The Role of Humanitarian Actors in Constraining Violence and Fostering Peace: the Case of Sudan
Humanitarian Law and Policy Forum<br /><ul><li> Humanitarian Law and Policy </li></ul> Forum (ihlforum.ning.com)<br /><ul><li> Online Course on Humanitarian</li></ul> Law and Policy<br /><ul><li> IHL Portals (ihl.ihlresearch.org)
IHL Forum Facebook Group</li></li></ul><li>Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Harvard University<br />The Role of Humanitarian Actors in Constraining Violence and Fostering Peace: The Case of Sudan<br />December 16, 2010<br />
The Role of Humanitarian Actors in Constraining Violence and Fostering Peace: The Case of Sudan<br />Live Seminar<br />December 16, 2010<br />Ms. Naz Modirzadeh<br />Associate Director<br /> Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University<br /> Ms. Elizabeth Holland<br /> Program Associate <br /> Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University <br />
This Live Seminar will examine challenges and opportunities for humanitarian actors in Sudan. On the eve of a referendum in southern Sudan and amid concerns regarding the potential for renewed violence, this Seminar will address the following questions:<br /><ul><li>What challenges, if any, does the situation in Sudan pose to maintaining humanitarian principles—neutrality, impartiality, independence, and humanity?
To what extent, if at all, does the line between humanitarian action and development get blurred in long-term conflicts or other situations of insecurity?
How, if at all, do interactions between international tribunals, donor states, and domestic governments affect the delivery of humanitarian aid? </li></ul> These questions will be answered by reference to contemporary developments in Sudan. <br />
Conor Foley is a humanitarian aid worker. He has worked for a variety of human rights and humanitarian aid organizations, including Liberty, Amnesty International and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), <br />in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Colombia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. <br />He currently lives and works in Brazil, and is a research fellow at the Human Rights Law Centre at the University of Nottingham.<br />Conor's books include Combating Torture: a manual for judges and prosecutors (2003), which was published by the Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex and the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office; A Guide to Property Law in Afghanistan (2005), which was published by the Norwegian Refugee Council and UNHCR; and The Thin Blue Line: How Humanitarianism Went to War (2010). <br />
Arjan Hehenkamp is the Operational Director of Médecins Sans Frontières in Amsterdam. Before assuming his current position in 2004, Mr. Hehenkamp worked for MSF in the field<br />beginning in 1992, initially as a logistician, then as part of an MSF emergency team, and eventually as MSF country coordinator. He has worked in the Great Lakes Region, Bosnia, Somalia, and Afghanistan. In addition, Mr. Hehenkamp served as a logistician in the North of Sudan in 1993-94, and as a country coordinator in the South in 2000-04. <br />Born in The Netherlands, Mr. Hehenkamp studied anthropology at university. <br />
<ul><li>Situating humanitarian space in Sudan today in its historical reality.
Some of the reasons for (and the implications of) the expulsion of two MSF sections, alongside other humanitarian actors, from Sudan.
Limitations that MSF consciously imposes onto its role and activities due to its particular interpretation of what it means to be a humanitarian, contrasted (somewhat critically) with an increasingly mainstream notion of an activist and utopian humanitarian enterprise.
Probable operational challenges we will face in the course of 2011, following the referendum.</li></li></ul><li>Olivia Kalisis the Sudan Policy Coordinator for Oxfam International, based in Nairobi. Ms. Kalis studied Arabic, as well as Middle Eastern and Africa Studies. She has worked in Sudan for three years with the UN in the areas of conflict prevention and protection. <br />
Challenges of International Assistance in a Protracted Crisis: the Case of Darfur<br /><ul><li>The Humanitarian Framework - humanitarian action calls for the assistance and protection of civilians affected by conflict.
keeping people safe is as important and providing emergency relief
The Humanitarian Imperative: Humanitarian response is impartial and needs-based.</li></li></ul><li>The Early Recovery and Development Framework: Post-conflict and the state actor is the strategic partner for development<br /><ul><li>Assumptions:
the state actor requires capacity support for development.
the state actor has the political will to deliver services equitably to its people.
the conflict is over, the state actor is not a party to the conflict.
What happens in a protracted conflict where the state actor is a party to an ongoing conflict?
When and why do we move from humanitarian phase to early recovery/development phase?
Darfur - in 7th year of conflict between the state actor and armed movements. No end in sight. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Challenges to providing assistance according to the humanitarian imperative:
IDP camps - permission for shallow latrines only</li></li></ul><li>Laura Jones is a policy analyst with the Enough Project, focused on Sudan. In her role as policy analyst, Laura’s responsibilities include gathering information on the human rights situation in Sudan, both from Washington and the field, analyzing that information, and producing policy papers and recommendations for the US, UN, and<br />other key stakeholders. Before landing at the Enough Project earlier this year, Laura worked in various capacities in the humanitarian, human rights, and development fields. Her last position was as a field officer for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Darfur, after a brief stint with the same UN agency in Uganda. Prior to her time with UNHCR, Laura worked with Church World Service as the agency’s human rights program liaison to the UN in New York, and as a monitoring and evaluation consultant for a grassroots human rights organization in Zambia. She also spent three years doing development work in the Central and Eastern European region for the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, before shifting her focus to Africa. <br /> <br />Laura received her master’s from Columbia’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) and her Bachelor’s from Emory University in Atlanta. <br />
UNHCR<br /><ul><li>UNHCR’s role: protection and assistance
Conflicts that arise for UNHCR in the Darfur context
Broader questions stemming from the HCR-Darfur example</li></li></ul><li>Kelsey Hoppe is currently the Secretariat Coordinator for the Southern Sudan, NGO Forum, a coordination body of over 200 national and international NGOs. She has worked in<br />relief and development for nearly ten years in a variety of countries and contexts focusing on field management with NGOs. Previous to this, she worked in both the private and public sectors. She has been living and working in Darfur and Southern Sudan for over four years and holds a BA in International Affairs from George Washington University.<br />
Humanitarian NGOs<br /><ul><li>Why and how humanitarian NGOs are engaged in Southern Sudan
Current context of humanitarian action (NGOs and the Government of Southern Sudan)
Defining humanitarian aid in the Southern Sudan context vs. recovery, stabilization, rehabilitation, basic service delivery, development, etc.
Needs in Southern Sudan and the Referendum</li></li></ul><li>Julie Flint is a journalist and independent researcher, specializing in Sudan for the past 20 years. She has co-authored two books on Darfur with Alex de Waal – most recently, Darfur: A New<br />History of a Long War – and acted as a consultant on the Darfur conflict and peace process for a range of international organizations and rights groups. She has just returned from a visit to the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan, and is preparing a report on the region for Pax Christi.<br />
Many Nuba communities in Southern Kordofan joined the SPLA’s fight for a “New Sudan”. Despite being decoupled from the South by the CPA, they remain committed to that vision.<br />International support for the Nuba cause was a main factor leading to a ceasefire agreed in 2002, three years before the CPA was signed.<br />The CPA has not been implemented in the Nuba Mountains. Memories of the jihad against the Nuba in the 1990s are still raw, but the Nuba people’s determination to refuse continued neglect and marginalization has not wavered.<br />The conflict in Darfur has dominated international attention, compassion and funding, to the detriment of the prospects for peace in the Nuba Mountains area.<br />
HostsNaz Modirzadeh Elizabeth Holland ProducerElizabeth Holland Technical DirectorJames BrockmanProduction TeamChristina Blunt, Dustin Lewis, & Anaïde Nahikian <br />
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