BREAKING BARRIERS TO   SPRINT PERFORMANCE RESEARCH-BASED, FIELD-PROVEN METHODS              Mike Young, PhD             HP...
•   What limits performance?    •   Maximizing acceleration•   Insight from today’s best   •   Minimizing deceleration•   ...
WHAT LIMITSPERFORMANCE?
Research Review
MA ’AM                  TS   ,          E   FAC     ST THJU
•Gravity....u                gh
•Gravity....u•We wor k     gh             to overc                      ome grav                              ity
•Gravity....u•We wor k      gh•Fat don’t    to overc                       ome gra           fly                 v         ...
= more speed•Mo re force
= more speed•More    force          le across speeds         me is co mparab• Air ti
= more speed•More    force          le across speeds         me is co mparab• Air ti   imb spe   ed....meh•L
= more    speed•More    force             le across speeds         me is co  mparab• Air ti   imb spe    ed....meh•L      ...
lates with speed     ide length corre•Str
lates with speed      e length corre            or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8   m/s• Ground    Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45    steps for sub 9.80 100m• ...
KINETIC PARAMETERS         • Groundreaction forces          approaching 3x bodyweight         • Muscle                forc...
do  t he  ha tW          ts   e xp er            sa y?  a ve  to h
The	 key	 to	 speed	 is	     applying	 large	 forces	 through	 appropriate	 ranges	 of	 motion	 over	 increasingly	   shor...
To go faster, youneed more force             Charlie Francis
Proper force   application results   in stride length and        frequency         increasesTom Tellez
The main characteristic of elite     sprinting is....transporting    elastic energy from one leg to   the other in the flig...
The key to human speed is   simple: applying large mass-      specific forces to the           ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics...
The Force isPowerful!
People Running Ridiculously Fast
9.7x
6 x9 .
19.26
10.67
Con                                 clusion:
 We’v e
 gotten
  SOOOOO
     muc                                   h
 faster!
Con                                 clusion:
 We’v e
 gotten
     SOOOOO
     muc                                   h
 faster!          Or
 have
 we?
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Top Sprinters TODAYaccelerate Faster    Longer DeceleratE Less
GENERALCONCEPTS OF SPRINTING       by   Hugo Faasta
TheStride Length x Frequency = Speed?
B UT .. ..
CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
Old: To  increase     d, increa se stridespee                 quency length and fre
Old: To  increase     d, increa se stridespee                 quency     New: Stri length and fre                       de...
STRIDE LENGTH   FREQUENCY
STRIDE LENGTH               FREQUENCY• Stride       length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed
STRIDE LENGTH               FREQUENCY• Stride       length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed...
STRIDE LENGTH               FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased   stride length • I...
SPRINT MATH• Stride   frequency is comprised of two components:  1. Ground contact time  2. Flight time• The   best sprint...
POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces       applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed  • Increases   ...
EXAMINING FORCE• Force   is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
FORCE DEVELOPMENT             SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appr...
Run fast For long
Run fast .
Run
Run (accelerate)
Lifting Limitson Acceleration
When does 60 = 20?
ACCELERATION MECHANICS
EXTENDING ACCELERATION• Staying       in pushing mechanics permits a neuromuscular and metabolic shift that allows for les...
LOW DEPARTURE ANGLES
Minimizing Speed Decay
MECHANICS OF UPRIGHT RUNNING
N   at     ur       eN ur   tu     re
Sprinting	 is	   a	 skill        Loren Seagrave
Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity             Dr. Ralph Mann
MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting   well is a combination of nature and nurture• There      are reflexive and innate compon...
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
Max V Sprinting 101    Big Force        +  Right Direction        +   Minimal Time      Faster
GOALS OF SPRINTING• Minimize   braking forces• Increase   propulsive forces
tim  izingOp  e ch an ics?M
SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
PosturePosture  Trunk Erect  Head Level  Hips Tall
POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder  Mast of the Body
The first most        important     aspect of speed       is posture.Tom Tellez
POSTURE• Movements   of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensur...
POSTURE• Postural    Stabilization• Postural Alignment  • Relaxation  • Freedom      of movement  • Elastic   energy produ...
PELVIC MOTION• The  pelvis should rotate in all three planes
Postural Test!
IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs togetherHeel high
Stance PhaseUpright postureTall hipsVertical forcesSwing leg active
Stance PhaseUpright postureStepping over knee
Stance PhaseUpright postureHigh kneeSwing leg unfolds
Toe OffProjection of non-support hipHigh kneeNeutral / dorsiflexedankleMinimal backsidemechanics
FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact  Downward  acceleration of  thigh  Neutral /  dorsiflex...
Technical PointsFix postureEmphasize vertical pushes  Push upElbows in front of the bodyHigh hips  Run tall
What  should Ilook for in running?
MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES• Decreases   horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed ...
EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
VERTICAL PROPULSIVE              FORCES• Increased   vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits  • Greater   disp...
Am  plit      ude          ?
Boing?
VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM   reaches ap...
To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off     the ground.                Char...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
VS
AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD         MECHANICS• Better   sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight      times stay the same without...
Building a Bigger Engine
THE MEAT       MACHINE•   Absorb shock and control vertical    collapse during support•   Balance and control of upper    ...
Sprint Faster....To
ter.... Sprint!To Sprint Fas
maximum-maximorum.com
Building LowEnd Power
STRENGTH
OLYMPIC LIFTS
SHORT BOUNDS
MULTI-THROWS
BUildinga Stiffer  Spring
Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end    speed and that in turn   influences the ability to maintain a ...
Stride length is determined by     the quality of force application       during ground contact. The     quality of this f...
Vertical forces become predominantin the maximal velocity phase. Muchof the horizontal momentum needshave been established...
ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
DEPTH DROPS
DEPTH JUMPS
VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOS
STIFFNESS JUMPS
COMPLEXES
ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
CLOSING POINTS•   Today’s top sprinters are accelerating faster and longer•   Today’s top sprinters are decelerating less•...
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Breaking Barriers to Sprint Performance

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This is Dr. Young's presentation from the 2011 USTFCCCA Annual Meeting. The presentation focuses on what current research and performance analysis of today's top sprint performances can tell us about the limitations of speed and how we can use that information to improve an athlete's sprint performance.

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  • all the dr young presentations are excellent but unfortunately cannot be downloaded ,for such country like ours,iran,when we have big prob with internet in our universities,i appreciate if he let us to download some of his presentation.
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  • @karlgilligan15 I totally agree. You can't disconnect what happens immediately after ground contact to what you want to see in front side. Active recovery makes optimal front side mechanics much more likely to happen.
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  • Yes I would agree FS mechanics most important, particularly given the findings from Weyand. Was looking for your thoughts as I like to place some emphasis on BS mechanics (reference to active heel recovery) which (if all things equal) should optimize the FS mechanics by re-positioning the limb in a favorable position for leg extension expression. I think it does this by facilitating greater angular momentum during late swing phase. From my experience quite often a passive heel recovery reduces thigh height position in FS mechanics, which reduces the angular momentum, resulting in reduced leg extension force during ground contact.
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  • @karlgilligan15 I tend to think athletes need to try to stay as front side dominant as possible through the entire race. Backside becomes inevitable at top speed but if physical and technical capacities are in place it should be minimal in my opinion.
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  • Yes great coaches and some excellent researchers you have been influenced by as well such as Mann and Weyand. Altogether, this presentation and your Mechanics of Speed presentation were very a good read. Any thoughts on front side mechnanics during acceleration and back side mechanics on max velocity running?
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Breaking Barriers to Sprint Performance

  1. 1. BREAKING BARRIERS TO SPRINT PERFORMANCE RESEARCH-BASED, FIELD-PROVEN METHODS Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab NC State University Cary, North Carolina
  2. 2. • What limits performance? • Maximizing acceleration• Insight from today’s best • Minimizing deceleration• General concepts • Enhancing capacities
  3. 3. WHAT LIMITSPERFORMANCE?
  4. 4. Research Review
  5. 5. MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
  6. 6. •Gravity....u gh
  7. 7. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh to overc ome grav ity
  8. 8. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh•Fat don’t to overc ome gra fly v ity
  9. 9. = more speed•Mo re force
  10. 10. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti
  11. 11. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L
  12. 12. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L is KING •Ver ti cal force
  13. 13. lates with speed ide length corre•Str
  14. 14. lates with speed e length corre or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
  15. 15. KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m• Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz• Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec• Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m
  16. 16. KINETIC PARAMETERS • Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight • Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  17. 17. do t he ha tW ts e xp er sa y? a ve to h
  18. 18. The key to speed is applying large forces through appropriate ranges of motion over increasingly shorter periods of time Loren Seagrave
  19. 19. To go faster, youneed more force Charlie Francis
  20. 20. Proper force application results in stride length and frequency increasesTom Tellez
  21. 21. The main characteristic of elite sprinting is....transporting elastic energy from one leg to the other in the flight phase and directing the GROUND REACTION FORCES in stance.Frans Bosch
  22. 22. The key to human speed is simple: applying large mass- specific forces to the ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
  23. 23. Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics. Thatsaid, the most important factor isthe genetic ability to generatelarge amounts of explosive force. Dr. Ralph Mann
  24. 24. The Force isPowerful!
  25. 25. People Running Ridiculously Fast
  26. 26. 9.7x
  27. 27. 6 x9 .
  28. 28. 19.26
  29. 29. 10.67
  30. 30. Con clusion:
  31. 31.  We’v e
  32. 32.  gotten
  33. 33.   SOOOOO
  34. 34.   muc h
  35. 35.  faster!
  36. 36. Con clusion:
  37. 37.  We’v e
  38. 38.  gotten
  39. 39.   SOOOOO
  40. 40.   muc h
  41. 41.  faster! Or
  42. 42.  have
  43. 43.  we?
  44. 44. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  45. 45. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  46. 46. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  47. 47. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  48. 48. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  49. 49. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  50. 50. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  51. 51. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  52. 52. Top Sprinters TODAYaccelerate Faster Longer DeceleratE Less
  53. 53. GENERALCONCEPTS OF SPRINTING by Hugo Faasta
  54. 54. TheStride Length x Frequency = Speed?
  55. 55. B UT .. ..
  56. 56. CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
  57. 57. Old: To increase d, increa se stridespee quency length and fre
  58. 58. Old: To increase d, increa se stridespee quency New: Stri length and fre de length frequency are inter- related an d an effec rather th t an a caus e
  59. 59. STRIDE LENGTH FREQUENCY
  60. 60. STRIDE LENGTH FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed
  61. 61. STRIDE LENGTH FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed• Speedof movement of limbs is of little importance
  62. 62. STRIDE LENGTH FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
  63. 63. SPRINT MATH• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: 1. Ground contact time 2. Flight time• The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ◦ Greater frequency
  64. 64. POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed • Increases stride length and frequency• Best sprinters apply more force in a shorter period of time
  65. 65. EXAMINING FORCE• Force is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
  66. 66. FORCE DEVELOPMENT SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time • Minimize horizontal braking forces • Increase vertical propulsive forces
  67. 67. Run fast For long
  68. 68. Run fast .
  69. 69. Run
  70. 70. Run (accelerate)
  71. 71. Lifting Limitson Acceleration
  72. 72. When does 60 = 20?
  73. 73. ACCELERATION MECHANICS
  74. 74. EXTENDING ACCELERATION• Staying in pushing mechanics permits a neuromuscular and metabolic shift that allows for less fatigue later in a race• Athletes should display: • Lower heel recovery • Gradual but slow progression of body angles • Piston-like action of the legs
  75. 75. LOW DEPARTURE ANGLES
  76. 76. Minimizing Speed Decay
  77. 77. MECHANICS OF UPRIGHT RUNNING
  78. 78. N at ur eN ur tu re
  79. 79. Sprinting is a skill Loren Seagrave
  80. 80. Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
  81. 81. MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting well is a combination of nature and nurture• There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
  82. 82. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
  83. 83. BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
  84. 84. Max V Sprinting 101 Big Force + Right Direction + Minimal Time Faster
  85. 85. GOALS OF SPRINTING• Minimize braking forces• Increase propulsive forces
  86. 86. tim izingOp e ch an ics?M
  87. 87. SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
  88. 88. PosturePosture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
  89. 89. POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder Mast of the Body
  90. 90. The first most important aspect of speed is posture.Tom Tellez
  91. 91. POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
  92. 92. POSTURE• Postural Stabilization• Postural Alignment • Relaxation • Freedom of movement • Elastic energy production
  93. 93. PELVIC MOTION• The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
  94. 94. Postural Test!
  95. 95. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  96. 96. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  97. 97. Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs togetherHeel high
  98. 98. Stance PhaseUpright postureTall hipsVertical forcesSwing leg active
  99. 99. Stance PhaseUpright postureStepping over knee
  100. 100. Stance PhaseUpright postureHigh kneeSwing leg unfolds
  101. 101. Toe OffProjection of non-support hipHigh kneeNeutral / dorsiflexedankleMinimal backsidemechanics
  102. 102. FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact Downward acceleration of thigh Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle
  103. 103. Technical PointsFix postureEmphasize vertical pushes Push upElbows in front of the bodyHigh hips Run tall
  104. 104. What should Ilook for in running?
  105. 105. MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES• Decreases horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
  106. 106. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
  107. 107. VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCES• Increased vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits • Greater displacement • More effective ground contact position • Better maintenance of momentum
  108. 108. Am plit ude ?
  109. 109. Boing?
  110. 110. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM reaches apex in flight • COM low point during support
  111. 111. To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
  112. 112. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS
  113. 113. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring
  114. 114. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration
  115. 115. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces
  116. 116. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration
  117. 117. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration• Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
  118. 118. VS
  119. 119. AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD MECHANICS• Better sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight times stay the same without an increase in ground contact time
  120. 120. Building a Bigger Engine
  121. 121. THE MEAT MACHINE• Absorb shock and control vertical collapse during support• Balance and control of upper extremity• Forward and upward propulsion• Control direction changes in center of mass
  122. 122. Sprint Faster....To
  123. 123. ter.... Sprint!To Sprint Fas
  124. 124. maximum-maximorum.com
  125. 125. Building LowEnd Power
  126. 126. STRENGTH
  127. 127. OLYMPIC LIFTS
  128. 128. SHORT BOUNDS
  129. 129. MULTI-THROWS
  130. 130. BUildinga Stiffer Spring
  131. 131. Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
  132. 132. Stride length is determined by the quality of force application during ground contact. The quality of this force application is related to the degree of stiffness in the supporting leg as well as the speed of forward flexion of the free legGary Winckler
  133. 133. Vertical forces become predominantin the maximal velocity phase. Muchof the horizontal momentum needshave been established, so vertical force generation becomes critical. These vertical forces enhance stride length and posture. Boo Schexnayder
  134. 134. ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
  135. 135. DEPTH DROPS
  136. 136. DEPTH JUMPS
  137. 137. VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOS
  138. 138. STIFFNESS JUMPS
  139. 139. COMPLEXES
  140. 140. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
  141. 141. CLOSING POINTS• Today’s top sprinters are accelerating faster and longer• Today’s top sprinters are decelerating less• Enhancement of mechanics will improve performance• Developing physical capacities with an emphasis on eccentric force generation is beneficial
  142. 142. THANKSMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM

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