55. Aerobic Training Guidelines Continuous Method: Duration: 15-60 min Intensity: 70-85% of max HR Interval Method: Duration: 3-8 min / interval Reps: 3-5 Intensity: 85-95% of max HR Work:Rest Ratio: 1:0.5-3
  • 56. Off-Season • Non-specific steady state aerobic work is highly recommended because of it’s controlled nature which reduces the likelihood for injury and provides a ‘clean’ stimulus
  • 57. In-Season • The combination of games and standard duration technical / tactical practices may provide sufficient aerobic stimulus! ! • Additional (non-specific) work may be appropriate for maintenance, remediation and during critical training windows of the year (off-season, long stretches w/o games, etc)
  • 58. SPRINT CAPACITY
  • 59. ANAEROBIC ALACTIC ABILITIES •Speed (especially linear)! •Power! •Strength
  • 60. Quickness & Agility? A distinct but related motor pattern to speed, power & strength
  • 61. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES • Emphasize appropriate mechanics and maximal intensity! • Work : rest ratios = 1 : 20 - 40 ! • Rep lengths of 10-40m (~ 1 - 5 sec)! • Total volume should be constrained (160m - 300m)
  • 62. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES Adding changes of direction, start-stops, turns, lateral movement, change of tempo, jumps, headers, etc are all appropriate but should not take away from the focal point of developing linear speed
  • 63. Off-Season • Focus on acceleration first! ! • Resisted runs & moderate hills are appropriate methods for developing both mechanics of speed as well as physical qualities! ! • Respect the necessary rest requirements
  • 64. In-Season • Speed training must persist throughout the season! ! • Incorporate the ball, reaction and thought- processing when feasible but do so in an appropriate manner!
  • 65. AGILITY & QUICKNESS?
  • 66. REPEAT SPRINT ABILITY
  • 67. To be fit for soccer you must be able to sprint fast. Repeatedly. With minimal rest. Repeat Sprint Ability
  • 68. LIMITERS OF RSA •Fatigue from repeat efforts is inversely correlated to initial sprint performance! •Limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by- products, such as hydrogen ions are key factors in performance decrement! •Neural factors (magnitude and strategy of recruitment) are related to fatigue! •Stiffness regulation, hypoglycemia, muscle damage and environmental conditions may also compromise repeat sprint ability (Bishop et al, 2011)
  • 69. 1. Include traditional sprint training to improve an athlete’s capacity in a single sprint effort! 2. Some high intensity interval training is beneficial to improve the athlete’s ability to recover between sprint efforts.! (Bishop et al, 2011) TRAINING RSA
  • 70. RSA Training Guidelines Intensity: 95-100% Reps: 10-30m Volume: <300m total Work:Rest Ratio: 1:5-10 Frequency: 1-2x / week RSA is addressed indirectly through other training methods but specific training is also recommended
  • 71. Off-Season • Aerobic qualities must be in place first! ! • Speed should be emphasized over RSA! ! • Immediately prior to the season dedicated RSA work may be useful
  • 72. In-Season • Very little is necessary! ! • HIIT + speed training may help preserve
  • 73. STRENGTH & POWER
  • 74. “...there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.” “Do I really need to lift?”
  • 75. Benefits of Strength Training Enhances acceleration Reduces likelihood for injury Enhances power (jumping, change of direction, etc) Improves running economy
  • 76. RUNNING ECONOMY: HOW STRENGTH & POWERTRAINING CAN AFFECT ENDURANCE
  • 77. • Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics like improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy! • Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT
  • 78. •2.9% Improved Performance •4.6% Improved Economy
  • 79. Evidence Supporting Resistance Training • K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008 • G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002. • J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,  and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.  JSCR 2008. • And MUCH MORE Evidence Refuting Resistance Training
  • 80. Basic Guidelines for Strength
  • 81. • Muscles don’t act in isolation! • Train movements not muscles….“soccer specific strength” is nonsense! • Address asymmetries and imbalances TRAIN HOLISTICALLY
  • 82. • Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion! • For strength & power, lower rep ranges, higher loads, and moderate volumes are suggested! • For hypertrophy, moderate reps and load with higher volume is suggested! BASIC GUIDELINES
  • 83. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 POWER DEVELOPMENT *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  • 84. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 POWER DEVELOPMENT *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity Even if use of Olympic lifts are inappropriate due to lack of equipment, low teachingexpertise, or athleteinexperience; the basicprincipals should still be incorporated (externally loaded, multi-joint, lower body explosive movement)
  • 85. Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
  • 86. • 1-3x/ week • Short but intense workouts • 20-40 minutes per session is sufficient • High load / low rep and / or explosive emphasis • Train the entire body • Use appropriate rest intervals Weight Training Guidelines
  • 87. Bodyweight strength exercises are great for muscular endurance, work capacity, strength maintenance and when facility / equipment access is limited
  • 88. PLYOMETRICS • GREAT STIMULUS FOR POWER & MAINTENANCE OF STRENGTH • INTENSITY DIRECTLY RELATED TO VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT & TYPE OF CONTACT (1 LEG VS 2) • COMBINE WITH RUNNING & CHANGE OF DIRECTION • QUALITY OVER QUANTITY • APPROPRIATE MECHANICS ARE CRITICAL
  • 89. Off-Season • Teach first! ! • Development of work & functional capacity before strength! ! • Individualize to needs! ! • Strength and power! ! • Lower extremity and core emphasis! ! • Full range movements
  • 90. In-Season • 1-3x per week! ! • Reduced volumes! ! • Eliminate novel exercises or training stimuli! ! • Evolution rather than revolution to reduce DOMs! ! • On-field incorporation sessions can be useful
  • 91. ANAEROBIC LACTIC CAPACITY
  • 92. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2009, 4, 291-306 © 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc. High-Intensity Training in Football F. Marcello Iaia, Ermanno Rampinini, and Jens Bangsbo This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high- ed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implemen- cal training. Analysis and physiological mea- tically demanding, and . BRIEF REVIEW ANAEROBIC LACTIC CAPACITY
  • 93. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2009, 4, 291-306 © 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc. High-Intensity Training in Football F. Marcello Iaia, Ermanno Rampinini, and Jens Bangsbo This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high- ed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implemen- cal training. Analysis and physiological mea- tically demanding, and . BRIEF REVIEW •Players operate on the fringe of lactate threshold •Although not critical anaerobic lactic capacity may play an important support role •Great for training efficiency
  • 94. Anaerobic Glycolytic Training Guidelines Interval Method: Duration: 15 - 60 sec Intensity: 100-120% of V02max Work:Rest ratio: 1:1-2 Repetition Method: Duration: 40 sec - 12 min Intensity: 95-105% V02max Work:Rest ratio: 1:3-5 Can primarily be addressed through small sided games and / or HIIT Methods
  • 95. Small Sided Games Stimulus will depend on the following variables: Rest interval between games Players involved Field size & dimensions Duration of games Restrictions Can be a sport-specific means of addressing aerobic, anaerobic, and / or anaerobic alactic abilities while simultaneously working on technical & technical skills
  • 96. THERE IS NO RECIPE. LEARN TO COOK
  • 97. THANKS @MIKEYOUNG! FITFORFUTBOL.COM! ELITETRACK.COM! ATHLETICLAB.COM! HPCSPORT.COM! MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COM