Competition Phase Training for Elite Jumpers

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This is a presentation given by Dr. Mike Young at the USATF Elite Jumps Summit in Las Vegas in November 2010.

This is a presentation given by Dr. Mike Young at the USATF Elite Jumps Summit in Las Vegas in November 2010.

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  • 2008 USATF SuperClinic Dan Pfaff

Transcript

  • 1. Mike Young, PhD HPC-Athletic Lab Cary, North Carolina
  • 2.
    • Examining the concept of peaking
    • Factors affecting competitive performance
    • Pre-competitive phase training to enhance performance readiness
    • Regulating performance readiness
    • Overshoot phenomenon
    • Balancing detraining while achieving overshoot shift during the competitive phase
    • Application of concepts
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Need for a peak
    • Is there really a PEAK?
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Peak performance occurs at the intersection of high levels of fitness and low levels of fatigue
  • 8. Note the DELAYED EFFECT OF TRAINING
  • 9.
    • Detraining phenomenon
    • Training & competitive conundrum- to get better some form of fatigue must be present but to compete at high levels requires low levels of fatigue
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • The role of the biomotor abilities
      • Holistic training
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Psychosomatic
    • Environmental
    • Competitive control issues
      • Acute loading fatigue
      • Short approaches
  • 16.
    • Psychological readiness
      • Pre-meet activities
      • Competition warmups
      • Cueing systems
  • 17.
    • External factors
      • Sleep
      • Nutrition
      • Therapy, etc
  • 18.
    • Roles of training volume, intensity, frequency and density
  • 19.
    • Weights are more than just a means of developing strength
      • Have the potential for profound affect on all systems of body
        • Very strong endocrine and paracrine effect
        • Likelihood for increasing post-synaptic potentiaion
    • Loads and intensities are easily quantifiable
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • 3 months of resistance training can produce a significant fiber type shift from IIb  IIa (Andersen and Aagaard, 2000) with IIb decreasing from 9% to 2%
    • 3 months of detraining caused more than the reversal of these changes, IIb percentage went from 2% post training to 17% post detraining
  • 22.
    • Staron et al (1991) found similar effects of detraining and also found that prior training history conferred a protective effect on IIb maintenance in subsequent training
  • 23.
    • Detraining for 7 weeks produces increase in RFD by 6% while sprint performance over 40m remains better than pre-training
    • Extreme detraining (thru injury - including 10days bed-rest) caused a 24% increase in RFD!
  • 24.
    • After 3 months of detraining – the training induced strength gains at low and moderate speeds and EMG levels return to baseline
    • However, max unloaded shortening speed and power increased after detraining
    • High velocity un-weighted movements (like sprinting and jumping) are likely enhanced with detraining
  • 25.
    • 1994 Jonathon Edwards misses 6 months of training with Epstein Barr virus…
    • 1995 Jonathon Edwards breaks the world triple jump record 3 times (progresses his PB from 17.44m to 18.29m WR and 18.43m Windy)
  • 26.
    • He later became Olympic champion and won another World Championship but never regained his performances from 1995….perhaps because he never detrained to the same extent
    • Extreme competition taper - last 20 days in the lead up to 1995 World Champs included:
      • 3 competitions
      • 2 x 1RM weights sessions
      • 1 sprint session
      • 3 travel days and
      • 11 rest day
  • 27.
    • May require near complete cessation of weight training
    • Reduction of training load by 60+%
    • Metabolic impact & caloric output
    • Almost certain loss of fitness
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • The roles of training volume, intensity, frequency and density
      • Importance of intensity
      • Role of frequency (“refreshers”)
      • Neuro-endocrine considerations
    • Means and method of loading
  • 30.
    • Rates of decline of biomotor abilities vary
      • Anaerobic capacities are lost very quickly
      • Maximal strength, speed, and power capabilities are relatively long lasting
    • Effect on training design
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • A warm-up routine that is specific to the day’s goal
    • Technical or high neural demand
    • Appropriate power or elastic strength routines
    • The role of general strength activities
    • Regenerative modules
    • Structured and purposeful cool-down routines
    • Prescribed physiotherapy and “RX” work
  • 33.
    • Specific to tasks and demands of the session
    • Elevation of core temps
    • Flexibility and mobility work
      • Static
      • Scripted soft tissue therapy
      • Dynamic
    • Sprint development exercises
    • Acceleration progressions
  • 34.
    • Warmup A
    • Acceleration development
    • Special endurance runs (optional refresher)
    • Multiple jump or throw series: 10-24 total efforts / contacts
    • Weight training
    • Cooldown with 5’ of jog/skip routines and ART work
  • 35.
    • Long warmup
    • Technical runs and approaches
    • General fitness:
      • General strength series
      • Barbell complexes
      • Medicine ball routines
    • Cooldown with barefoot and multi-directional work
  • 36.
    • Warmup B
    • Speed:
      • Speed or Special Speed Endurance Runs; 2-3sets x 3 runs x 40-50m with 2’ and 5’ recoveries
      • Sprint-float-sprint alactic runs w/ full recoveries
    • Intensive multi-jump routine: bounding, etc
    • Weight training: similar to Monday with power / eccentric loading
    • Neural cooldown
  • 37.
    • Warmup C
    • Grass runs
    • Remedial jumping / approach work
    • General fitness:
      • Strength series
      • Medicine ball routines
      • Hurdle mobility
    • Skipping & barefoot running
    • IF A REST DAY IS NEEDED THIS IS WHERE TO DO IT
  • 38.
    • Warmup B
    • “ Dealer’s choice”
      • Acceleration Development
      • Weight training
      • Multi-throw series
      • Multi-jumps routines
    • Therapy?
  • 39.
    • Warmup B
    • Speed endurance or Anaerobic glycolytic emphasis
    • Mobility & strength
      • Special walks
      • Hurdle mobility
    • Cooldown with multi-directional jogging, skipping and shuffling
    • Great day for therapy
  • 40.
    • Competing is training
    • Design events entered to fit time of year, athlete’s needs, and health of athlete
    • Timing of warm-ups
    • Accelerations prime the pump and serve as a checklist
    • Hydration and diet
    • Teaching opportunities
    • Post meet therapy and cool-down
  • 41.
    • Day 1: Explosive emphasis
    • Day 2: Elastic and metabolic emphasis
    • Day 3: General fitness emphasis
  • 42.
    • Extend the training plan
    • Minimize training plan interruptions
    • To overshoot or not to overshoot?
    • Minimize detraining of desired physical characteristics
    • Train all biomotor abilities concurrently throughout the macrocycle
    • Recognize varying residual effects of training
  • 43.
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