Auxiliary Training Means and Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete


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This is the powerpoint from a presentation given on November 21 at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC as part of a Triathlon seminar.

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Auxiliary Training Means and Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete

  1. 1. Michael Young, PhD HPC-Athletic Lab Cary, NC
  2. 2. 1. Strength 2. Flexibility 3. Speed 4. Endurance 5. Coordination
  3. 3. Strength Development
  4. 4. A roadmap with definitions
  5. 5.  Produces beneficial changes on musculoskeletal and endocrine system  Non-impact means of training  Introduces training variety  Can address imbalances and asymmetries  Reduces likelihood of injuries  Enhances performance through improved neuromuscular efficiency
  6. 6.  Research Review  Methods  Integration
  7. 7.  Muscular Strength: Ability to produce force  Power: Ability to perform large amounts of work over short periods of time  Muscular Endurance: Ability to sustain high work loads
  8. 8.  Maximal strength is highest level of force an athlete can generate  Greater maximal strength means more can be converted into sport- specific strength endurance or explosive power (Bompa, 1999)  Maximal strength training can improve exercise economy and endurance performance (Hoff et al, 2002; Johnston et al, 1997)
  9. 9.  Triathletes never produce a singular maximal effort  Most sports require movements that are much more rapid and demand a higher power output than is generated during maximal lifts  An athlete can be exceptionally strong but lack substantial power due to an inability to contract muscle quickly (Komi, 1979; Newton & Kraemer, 1994)
  10. 10.  The greater amount of starting maximal strength, the more of it can be maintained for a prolonged period.  Strength endurance can be developed through circuit training or the use of low weights and high repetitions  Many strength endurance programs are inadequate for endurance-based sports - a set of 15-20 repetitions for example does not condition the neuromuscular system in the same way as a long distance event.
  11. 11.  Periodization: The planning of training variables to attain a specific goal in a predetermined period of time  Intensity: The degree an activity approximates an absolute maximal effort  Volume: The quantity of work performed
  12. 12.  Running Economy: A measure of how efficiently a person uses oxygen while running at a given pace
  13. 13.  The following factors affect running economy: ◦ Biomechanics  Vertical motion while running  Technique and type of activity ◦ Fitness and training ◦ Individual factors  Age  Gender  Race  Weight of clothing and shoes ◦ Fatigue ◦ Environmental conditions ◦ Neuromuscular efficiency
  14. 14.  Neuromuscular Efficiency: The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system
  15. 15.  Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running  Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
  16. 16. Ensuring evidence-based practice
  17. 17.  Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than novices  Interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon)  In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling due to physiological stress and loss of coordination Bonacci J, Chapman A, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):903-21.
  18. 18.  Training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency  Efficiency increased through muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria Hopker J, Passfield L, Coleman D, Jobson S, Edwards L, Carter H.The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):845-50.
  19. 19.  Explosive strength training vs heavy strength training  A short period of heavy strength training can improve running economy in well-trained runners and seems to be more efficient for the improvement of running economy Guglielmo LG, Greco CC, Denadai BS. Effects of strength training on running economy. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;30(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Oct 30.
  20. 20.  Just endurance running vs. endurance + explosive lifting  Total training volume kept same; 9 weeks of training  Simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improves 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in their O2 max. Leena Paavolainen, Keijo Häkkinen, Ismo Hämäläinen, Ari Nummela, and Heikki Rusko. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power J Appl Physiol 86: 1527-1533, 1999; Vol. 86, Issue 5, 1527-1533, May 1999.
  21. 21.  Short-term endurance measured with maximal 4-8 minute cycle and run  After weight-training, subjects increased time to exhaustion by 11% during cycling and 13% during running  Length of time subjects were able to cycle at 80% of VO2 max increased from 71 minutes to 85 minutes Hickson RC, Dvorak BA, Gorostiaga EM, Kurowski TT, Foster C. Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. J of Appl Physiol. 1988 Nov;65(5):2285-90.
  22. 22.  Meta-analysis: ◦ 2.9% improved performance ◦ 4.6% improved running economy (range = 3-8.1%)  Resistance training has a positive effect on endurance running performance and running economy Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):2036-44.
  23. 23.  Evidence Supporting Resistance Training ◦ K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008 ◦ G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002. ◦ J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck, and A Lucia. Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running. JSCR 2008. ◦ And MORE  Evidence against Resistance Training
  24. 24. Best practices for using strength development for neuromuscular efficiency
  25. 25.  1-3x/ week  Short but intense workouts  15-40 minutes per session is sufficient  Focus on high resistance / low rep or explosive  Train the entire body  Use appropriate rest intervals
  26. 26.  Core strength relates to the functional capacity and positioning of the the core of the body  Core strength should be trained for stability using both static and dynamic movements  Whole body movements that require mid-line stabilization are excellent at developing core strength in a functional manner
  27. 27. Activity of the trunk muscles during squats and pulls from the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced with many common stability ball exercises. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 95-102, 2008. Trunk Muscle Activity During Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises: Nuzzo, McCaulley, Cormie, Cavill, and McBride
  28. 28.  Muscles do not act in isolation  Train movements not muscles  Address asymmetries and imbalances
  29. 29.  Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion  ~50 / 50 split upper / lower body  Upper body: ◦ Presses (Bench press, shoulder press, DB incline, etc) ◦ Pulls (Pullups, Rows, Pulldowns, etc)  Lower body: ◦ Squats (front, back, overhead, etc) ◦ Pulls (deadlifts, olympic lifts) ◦ Unilateral (lunges, stepups, split squats)
  30. 30. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  31. 31.  Neuromuscular adaptations occur best at higher exercise intensities
  32. 32.  Weight gain should be minimized  Any changes in weight are largely a byproduct of macronutrient intake ratios and caloric intake  Maximum strength training does not lead to a significant increase in muscle mass (Moss et al, 1997) Moss BM, Refsnes PE, Abildgaard A, Nicolaysen K, Jensen J. Effects of maximal effort strength training with different loads on dynamic strength, cross-sectional area, load-power and load- velocity relationships. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1997;75(3):193-9
  33. 33. Thoughts on incorporating strength development concepts in to triathlon training
  34. 34.  The body will adapt to stress  Continually increasing stressors must be applied for continued adaptation
  35. 35.  Volume and intensity should always operate in an inverse relationship  Attempting to maintain both high concurrently may lead to overtraining  Volume will start higher and drop off  Intensity will start lower and increase
  36. 36.  Strength for the sake of strength is meaningless  Know the goal  Use resistance training for strength not endurance  Specificity of action and movement is important
  37. 37. Flexibility & Mobility
  38. 38.  Static Flexibility is the ability to attain large range of motion at a joint without accompanying movement
  39. 39.  Dynamic Flexibility is the ability to attain large range of motion at a joint with accompanying movement
  40. 40.  Static Flexibility Exercises are designed to challenge the range of motion of a joint in a way that involves little or no motion  2 sub-categories: ◦ Passive Static Stretching ◦ Facilitated Stretching
  41. 41.  Dynamic Flexibility Exercises are simple movements that move joints through large ranges of motion
  42. 42.  Hurdle Mobility Exercises are hurdle exercises that force joints to move through large ranges of motion ◦ Designed to improve mobility, flexibility, and coordination
  43. 43.  Bompa TO. 1999 Periodization Training for Sports. Champaign,IL: Human Kinetics.  Hoff J, Gran A, Helgerud J. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002 Oct;12(5):288-95  Johnston RE, TJ Quinn, Kertzer R and Vroman NB. Strength training in female distance runners: impact on running economy. J. Strength Cond. Res. 11: 224-229, 1997  Komi PV. Neuromuscular performance: factors influencing force and speed production. Scand J Sports Sci. 1979 1:2- 15  Newton RU; Kraemer WJ. developing explosive muscular power: implications for a mixed method training strategy. NSCA J. 1994 16:(5)20-31