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Auxiliary Training Means and Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete



This is the powerpoint from a presentation given on November 21 at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC as part of a Triathlon seminar.

This is the powerpoint from a presentation given on November 21 at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC as part of a Triathlon seminar.



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    Auxiliary Training Means and Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete Auxiliary Training Means and Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete Presentation Transcript

    • Auxiliary Training: Means & Methods for the Multi-Sport Athlete
      Michael Young, PhD
      HPC-Athletic Lab
      Cary, NC
    • Strength
      5 Physical Capacities
    • Auxiliary Training Means
      Strength Development
    • Introduction
      A roadmap with definitions
    • Produces beneficial changes on musculoskeletal and endocrine system
      Non-impact means of training
      Introduces training variety
      Can address imbalances and asymmetries
      Reduces likelihood of injuries
      Enhances performance through improved neuromuscular efficiency
      Benefits of Resistance Training
    • Research Review
      Introduction to Strength
    • Muscular Strength: Ability to produce force
      Power: Ability to perform large amounts of work over short periods of time
      Muscular Endurance: Ability to sustain high work loads
    • Maximal strength is highest level of force an athlete can generate
      Greater maximal strength means more can be converted into sport-specific strength endurance or explosive power (Bompa, 1999)
      Maximal strength training can improve exercise economy and endurance performance (Hoff et al, 2002; Johnston et al, 1997)
      Muscle Capacities – Maximal Strength
    • Triathletes never produce a singular maximal effort
      Most sports require movements that are much more rapid and demand a higher power output than is generated during maximal lifts
      An athlete can be exceptionally strong but lack substantial power due to an inability to contract muscle quickly (Komi, 1979; Newton & Kraemer, 1994)
      Muscle Capacities – Power
    • The greater amount of starting maximal strength, the more of it can be maintained for a prolonged period.
      Strength endurance can be developed through circuit training or the use of low weights and high repetitions
      Many strength endurance programs are inadequate for endurance-based sports - a set of 15-20 repetitions for example does not condition the neuromuscular system in the same way as a long distance event.
      Muscle Capacities – Endurance
    • Periodization: The planning of training variables to attain a specific goal in a predetermined period of time
      Intensity: The degree an activity approximates an absolute maximal effort
      Volume: The quantity of work performed
    • Running Economy: A measure of how efficiently a person uses oxygen while running at a given pace
    • The following factors affect running economy:
      Vertical motion while running
      Technique and type of activity
      Fitness and training
      Individual factors
      Weight of clothing and shoes
      Environmental conditions
      Neuromuscular efficiency
      Factors affecting Running Economy
    • Neuromuscular Efficiency: The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system
    • Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running
      Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy
      Mechanisms of Benefit
    • Research Review
      Ensuring evidence-based practice
    • Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than novices
      Interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon)
      In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling due to physiological stress and loss of coordination
      Bonacci J, Chapman A, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):903-21.
      Research Review
    • Training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency
      Efficiency increased through muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria
      Hopker J, Passfield L, Coleman D, Jobson S, Edwards L, Carter H.The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):845-50.
      Research Review
    • Explosive strength training vs heavy strength training
      A short period of heavy strength training can improve running economy in well-trained runners and seems to be more efficient for the improvement of running economy
      Guglielmo LG, Greco CC, Denadai BS. Effects of strength training on running economy. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;30(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Oct 30.
      Research Review
    • Just endurance running vs. endurance + explosive lifting
      Total training volume kept same; 9 weeks of training
      Simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance trainingimproves 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes withoutchanges in their O2 max.
      LeenaPaavolainen, KeijoHäkkinen, IsmoHämäläinen, Ari Nummela, and HeikkiRusko. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power J ApplPhysiol 86: 1527-1533, 1999; Vol. 86, Issue 5, 1527-1533, May 1999.
      Research Review
    • Short-term endurance measured with maximal 4-8 minute cycle and run
      After weight-training, subjects increased time to exhaustion by 11% during cycling and 13% during running
      Length of time subjects were able to cycle at 80% of VO2 max increased from 71 minutes to 85 minutes
      Hickson RC, Dvorak BA, Gorostiaga EM, Kurowski TT, Foster C. Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. J of ApplPhysiol. 1988 Nov;65(5):2285-90.
      Research Review
    • Meta-analysis:
      2.9% improved performance
      4.6% improved running economy (range = 3-8.1%)
      Resistance training has a positive effect on endurance running performance and running economy
      Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):2036-44.
      Research Review
    • EvidenceSupporting Resistance Training
      K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008
      G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.
      J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,  and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.  JSCR 2008.
      And MORE
      Evidence against Resistance Training
      Research Summary
    • Methods of Strength Development
      Best practices for using strength development for neuromuscular efficiency
    • 1-3x/ week
      Short but intense workouts
      15-40 minutes per session is sufficient
      Focus on high resistance / low rep or explosive
      Train the entire body
      Use appropriate rest intervals
    • Core strength relates to the functional capacity and positioning of the the core of the body
      Core strength should be trained for stability using both static and dynamic movements
      Whole body movements that require mid-line stabilization are excellent at developing core strength in a functional manner
      Core Strength
    • Core Training
    • Core Training
    • Core Training
    • Activity of the trunk muscles during squats and pulls from the floor (dead lifts) is greater or equal to that produced with many common stability ball exercises.
      Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 95-102, 2008. Trunk Muscle Activity During Stability Ball and Free Weight Exercises: Nuzzo, McCaulley, Cormie, Cavill, and McBride
    • Muscles do not act in isolation
      Train movements not muscles
      Address asymmetries and imbalances
      Training Holistically
    • Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion
      ~50 / 50 split upper / lower body
      Upper body:
      Presses (Bench press, shoulder press, DB incline, etc)
      Pulls (Pullups, Rows, Pulldowns, etc)
      Lower body:
      Squats (front, back, overhead, etc)
      Pulls (deadlifts, olympic lifts)
      Unilateral (lunges, stepups, split squats)
      Exercise Selection
    • Exercise Selection - Strength
    • Exercise Selection - Strength
    • Power Development
      *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity
      **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
    • Exercise Selection - Power
    • Exercise Selection - Power
    • Neuromuscular adaptations occur best at higher exercise intensities
      Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
    • Weight gain should be minimized
      Any changes in weight are largely a byproduct of macronutrient intake ratios and caloric intake
      Maximum strength training does not lead to a significant increase in muscle mass (Moss et al, 1997)
      Moss BM, Refsnes PE, Abildgaard A, Nicolaysen K, Jensen J. Effects of maximal effort strength training with different loads on dynamic strength, cross-sectional area, load-power and load-velocity relationships. Eur J ApplPhysiolOccup Physiol. 1997;75(3):193-9
      Weight Gain Concerns
    • Integration of Concepts
      Thoughts on incorporating strength development concepts in to triathlon training
    • The body will adapt to stress
      Continually increasing stressors must be applied for continued adaptation
    • Volume and intensity should always operate in an inverse relationship
      Attempting to maintain both high concurrently may lead to overtraining
      Volume will start higher and drop off
      Intensity will start lower and increase
      Periodization of Strength
    • Strength for the sake of strength is meaningless
      Know the goal
      Use resistance training for strength not endurance
      Specificity of action and movement is important
      Other Considerations
    • Auxiliary Training Means
      Flexibility & Mobility
    • Flexibility Related Abilities
      Static Flexibility is the ability to attain large range of motion at a joint without accompanying movement
    • Flexibility Related Abilities
      Dynamic Flexibility is the ability to attain large range of motion at a joint with accompanying movement
    • Static Flexibility
      Static Flexibility Exercises are designed to challenge the range of motion of a joint in a way that involves little or no motion
      2 sub-categories:
      Passive Static Stretching
      Facilitated Stretching
    • Static Flexibility
    • Static Flexibility (PNF)
    • Static Flexibility (Assisted)
    • Dynamic Flexibility
      Dynamic Flexibility Exercises are simple movements that move joints through large ranges of motion
    • Dynamic Flexibility
    • Hurdle Mobility Exercises
      Hurdle Mobility Exercises are hurdle exercises that force joints to move through large ranges of motion
      Designed to improve mobility, flexibility, and coordination
    • Hurdle Mobility
    • Hurdle Mobility
    • mike@athleticlab.comwww.elitetrack.comhttp://youtube.com/hpcsport
    • Bompa TO. 1999 Periodization Training for Sports. Champaign,IL: Human Kinetics.
      Hoff J, Gran A, Helgerud J. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002 Oct;12(5):288-95
      Johnston RE, TJ Quinn, Kertzer R and Vroman NB. Strength training in female distance runners: impact on running economy. J. Strength Cond. Res. 11: 224-229, 1997
      Komi PV. Neuromuscular performance: factors influencing force and speed production. Scand J Sports Sci. 1979 1:2-15
      Newton RU; Kraemer WJ. developing explosive muscular power: implications for a mixed method training strategy. NSCA J. 1994 16:(5)20-31