1. Hot Topics in the Science of Running Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
2. EN S HA NIC N A CI CH N G ME EC AL O TIM N O OP M Y AC IES ALL SS F BAFIT NE RE FO OT RU NN IN G
3. FITNESS FALLACIES Lotta Bull & Hugh Lyon Sack
4. MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
5. L AC T IC
6. Fa tigue Cramping Muscle Pulls Soreness W orld Hu nger
7. GLYCOLYTIC FATIGUE FA LS ELY• Lacticacid is blamed for pain and fatigue from anaerobic glycolytic training• Fatigueis not fully understood but may be caused by peripheral issues at muscular level, feedback inhibition of central nervous system, or other causes
8. At normal pH, lacticacid 98% dissociates to lactate and H+
9. MYTH BUSTED• Lactateinfusion trials produce no detrimental effects on perceived effort or pain - Miller (2002, 2005)• No evidence linking lactate to discomfort, injury, fatigue, etc
10. CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
11. The REAL Culprit?
12. icatio n?Appl
13. FlexibilRotten Core ity Myth s
14. reduce soreness tching doesn’t ou sore•Stre etching can MAKE y•O ver str
15. Stretching Does Not Decrease Injury
16. •Stretching makes you weaker (a c ute)
17. makes you sl ower (acute)•Stretching stretching = m ore slower•More
18. le? xi bFle o To
19. Stewart & Burden, 2004DANGER OF HYPERMOBILITY
20. DYNAMIC FLEXIBILITY
21. HURDLE MOBILITY
23. h: Mind- numbingMyt ps of “a bs” are re runnersbenef icial for Reality: R unning & loaded exe rcises are least as b at eneficial
24. Core Strength• Refers to functional capacity & positioning of core of body• Use static & dynamic movements• Whole body movements requiring mid- line stabilization are beneﬁcial
25. Activity of trunk muscles during squats and pulls from the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced with many common stability ball exercises.Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 95-102, 2008.Trunk Muscle Activity During Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises: Nuzzo, McCaulley, Cormie, Cavill, and McBride
26. Core Training
27. Core Training
28. Core Training
29. tim izingOp e ch an ics?M
30. General Goals of RunningMinimize brakingforcesEffective groundcontact
31. Minimize Braking ForcesDecreases horizontalvelocityCaused by excessive steplength and positive foot andleg speed at ground contact
32. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
33. Co ach w it ho utCo achi ng!
34. Self-Optimiz t a ion?
35. Research suggests that the human body may self-optimize movement
36. BUT only with practice!
38. PosturePosture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
39. Postural Test!
40. Developmental COncerns
41. Forefoot vs Heel Strike?
42. Factors to Consider A ge Sp ee d Per forma nceDev Effic elo iency pm e nt
43. What should Ilook for in running?
44. Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs together
45. Early Stance Phase Upright posture Appropriate step-over height
46. Late Stance PhaseUpright postureAppropriate kneeheightSwing leg unfolds
47. Toe OffProjection of non-support hipAppropriate kneeheightMinimal backsidemechanics
51. FACTORS AFFECTING RUNNING ECONOMY• Biomechanics • Race • Vertical motion while running • Weight of clothing and shoes • Technique and type of activity • Fatigue• Fitness and training • Environmental conditions• Individual factors • Neuromuscular efﬁciency • Age • Gender
52. NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY• Ability of neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system
53. Running Economy
54. MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT• Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics like improved muscle power development and more efﬁcient use of stored elastic energy• Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
55. •2.9% Impr•4.6% Impr oved Per formanc oved Eco e nomy
56. Evidence Supporting Evidence Refuting Resistance Training Resistance Training• K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008• G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.• J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck, and A Lucia. Running Speciﬁc Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running. JSCR 2008.• And MUCH MORE
57. Methods• 1-3x/ week• Short but intense workouts• 15-30 minutes per session is sufﬁcient• High load / low rep or explosive• Train the entire body• Use appropriate rest intervals
58. TRAINING HOLISTICALLY• Muscles don’t act in isolation• Train movements not muscles• Address asymmetries and imbalances
59. EXERCISE SELECTION• Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion• ~50 / 50 split upper / lower body
61. POWER DEVELOPMENTExercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg FemaleBench Press 300Back Squat 1100Deadlift 1100Snatch 3000 1750Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900Clean 2950 1750Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650Jerk 5400 2600 *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
62. EXERCISE SELECTION - POWER
63. Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
64. Barefoot Running?
65. The Argument For Au Naturale
66. 20 years later Zola Budd achieved similar levels of success running barefoot
67. B UT .. ..
68. Usecommon sense!
69. Consider the surface Individual mechanicsProceed with cautionAppropriate footwear
70. If you like it, thats grea t, But there is no evidence wh atsoever that b arefoot running cau ses less injury.Dr. Benno Nigg
71. Go back to c ommon sense,if you have a shoe that has never give n you injuries, keep it.Dr. Benno Nigg
72. Closing Thoughts me n othing Assu Question every thing “Common” sense? Science is fu ndamental