Hot Topics in the Science of Running       Mike Young, PhD      HPC - Athletic Lab     Cary, North Carolina
EN                                            S HA                                        NIC      N                      ...
FITNESS FALLACIES       Lotta Bull           &     Hugh Lyon Sack
MA ’AM                  TS   ,          E   FAC     ST THJU
L AC T IC
Fa tigue       Cramping      Muscle Pulls Soreness    W orld Hu nger
GLYCOLYTIC FATIGUE             FA                LS                    ELY• Lacticacid is blamed for pain and fatigue from...
At normal pH, lacticacid 98% dissociates to    lactate and H+
MYTH BUSTED• Lactateinfusion trials produce no detrimental effects on perceived effort or pain - Miller (2002, 2005)• No  ...
CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
The REAL Culprit?
icatio n?Appl
FlexibilRotten Core ity Myth                     s
reduce soreness     tching doesn’t          ou sore•Stre etching can MAKE y•O  ver str
Stretching Does Not Decrease Injury
•Stretching makes                    you weaker (a                                 c   ute)
makes you sl ower (acute)•Stretching       stretching = m ore slower•More
le?   xi bFle     o  To
Stewart & Burden, 2004DANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
DYNAMIC FLEXIBILITY
HURDLE MOBILITY
CORE?
h: Mind- numbingMyt     ps of “a bs” are  re                runnersbenef icial for                         Reality: R     ...
Core Strength•   Refers to functional capacity &    positioning of core of body•   Use static & dynamic movements•   Whole...
Activity of trunk muscles during squats and pulls from     the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced wit...
Core Training
Core Training
Core Training
tim  izingOp  e ch an ics?M
General Goals of    RunningMinimize brakingforcesEffective groundcontact
Minimize Braking ForcesDecreases horizontalvelocityCaused by excessive steplength and positive foot andleg speed at ground...
EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
Co   ach w it ho utCo achi  ng!
Self-Optimiz             t            a ion?
Research suggests that the human body     may self-optimize movement
BUT only with practice!
Mirroring?
PosturePosture  Trunk Erect  Head Level  Hips Tall
Postural Test!
Developmental COncerns
Forefoot        vs   Heel Strike?
Factors to Consider                 A ge                     Sp                       ee                            d     ...
What  should Ilook for in running?
Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs together
Early Stance Phase Upright posture Appropriate step-over height
Late Stance PhaseUpright postureAppropriate kneeheightSwing leg unfolds
Toe OffProjection of non-support hipAppropriate kneeheightMinimal backsidemechanics
FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact
Technical PointsFix postureWatch ground contact positionRun tall
RUNNING ECONOMY
FACTORS AFFECTING          RUNNING ECONOMY• Biomechanics                         • Race  • Vertical motion while running  ...
NEUROMUSCULAR                  EFFICIENCY•   Ability of neuromuscular    system to allow prime    movers, synergists, stab...
Running Economy
MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT•   Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular    characteristics like improved muscle pow...
•2.9% Impr•4.6% Impr oved Per                    formanc           oved Eco         e                   nomy
Evidence Supporting                 Evidence Refuting      Resistance Training                Resistance Training• K Stkre...
Methods•   1-3x/ week•   Short but intense workouts•   15-30 minutes per session is sufficient•   High load / low rep or ex...
TRAINING HOLISTICALLY•   Muscles don’t act in isolation•   Train movements not    muscles•   Address asymmetries and    im...
EXERCISE SELECTION• Multi-joint   exercises through complete ranges of motion• ~50   / 50 split upper / lower body
STRENGTH
POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise                      Absolute Power (Watts)                              100kg Male             ...
EXERCISE SELECTION - POWER
Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
Barefoot Running?
The Argument For Au Naturale
20 years later Zola Budd achieved similar    levels of success running barefoot
B UT .. ..
Usecommon sense!
Consider the surface Individual mechanicsProceed with cautionAppropriate footwear
If you like it, thats                 grea   t, But there is                      no evidence                    wh  atsoe...
Go back to                 c ommon sense,if                 you  have a shoe                   that has never             ...
Closing Thoughts         me n othing     Assu           Question every                            thing      “Common” sens...
THANKSMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM
Hot Topics in the Science of Running
Hot Topics in the Science of Running
Hot Topics in the Science of Running
Hot Topics in the Science of Running
Hot Topics in the Science of Running
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Hot Topics in the Science of Running

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This is Dr. Mike Young's slide deck presented at the first NYRR Club professional development seminar.

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Hot Topics in the Science of Running

  1. 1. Hot Topics in the Science of Running Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
  2. 2. EN S HA NIC N A CI CH N G ME EC AL O TIM N O OP M Y AC IES ALL SS F BAFIT NE RE FO OT RU NN IN G
  3. 3. FITNESS FALLACIES Lotta Bull & Hugh Lyon Sack
  4. 4. MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
  5. 5. L AC T IC
  6. 6. Fa tigue Cramping Muscle Pulls Soreness W orld Hu nger
  7. 7. GLYCOLYTIC FATIGUE FA LS ELY• Lacticacid is blamed for pain and fatigue from anaerobic glycolytic training• Fatigueis not fully understood but may be caused by peripheral issues at muscular level, feedback inhibition of central nervous system, or other causes
  8. 8. At normal pH, lacticacid 98% dissociates to lactate and H+
  9. 9. MYTH BUSTED• Lactateinfusion trials produce no detrimental effects on perceived effort or pain - Miller (2002, 2005)• No evidence linking lactate to discomfort, injury, fatigue, etc
  10. 10. CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
  11. 11. The REAL Culprit?
  12. 12. icatio n?Appl
  13. 13. FlexibilRotten Core ity Myth s
  14. 14. reduce soreness tching doesn’t ou sore•Stre etching can MAKE y•O ver str
  15. 15. Stretching Does Not Decrease Injury
  16. 16. •Stretching makes you weaker (a c ute)
  17. 17. makes you sl ower (acute)•Stretching stretching = m ore slower•More
  18. 18. le? xi bFle o To
  19. 19. Stewart & Burden, 2004DANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
  20. 20. DYNAMIC FLEXIBILITY
  21. 21. HURDLE MOBILITY
  22. 22. CORE?
  23. 23. h: Mind- numbingMyt ps of “a bs” are re runnersbenef icial for Reality: R unning & loaded exe rcises are least as b at eneficial
  24. 24. Core Strength• Refers to functional capacity & positioning of core of body• Use static & dynamic movements• Whole body movements requiring mid- line stabilization are beneficial
  25. 25. Activity of trunk muscles during squats and pulls from the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced with many common stability ball exercises.Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 95-102, 2008.Trunk Muscle Activity During Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises: Nuzzo, McCaulley, Cormie, Cavill, and McBride
  26. 26. Core Training
  27. 27. Core Training
  28. 28. Core Training
  29. 29. tim izingOp e ch an ics?M
  30. 30. General Goals of RunningMinimize brakingforcesEffective groundcontact
  31. 31. Minimize Braking ForcesDecreases horizontalvelocityCaused by excessive steplength and positive foot andleg speed at ground contact
  32. 32. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
  33. 33. Co ach w it ho utCo achi ng!
  34. 34. Self-Optimiz t a ion?
  35. 35. Research suggests that the human body may self-optimize movement
  36. 36. BUT only with practice!
  37. 37. Mirroring?
  38. 38. PosturePosture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
  39. 39. Postural Test!
  40. 40. Developmental COncerns
  41. 41. Forefoot vs Heel Strike?
  42. 42. Factors to Consider A ge Sp ee d Per forma nceDev Effic elo iency pm e nt
  43. 43. What should Ilook for in running?
  44. 44. Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs together
  45. 45. Early Stance Phase Upright posture Appropriate step-over height
  46. 46. Late Stance PhaseUpright postureAppropriate kneeheightSwing leg unfolds
  47. 47. Toe OffProjection of non-support hipAppropriate kneeheightMinimal backsidemechanics
  48. 48. FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact
  49. 49. Technical PointsFix postureWatch ground contact positionRun tall
  50. 50. RUNNING ECONOMY
  51. 51. FACTORS AFFECTING RUNNING ECONOMY• Biomechanics • Race • Vertical motion while running • Weight of clothing and shoes • Technique and type of activity • Fatigue• Fitness and training • Environmental conditions• Individual factors • Neuromuscular efficiency • Age • Gender
  52. 52. NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY• Ability of neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system
  53. 53. Running Economy
  54. 54. MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT• Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics like improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy• Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
  55. 55. •2.9% Impr•4.6% Impr oved Per formanc oved Eco e nomy
  56. 56. Evidence Supporting Evidence Refuting Resistance Training Resistance Training• K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008• G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.• J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,   and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.   JSCR 2008.• And MUCH MORE
  57. 57. Methods• 1-3x/ week• Short but intense workouts• 15-30 minutes per session is sufficient• High load / low rep or explosive• Train the entire body• Use appropriate rest intervals
  58. 58. TRAINING HOLISTICALLY• Muscles don’t act in isolation• Train movements not muscles• Address asymmetries and imbalances
  59. 59. EXERCISE SELECTION• Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion• ~50 / 50 split upper / lower body
  60. 60. STRENGTH
  61. 61. POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg FemaleBench Press 300Back Squat 1100Deadlift 1100Snatch 3000 1750Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900Clean 2950 1750Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650Jerk 5400 2600 *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  62. 62. EXERCISE SELECTION - POWER
  63. 63. Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
  64. 64. Barefoot Running?
  65. 65. The Argument For Au Naturale
  66. 66. 20 years later Zola Budd achieved similar levels of success running barefoot
  67. 67. B UT .. ..
  68. 68. Usecommon sense!
  69. 69. Consider the surface Individual mechanicsProceed with cautionAppropriate footwear
  70. 70. If you like it, thats grea t, But there is no evidence wh atsoever that b arefoot running cau ses less injury.Dr. Benno Nigg
  71. 71. Go back to c ommon sense,if you have a shoe that has never give n you injuries, keep it.Dr. Benno Nigg
  72. 72. Closing Thoughts me n othing Assu Question every thing “Common” sense? Science is fu ndamental
  73. 73. THANKSMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM

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