Breaking Barriers to Sprint Performance

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This is Dr. Young's presentation from the 2011 USTFCCCA Annual Meeting. The presentation focuses on what current research and performance analysis of today's top sprint performances can tell us about …

This is Dr. Young's presentation from the 2011 USTFCCCA Annual Meeting. The presentation focuses on what current research and performance analysis of today's top sprint performances can tell us about the limitations of speed and how we can use that information to improve an athlete's sprint performance.

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  • all the dr young presentations are excellent but unfortunately cannot be downloaded ,for such country like ours,iran,when we have big prob with internet in our universities,i appreciate if he let us to download some of his presentation.
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  • @karlgilligan15 I totally agree. You can't disconnect what happens immediately after ground contact to what you want to see in front side. Active recovery makes optimal front side mechanics much more likely to happen.
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  • Yes I would agree FS mechanics most important, particularly given the findings from Weyand. Was looking for your thoughts as I like to place some emphasis on BS mechanics (reference to active heel recovery) which (if all things equal) should optimize the FS mechanics by re-positioning the limb in a favorable position for leg extension expression. I think it does this by facilitating greater angular momentum during late swing phase. From my experience quite often a passive heel recovery reduces thigh height position in FS mechanics, which reduces the angular momentum, resulting in reduced leg extension force during ground contact.
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  • @karlgilligan15 I tend to think athletes need to try to stay as front side dominant as possible through the entire race. Backside becomes inevitable at top speed but if physical and technical capacities are in place it should be minimal in my opinion.
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  • Yes great coaches and some excellent researchers you have been influenced by as well such as Mann and Weyand. Altogether, this presentation and your Mechanics of Speed presentation were very a good read. Any thoughts on front side mechnanics during acceleration and back side mechanics on max velocity running?
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  • 1. BREAKING BARRIERS TO SPRINT PERFORMANCE RESEARCH-BASED, FIELD-PROVEN METHODS Mike Young, PhD HPC - Athletic Lab NC State University Cary, North Carolina
  • 2. • What limits performance? • Maximizing acceleration• Insight from today’s best • Minimizing deceleration• General concepts • Enhancing capacities
  • 3. WHAT LIMITSPERFORMANCE?
  • 4. Research Review
  • 5. MA ’AM TS , E FAC ST THJU
  • 6. •Gravity....u gh
  • 7. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh to overc ome grav ity
  • 8. •Gravity....u•We wor k gh•Fat don’t to overc ome gra fly v ity
  • 9. = more speed•Mo re force
  • 10. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti
  • 11. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L
  • 12. = more speed•More force le across speeds me is co mparab• Air ti imb spe ed....meh•L is KING •Ver ti cal force
  • 13. lates with speed ide length corre•Str
  • 14. lates with speed e length corre or tant•Strid tal force may be imp•H orizon
  • 15. KINEMATIC PARAMETERS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• 42-45 steps for sub 9.80 100m• Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz• Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec• Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m
  • 16. KINETIC PARAMETERS • Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight • Muscle forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
  • 17. do t he ha tW ts e xp er sa y? a ve to h
  • 18. The key to speed is applying large forces through appropriate ranges of motion over increasingly shorter periods of time Loren Seagrave
  • 19. To go faster, youneed more force Charlie Francis
  • 20. Proper force application results in stride length and frequency increasesTom Tellez
  • 21. The main characteristic of elite sprinting is....transporting elastic energy from one leg to the other in the flight phase and directing the GROUND REACTION FORCES in stance.Frans Bosch
  • 22. The key to human speed is simple: applying large mass- specific forces to the ground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
  • 23. Mechanics is critical – with thelevel of competition in the sprints,a sprinter cannot be successfulwithout sound mechanics. Thatsaid, the most important factor isthe genetic ability to generatelarge amounts of explosive force. Dr. Ralph Mann
  • 24. The Force isPowerful!
  • 25. People Running Ridiculously Fast
  • 26. 9.7x
  • 27. 6 x9 .
  • 28. 19.26
  • 29. 10.67
  • 30. Con clusion:
  • 31.   We’v e
  • 32.   gotten
  • 33.    SOOOOO
  • 34.    muc h
  • 35.   faster!
  • 36. Con clusion:
  • 37.   We’v e
  • 38.   gotten
  • 39.    SOOOOO
  • 40.    muc h
  • 41.   faster! Or
  • 42.   have
  • 43.   we?
  • 44. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 45. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 46. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 47. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 48. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 49. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 50. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 51. Lewis (1988) Bolt (2008) 0-10m 1.89 1.85 10-20m 1.07 1.02 20-30m 0.94 0.91 30-40m 0.89 0.87 40-50m 0.86 0.85 50-60m 0.83 0.82 60-70m 0.85 0.82 70-80m 0.85 0.82 80-90m 0.86 0.8390-100m 0.88 0.90 Time 9.92 9.69
  • 52. Top Sprinters TODAYaccelerate Faster & Longer &DeceleratE Less
  • 53. GENERALCONCEPTS OF SPRINTING by Hugo Faasta
  • 54. TheStride Length x Frequency = Speed?
  • 55. B UT .. ..
  • 56. CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
  • 57. Old: To increase d, increa se stridespee quency length and fre
  • 58. Old: To increase d, increa se stridespee quency New: Stri length and fre de length & frequency are inter- related an d an effec rather th t an a caus e
  • 59. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY
  • 60. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed
  • 61. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• Stride length and frequency are linked and a consequence not a cause of speed• Speedof movement of limbs is of little importance
  • 62. STRIDE LENGTH & FREQUENCY• The benefit of greater force application is two-fold • Increased stride length • Increased stride frequency
  • 63. SPRINT MATH• Stride frequency is comprised of two components: 1. Ground contact time 2. Flight time• The best sprinters spend less time on the ground ◦ Greater frequency
  • 64. POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed • Increases stride length and frequency• Best sprinters apply more force in a shorter period of time
  • 65. EXAMINING FORCE• Force is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
  • 66. FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate direction and do so over increasingly shorter periods of time • Minimize horizontal braking forces • Increase vertical propulsive forces
  • 67. Run fast For long
  • 68. Run fast .
  • 69. Run
  • 70. Run (accelerate)
  • 71. Lifting Limitson Acceleration
  • 72. When does 60 = 20?
  • 73. ACCELERATION MECHANICS
  • 74. EXTENDING ACCELERATION• Staying in pushing mechanics permits a neuromuscular and metabolic shift that allows for less fatigue later in a race• Athletes should display: • Lower heel recovery • Gradual but slow progression of body angles • Piston-like action of the legs
  • 75. LOW DEPARTURE ANGLES
  • 76. Minimizing Speed Decay
  • 77. MECHANICS OF UPRIGHT RUNNING
  • 78. N at ur eN ur tu re
  • 79. Sprinting is a skill Loren Seagrave
  • 80. Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity Dr. Ralph Mann
  • 81. MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting well is a combination of nature and nurture• There are reflexive and innate components as well as trainable components
  • 82. FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
  • 83. BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
  • 84. Max V Sprinting 101 Big Force + Right Direction + Minimal Time Faster
  • 85. GOALS OF SPRINTING• Minimize braking forces• Increase propulsive forces
  • 86. tim izingOp e ch an ics?M
  • 87. SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
  • 88. PosturePosture Trunk Erect Head Level Hips Tall
  • 89. POSTUREALIGNMENTRudder & Mast of the Body
  • 90. The first most important aspect of speed is posture.Tom Tellez
  • 91. POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs
  • 92. POSTURE• Postural Stabilization• Postural Alignment • Relaxation • Freedom of movement • Elastic energy production
  • 93. PELVIC MOTION• The pelvis should rotate in all three planes
  • 94. Postural Test!
  • 95. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  • 96. IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE
  • 97. Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs togetherHeel high
  • 98. Stance PhaseUpright postureTall hipsVertical forcesSwing leg active
  • 99. Stance PhaseUpright postureStepping over knee
  • 100. Stance PhaseUpright postureHigh kneeSwing leg unfolds
  • 101. Toe OffProjection of non-support hipHigh kneeNeutral / dorsiflexedankleMinimal backsidemechanics
  • 102. FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact Downward acceleration of thigh Neutral / dorsiflexed ankle
  • 103. Technical PointsFix postureEmphasize vertical pushes Push upElbows in front of the bodyHigh hips Run tall
  • 104. What should Ilook for in running?
  • 105. MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES• Decreases horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed at ground contact
  • 106. EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
  • 107. VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCES• Increased vertical propulsive force produce a host of benefits • Greater displacement • More effective ground contact position • Better maintenance of momentum
  • 108. Am plit ude ?
  • 109. Boing?
  • 110. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM reaches apex in flight • COM low point during support
  • 111. To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off the ground. Charlie Francis
  • 112. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS
  • 113. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring
  • 114. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration
  • 115. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces
  • 116. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration
  • 117. INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS• Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring• Momentum is developed during acceleration• Body will move at same rate unless acted on by unbalanced forces• Two external forces will cause deceleration• Leg stiffness increases vertical impulse, shortens ground contact and increases elastic return
  • 118. VS
  • 119. AMPLITUDE DUE TO GOOD MECHANICS• Better sprinters will appear to bounce• Flight times stay the same without an increase in ground contact time
  • 120. Building a Bigger Engine
  • 121. THE MEAT MACHINE• Absorb shock and control vertical collapse during support• Balance and control of upper extremity• Forward and upward propulsion• Control direction changes in center of mass
  • 122. Sprint Faster....To
  • 123. ter.... Sprint!To Sprint Fas
  • 124. maximum-maximorum.com
  • 125. Building LowEnd Power
  • 126. STRENGTH
  • 127. OLYMPIC LIFTS
  • 128. SHORT BOUNDS
  • 129. MULTI-THROWS
  • 130. BUildinga Stiffer Spring
  • 131. Vertical force production isthe key component of top-end speed and that in turn influences the ability to maintain a slight increase in stride length and stride frequency Dan Pfaff
  • 132. Stride length is determined by the quality of force application during ground contact. The quality of this force application is related to the degree of stiffness in the supporting leg as well as the speed of forward flexion of the free legGary Winckler
  • 133. Vertical forces become predominantin the maximal velocity phase. Muchof the horizontal momentum needshave been established, so vertical force generation becomes critical. These vertical forces enhance stride length and posture. Boo Schexnayder
  • 134. ECCENTRIC STRENGTH
  • 135. DEPTH DROPS
  • 136. DEPTH JUMPS
  • 137. VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOS
  • 138. STIFFNESS JUMPS
  • 139. COMPLEXES
  • 140. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD
  • 141. CLOSING POINTS• Today’s top sprinters are accelerating faster and longer• Today’s top sprinters are decelerating less• Enhancement of mechanics will improve performance• Developing physical capacities with an emphasis on eccentric force generation is beneficial
  • 142. THANKSMIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM