Mechanics of Speed

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This is the slidedeck from Dr. Mike Young's presentation from the 2013 Speed Summit.

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Mechanics of Speed

  1. MECHANICS OF SPEEDA SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO PRACTICAL IMPROVEMENTMike Young, PhDHPC - Athletic LabCary, NC USAVancouver Whitecaps FCVancouver, BC Canada
  2. • Insight from today’s best • General concepts• Fundamental physics • Acceleration mechanics• Performance limiters • Top end speed mechanics
  3. People Running Ridiculously Fast
  4. 9.7x
  5. 6 99 .
  6. 9.6919.26
  7. 10.67
  8. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  9. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  10. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  11. Top Sprinters TODAYaccelerate Faster & Longer &DeceleratE Less
  12. POINTS TO REMEMBER• Today’s top sprinters: • Accelerate faster and longer • Maintain top speed longer • Decelerate less• Improving mechanics will improve performance
  13. Are you spending time worrying about things that aren’t based in reality?
  14. INERTIAIt turns out Sir Isaac was right
  15. F=MA
  16. WHAT LIMITSPERFORMANCE?
  17. Research Review
  18. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh•Excess ma to overc ome gra ss hur ts v ity perform ance
  19. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L is KING •Ver ti cal force
  20. lates with speed ide length corre•Str e is imp or tant• Horizo ntal forc
  21. •Better sprinte r s are front-sidedominant Better sprinter s have shor ter•contact times Full extension neither needed • n or beneficial Ideal touchdown characterized • by swin g knee even with suppor t knee
  22. •CL more effective at a •CL produces higher re pplying force •CL velocity componen lative net horizon tal force •CL has shor ter contac t of F-V is higher •CL has higher stride fr t times equency eMaitre Insert research on French LCL = Christophe
  23. ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS• Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.17 sec• Height of foot @ 1st step: 12-30cm• Stride Frequency: 3.6-4 Hz• Stride Lengths: ~1.5m first step
  24. MAXIMAL VELOCITY CHARACTERISTICS *Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz*Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s *Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec *Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m*Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec*40-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m
  25. KINETICPARAMETERS• Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight• Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  26. GENERALCONCEPTS OF SPRINTING by Hugo Faasta
  27. N at ur eN ur tu re
  28. Loren Seagrave
  29. Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
  30. MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting well is a combination of nature and nurture• There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
  31. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
  32. BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
  33. Stride Length x Frequency = Speed?
  34. B UT .. ..
  35. CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
  36. Old: To increase d, increa se stridespee quency New: Stri length and fre de length & frequency are inter- related an d an effec rather th t an a caus e
  37. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• Stridelength and frequency are linked...they are a consequence and not a cause of speed• Speedof movement of limbs is of little importance
  38. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCYThe benefit of greater force application is two-fold:• Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
  39. SPRINT MATH• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: 1. Ground contact time 2. Flight time• The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ◦ Greater frequency
  40. POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed • It increases stride length and frequency• Better sprinters apply more force in a shorter period of time
  41. EXAMINING FORCE• Force is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
  42. FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time • Minimize horizontal braking forces* • Increase propulsive forces
  43. POSTURE
  44. The first most important aspect of speed is posture.Tom Tellez
  45. POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
  46. POSTURE• Postural Stabilization• Postural Alignment • Relaxation • Freedom of movement • Elastic energy production
  47. PELVIC MOTION• The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
  48. Postural Test!
  49. Posture during Acceleration NoNo
  50. POSTURE DURING MAX VELOCITY
  51. POSTURE DURING SPEED ENDURANCE
  52. FOOT CONTACT...what it tells us
  53. Acceleration Mechanics
  54. Run fast For long
  55. Run fast .
  56. Run (accelerate)
  57. Early Acceleration•Big split of arms & legs•Ipsilateral synchrony of leg & arm angles•Pushing through long axis of trunk•Hip, knee, ankle extension•Low heel recovery•Neutral posture
  58. EFFICIENT BLOCK CLEARANCE
  59. TOE DRAG,OR NOT TOE DRAG,THAT IS THEQUESTION...
  60. Late Acceleration •Continuation of previous points •Progression of body angles •Stepping over calve ➟ knee
  61. •Progression to upright •Shoulder - hip stackTRANSITION
  62. Variable Early Late Contacts Longer ShorterSegment Usage Bigger Smaller Body Angle Forward UprightHeel Recovery Low Higher Leg Action Piston-like Cyclic GRADUAL progression is key
  63. When does 60 = 20?
  64. EXTENDING ACCELERATION• Staying in pushing mechanics permits a neuromuscular and metabolic shift that allows for less fatigue later in a race• Athletes should display: • Lower heel recovery • Gradual but slow progression of body angles • Piston-like action of the legs
  65. city SprintingMaximal Velo
  66. tim izingOp e ch an ics?M
  67. Max V Sprinting 101 Big Force + Right Direction + Minimal Time Faster
  68. GOALS OF SPRINTING• Minimize braking forces• Increase propulsive forces
  69. MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES• Decreases horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
  70. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
  71. IncreasingPropulsive Forces
  72. Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces.... and why you don’t have to pick a side
  73. VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCE• Increasedvertical propulsive force produces: • Greater displacement • More effective ground contact position • Better maintenance of momentum
  74. Am plit ude ?
  75. Boing?
  76. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM reaches apex in flight • COM low point during support
  77. To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
  78. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration• Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
  79. VS
  80. Better sprinters mayappear to bounce
  81. Better sprinters may In reality, flight times are similar andappear to bounce ground contact times are shorter
  82. SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
  83. PosturePosture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
  84. Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs togetherHeel high
  85. Stance PhaseUpright postureTall hipsVertical forcesSwing leg active
  86. Stance PhaseUpright postureStepping over knee
  87. Stance PhaseUpright postureHigh kneeSwing leg unfolds
  88. Toe OffProjection of non-support hipHigh kneeNeutral / dorsiflexedankleMinimal backsidemechanics
  89. FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact Downward acceleration of thigh Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle
  90. Max VelocityTechnical PointsFix postureEmphasize vertical pushes “Push up”High hips “Run tall”Step over and down
  91. CLOSING POINTS• Performance breakthroughs can be made by accelerating faster & longer• Maintaining top speed means less speed endurance• Enhancement of mechanics will improve performance• Posture is key to performance
  92. MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM THANKS

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