THE WAR AGAINST CANCER Presented by Sayer Ji, founder of GreenMedInfo.com
THE WAR AGAINST CANCER: ENDLESS BY DESIGN?“Only the dead have seen the end of war.”― Plato“All war is a symptom of mans failure as athinking animal.”― John Steinbeck Presented by Sayer Ji, founder of GreenMedInfo.com
Declaring War Against Cancer The signing of the National Cancer Act of 1971 by then U.S. President Richard Nixon is viewed as the beginning of the war on cancer. President Richard Nixon signs the National Cancer Act, Dec. 23, 1971, launching a $1.6 billion federal crusade to conquer cancer. (AP)
Putting the War on Cancer Into PerspectiveCausalities In The War On Cancer Causalities In The War On Terrorism•1,569,670 estimated 17 U.S. citizensnew cases worldwide killed as a•571,950 estimated result of incidents of terrorism: [in 2011]deaths [in 2011] Source: U.S. Dept. ofSource: ACS, Cancer State, 7.21.12Facts & Figures
The War Against Cancer “Atoms for Peace” “Humanitarian” Applications of weapons of mass destruction Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Metaphoric of Fear
Nitrogen MustardNitrogen mustards have both medical Schecdule 1 substance, Chemical Weaponsand chemical weapon designations: Convention – production over 100 grams per year must be declared to the Organization for theHN2 (Mechlorethamine, trade name Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsMustargen): Bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamineHN3: Tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (stillused for military purposes)
Radiotherapy "There is no safe dose of radiation“ ~ Professor Edward P. Radford, Physician andThere are over 30 radioisotopes used Epidemiologistin medicine, with common onesincluding:Fluorine-18, gallium-67,indium-111,iodine-131, xenon-133,yttrium-90
1.3 MILLION OVERDIAGNOSED AND OVERTREATED FOR BREAST CANCER OVER THE PAST 30 YEARS. *#1 Hidden Health Threat to Women Is Overdiagnosis And Overtreatment, e.g. Breast Cancer, Osteoporosis, Menopause, Cholesterol Screening, etc. Collateral Damage? Millions of Causalities in the War Against Cancer
The United States Preventive Services Task Force is an independent panel of experts in prevention and primary care appointed by theDepartment of Health and Human Services. In 2011 it recommended that men no longer receive PSA screenings for prostate cancer.“Unfortunately, the evidence now shows that this test does not savemen’s lives.” ~ Dr. Virginia Moyer, taskforce Chair
THE NEW BIOLOGY WILL ALLOW FOR THE CONCEPT OF A NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON- MALIGNANT CANCERThe Conventional Concept of Cancer is a “Meme” (thought- form) with real malignancy.
Cancer Stem Cells• CSCs are considered responsible for cancer recurrence,metastasis and treatment resistance.• Found in diverse tumors, e.g. brain, breast, colon, ovary, pancreas, prostate , pancreas, melanoma, multiple myeloma• Slow to divide• Minority subpopulation (1:100 – 1:1000)• Capable of self-renewal (theoretically infinite)• De-differentiated• Capable of giving rise to each, diverse cell phenotype in a tumor population• Explains why chemotherapy and radiation fail to prevent recurrence and may increase malignancy• Capable of being induced via chemotherapy [Cell Cycle, 2012]• Capable of being induced via radiation, e.g. breast, glioma [Stem Cells, 2012, Nature, 2006]
CSC HierachyImage Source: EuroStemCell The tumor may not be the “enemy.”
Radiotherapy Failure – Cancer Stem Cells“Radiation treatment generates therapy-resistant cancer stem cells from less aggressivebreast cancer cells.” ~ Cancer [ACS], June 2012“Radiation-induced reprogramming of breastcells” ~ Stem Cells, May 2012“Using non-BCSCs sorted frompatient samples, we found thationizing radiation reprogrammeddifferentiated breast cancer cellsinto induced BCSCs (iBCSCs).” ~Stem Cells, May 2012
Cancer Tumors as Metazoa 1.0 –tapping genes of ancient ancestors Paul Davies Physical Biology (2011)The genes of cellular cooperation that evolved with multicellularity about a billion years ago are the same genes thatmalfunction to cause cancer. We hypothesize that cancer is an atavistic condition that occurs when genetic or epigeneticmalfunction unlocks an ancient toolkit of pre-existing adaptations, re-establishing the dominance of an earlier layer of genesthat controlled loose-knit colonies of only partially differentiated cells, similar to tumors. The existence of such a toolkit impliesthat the progress of the neoplasm in the host organism differs distinctively from normal Darwinian evolution. Comparativegenomics and the phylogeny of basal metazoans, opisthokonta and basal multicellular eukaryotes should help identify therelevant genes and yield the order in which they evolved. This order will be a rough guide to the reverse order in which cancerdevelops, as mutations disrupt the genes of cellular cooperation. Our proposal is consistent with current understanding of cancerand explains the paradoxical rapidity with which cancer acquires a suite of mutually-supportive complex abilities. Finally wemake several predictions and suggest ways to test this model. NCBI
Cellular Immortality“Single cells have but one imperative “If you look deeply into the palm of your hand,– to replicate. They are, in effect,immortal. But when cells first formed you will see your parents and all generationsco-operative assemblages, a new of your ancestors. All of them are alive in thisdeal was struck. Most organisms moment. Each is present in your body.outsourced their immortality tospecialised germ cells (eg sperm and You are the continuation of each of these people.”ova), and in return accepted death Thich Nhat Hanhfor themselves. Thus a typical tissuecell might reproduce a handful oftimes and then die.” ~ Paul Davies
Turritopsis nutricula “immortal jellyfish” Turritopsis nutricula, the immortal jellyfish, is a hydrozoa whose medusa, or jelly fish, form can revert to the polyp stage after becoming sexually mature. It is the only known case of ametazoan capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary stage
Tumor Microenvironment or “soil”Known contributors to stemness:• Ethanol/breast cells [Cell Cycle, 2012]• Cigarette smoke [Cell Cycle, 2103]• Hypoxia/Oxidative Stress [Stem Cells, 2008]• Radiation therapy exposure [Stem Cells, 2012] Chemotherapy: Fluorouracil [Tumour Biology,• 2013] The microenvironment•• Chemotherapy: Carboplatin [Cell Cycle, 2012] Primary Tumor Surgery [Frontiers of may be decide what Bioescience, 2012] turns on or off the “stemness” phenotype
Time Scale of Evolution •First Eukaryotes evolved between 1.6-2.1 billion years ago. •Rudimentary multicellular organisms evolved from unicellular eukaryotes at least 1.7 billion years ago. [Metazoa 1.0] •600 million years ago Earth experienced the Cambrian explosion (Big Bang of Life), in part due to the Great Oxygenation Event. [Metazoa 2.0]
Oncogenes: Ancient Survival Genes Unmasked? •MYC Oncogene found deregulated in 30% of human cancers •Traced back 600 million years in ancestral metazoan, Hydra, particularly within their stem cells. Source: Science Daily, Feb. 15th, 2010•"It is amazing that we have been able to find this oncogene in such a simple organism," saysHydra expert Hobmayer from the Institute of Zoology.•The stem cells in the fresh water polyp strongly indicate its regenerative ability -- the polypcompletely regenerates within five days and, thus, it could theoretically age ad infinitum.
Nocebo: Deadly Expectations “Suicide and cardiovascular death after a cancer diagnosis.” N Engl J Med. 2012 AprilResearchers looked at data on more than 6 million Swedes aged 30 and older between 1991-2006using the country’s health registries in order to determine how the psychological toll of cancer diagnosis impacts the risk for death. After analyzing over 500,000 people who were diagnosed with cancerduring that period, the risk of suicide was found to be 12 times higher and the risk of heart-relateddeath 6 times higher during the first week following diagnosis versus those who were cancer free.
Adrenaline Feeds Cancer Malignancy In a 2012 article published in the journal Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, titled "Adrenaline induces chemoresistance in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells,” researchers found that the stress hormone adrenaline induces multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells.When adrenaline-induced P-glycoprotein levels increase within cancer cells,they become more effective at excreting drugs that may do them harm, e.g. chemotherapy.
The Nutrigenomic Environment The molecular fabric of our body is woven from the body of the Earth – via what we ingest, inhale or apply topically. •Co-evolution of plants (Ordovician period, 450 mya) and animals (Cambrian) •The preCambrian “Age of Chemistry,” 600 mya to 4,700 mya versus today’s “Age of Chemistry.”•"Ascorbic acid induces growth inhibition and redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cellsthrough the production of hydrogen peroxide. “ ~ Biomed Environ Sci. 2006•Turmeric is capable of altering the expression of a wide range of genes simultaneously ~GreenmedInfo
Natural CSC-Targeting Non-Toxic Natural Substances Which Target and Kill CSCs Natural compounds have been shown to exhibit three properties which make them suitable alternatives to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy: High margin of safety: Relative to chemotherapy agents such as 5-fluorouracil natural compounds are two orders of magnitude safer Selective Cytotoxicity: The ability to target only those cells that are cancerous and not healthy cells CSCs Targeting: The ability to target the cancer stem cells within a tumor population.
Natural CSC-Targeting Research indicates that the following compounds (along with common dietary sources) have the ability to target CSCs: Curcumin (Turmeric) Resveratrol (Red Wine; Japanese Knotweed) Quercetin (Onion) Sulforaphane (Brocolli sprouts) Parthenolide (Butterbur) Andrographalide (Andrographis) Genistein (Cultured Soy; Coffee) Piperine (Black Pepper) Additional research found on the GreenMedInfo.com Multidrug Resistance page indicate over 50 compounds inhibit multidrug resistance cancers in experimental models.
You Can Regress Cancer with Food!Journal of CancerEpidemiology, Biomarkers & The study observed thePrev., 2008 “Flaxseed “Proliferation rates weresupplementation (not dietaryfat restriction) reduces significantly lower (50% )prostate cancer proliferation among men assigned torates in men presurgery.” the flaxseed arms. ”
You Can Regress Cancer With Food!Journal of Clinical Cancer The study observed the “effects of dietary flaxseed on tumor biologicalResearch, 2005 “Dietary markers and urinary lignanflaxseed has the potential excretion in postmenopausalto reduce tumor growth in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. …an increase inpatients with breast apoptosis (30.7%; P = 0.007) werecancer.” observed in the flaxseed, but not in the placebo group.”
Tools for Self-EmpowermentPUBMED.GOV 22 million biomedical citations Internet – Mycellium – Global Brain