Manager's Stress and the Stress Management Thereof:  An Evidence Based Approach with Dr. Joel Bennett
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Manager's Stress and the Stress Management Thereof: An Evidence Based Approach with Dr. Joel Bennett

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  • This webinar will discuss ways to help managers deal with their stress and, as a result, improve organizational wellness.
  • Quick OWLS synopsis; we have been doing stress management for over 25 years! Evolved to evidence-based programs; and now get funding to develop more programs and translate these into real-world practice
  • Only want to kae a moment on the problem and spend more on the solution but here…1 of 4 or 5 HR managers indicated that stress affects business results in that managers fail to recognize and find solutions for stress; and generally only 1 in 10 are doing anything about this
  • Been following this discussion on LINKED IN HR (great responses) informal NON-RESEARCH categories
  • So before we go into the five approaches for managers I want to say some quick things that are so fundamental to how we fail to approach stress in the correct way.These are three building blocks and they really require taking a new perspective that is a “BRING IT ON” Letas do this type of approach!
  • So before we go into the five approaches for managers I want to say some quick things that are so fundamental to how we fail to apporach stress in the correct way.These are three building blocks and they really require taking a new perspective that is
  • So there are two prevailing models for how we look at stress; the first – which is increasingly going out of date – is what I call the classical mechanical model where emphasis is placed on the stressor, OMG, lets deal with the strssor before it results in STRAIN and what are the protective factors in self and work that can help and what are the risk factors WANT TO SAY – don’t trust what I have to say – go look it up! Throughout this presentation you will see references to direct research links and books- I tried to getyou actual articles so many of these links take you right to the original sourceThe new model POTENTIATION the emphasis is on “LETS DO THIS!” “Hey! We already know that stress is going to happen so let’s build ourselves up for that! Stock up! Dig in! – the cool thing is that there is SO MUCH research that has accumulatede and different favorite models for this – I just call it potentiation… and here is how it works
  • NOT ALL STRESSORS ARE THE SAMEThis is an OWLS stressor assessment grid for looking more carefully more impeccably) at these and understand the type of stress (more personal or environmental) the nature (occasional to chronic) and whether you have control over it and have accesses to resources to deal with it.You can’t expect much efficacy if you just give me people biofeedback, EFT, hypnosis, to an individual who works in a toxic environmentSimilarly job redesign techniques can only help so much with someone who has severe marital problems at home.Not all stress is the same– in the LINKEDIN HR discussion there are people saying just focus on making people healthier – give them skills – well, I have some clinical background – that only goes so far with someone who has PTSD and is continually exposed to traumatic triggers… hello?!On the other hand, people do have to recognize that there are some internal things that the work environment cannot solve and resources that must be mobilized to help.This is a tool to help with understandng that.
  • Different Perspectives for Managing Workplace/Employee StressLook at the far right on accountability– who is responsible for the stress?I see a lot of dialectical thinking but (employee versus employer stuff)But – as we will see – systemic efforts that combine both really work the best!And we can even look at more differentiated and articulate approachesPERCEPTION IS EVERYTHING AND YOUR PERSPECTIVE DETERMINES YOU PERCEPTION
  • Mature your program;
  • The science behind – READ THE LABEL
  • Some stress is good
  • We have been doing this

Manager's Stress and the Stress Management Thereof:  An Evidence Based Approach with Dr. Joel Bennett Manager's Stress and the Stress Management Thereof: An Evidence Based Approach with Dr. Joel Bennett Presentation Transcript

  • Manager’s Stress Managementand the Management Thereoftools for improving organizational health Evidence-Based Perspectives Dr. Joel B. Bennett (OWLS) learn@organizationalwellness.com 817.921.4260
  • Q&AAsk Questions anytime!Tweet #HPLIVE #WEINWELLNESSCHAT (GOTO WEBINAR CHAT)
  • OWLS backgroundOrganizational Wellness & Learning Systems www.organizationalwellness.com 1985: 1st worksite stress management program 1994: begin research on work climate as predictor of behavioral health risk (Texas Christian University) 2000: clinical trials on Team Awareness to address risk 2002: Team Awareness designated “model” program 2002-2012: 20,000 workers reached with programs 2004-2012: OWLS receives est. 3.5 million to develop more evidence based-programs Clients: military, corporate, non- profit, municipalities, native American/tribal, international, small business Patents Pending Dr. Bennett (CEO) receives service leadership award from National Wellness Institute (2008)
  • Missed Opportunity (OWLS shortlist)1. Managers have a unique set of stressors that place them at health risk2. Managers are key to leveraging health and wellness programs for maximizing ROI and impact on organizational health3. Businesses invest SIGNIFICANTLY more dollars in leadership development than wellness (this may be changing with reform)4. Managers are “signposts” of culture and so wellness culture initiatives must pay attention5. How employees feel treated by their bosses is one of the single best worksite predictors of employee well-being6. Manager self-care has a “ripple effect” in the social network7. Organizational citizenship , civic virtue, and ethical health are almost complete blind spots that can be approached with wellness8. Current wellness designs may only need tweaking to bring their gifts to managers
  • Outline • Introduction & Objectives • Basics: Three Foundational Ideas • Five Approaches to Managing Manager/Leader Stress • Upcoming OWLS Training Opportunities 1 2 3 4 5Use Systemic Use Peer Leverage Stress Support LiveWell & Programs Cognition As Leadership Champions LeadWell
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ObjectivesParticipants will• identify research that supports effective stress management• identify resources they can use to assist managers with reducing stress• distinguish from different approaches and their relevance to organizational health
  • Source: Watson Wyatt/National Business Group on Health 2007/2008 Staying@Workreport
  • LINKED:HR DISCUSSIONThree types of responses• Learn techniques for personal stress• Change the environment• Both (minority of responses; from non-US)
  • Our “individuo-centric” culture is the problem (it’s a personal issue so “deal with it”) SORRY!THERE IS NOT AN “APP” for this!
  • A broader approach is needed“BRING IT!”
  • A broader approach is neededTHREE BUILDING BLOCKS • Think! What are your beliefs about stress? • Ban the term “stress” from your vocabulary • Consider “maturing” your approach
  • Classical – Mechanical Model (Reactive; Emphasis on Stressor as THE Cause) Mediating Stressor Factors Strain Personal  Workplace Protect  Exacerbate Potentiation (Context Proactive; Primacy on Growth as THE Aspiration) • Psychological Capital1 • Self-leadership2 • Self-determination3 • Hardiness4 Growth • Efficacy5 Resource • Flourishing Challenge & Opportunity Mobilization & Thriving6 • Collective 1-Luthans 2-Manz, Neck Efficacy7 3-Ryan, Deci, Gagne • Team Resilience [1] 4-Maddi, Kobasa 5-Bandura 6-Spreitzer; Keyes 7-Bandura* [1] Robyn D. Petree, Kirk M. Broome, Joel B. Bennett , (2012) Exploring and Reducing Stress in Young Restaurant Workers: Results of a Randomized Field Trial.American Journal of Health Promotion: March/April 2012, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 217-224.
  • Key Idea # 1 THINK! How we think about and approach stress (our intentions, definitio ns) is KEY. Do we want toWe cannot solve our problemswith the same thinking we used • manage ?when we created them • embrace ? or -- Albert Einstein • leverage ? or • thrive/grow
  • Not all Stressors are the Same Stressor Assessment Grid controllability: 0-high|1-medium|2-low ||| resource access/agility: 0-high|1-medium|2-low Stressor Types Nature of Stressor Stressor Examples Occasional Incidental Critical ChronicP Intra-psychic relapse, life-stage,E uncovering, burn-out    RS Life-event family, accident, loss,O (situation) relationship change    N EA N Job role ambiguity, overload,L V conflict     I effort-reward Job design R O imbalance,     N monotony, isolation M harassment, bullying, Toxic climate E N injustice     T Economic insecurity, layoffs, A L salary cuts     © 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; use with permission
  • Key Idea # 2 Ban the vague term “stress” from your vocabulary! We each have a tremendous opportunity to be more articulate andTo know the true name of a precise in how wething in the Old Speech is to identify stressorshave power over it -- Ursula Le Guin
  • Different Perspectives for Managing Workplace/Employee Stress Perspective Strategic Focus Accountability Meta - genic Potentiation & Thriving The continuous growth: personal experience, Greater data, group-work, behavior + community Good All Quadrant (‘I’ ‘It’ ‘We’ ‘Its’) Integrative emergent continued adaptation: empower personal “WE” experience, data, group-work, behavior Synthesis of individual < >work Systemic positive communication, manager- both responsible employee participation, production flow Workplace Resources & Supports: employer Work-Environment responsible job redesign, enviro-ergo design, healthy+ leadership, protections, promotions dialectical thinking Strategies for intrapersonal strength: (either/or) Individual-Personal relaxation, imagery, cognitive behavioral, biofeed, mindfulness, ACT, NLP, employee self-help responsible © 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; use with permission
  • Key Idea # 3 Elevate your program to a level where you can integrate approaches, andMaturity is the ability to host & foster increasinghonour ambiguity & contradiction and proactivein multiple layers of roles, beliefs responsibility for& identities in oneself & others. -- Leonard Carr thriving
  • Five Approaches for Improving Organizational Wellness by Helping Managers and Leaders with their Stress
  • FIVE APPROACHESSystemic interventions are more effective think before you buyPeer-to-Peer Cognition dont go it alone and we really are not aloneLeverage Stress for "Good" its not all bad when you have the good in mindSupport Champions and Ambassadors you can delegate stress; just dont dump itLiveWell, LeadWell an "inside-out" job when you value what you do
  • FIVE APPROACHES; APPROACH # 1systemic interventions are more effective think before you buy
  • Systemic/Strategic Approaches Enhance the work The most effective environment and way to reduce production flow stress is to work on the entire Create methods “system” of the for positive organization. communication Incorporate over-time Suggestion Box strategies that use each of these Provide individuals coping skills three levels and through cognitive- tie them together. behavior education* *may be sufficient by itself (do not always use with other levels)Lamontagne, A. D., Keegel, T., Louie, A. M., Ostry, A., & Lansbergis, P. A. (2007). A Systematic review of the job-stress intervention evaluationliterature, 1990–2005. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 13, 268–820.
  • Effective Elements (2008 reviews) LaMontagne et al: 30 different interventions Parks & Steelman: 15 different studies Richardson & Rothstein: 36 experimental studies, representing 55 interventionsParks, K. M., & Steelman, L. A. (2008). Organizational wellness programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 58–68.Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal ofOccupational Health Psychology,13, 69–93.
  • Parks & Steelman conclusions 1. Programs that increase the employee’s (manager’s) job-related skills may be an effective way to reduce employee stress 2. Cognitive–behavioral programs should not generally be combined with other treatments 3. Relaxation and meditation can be used as part of a larger set of treatment components 4. Shorter programs may be sufficientParks, K. M., & Steelman, L. A. (2008). Organizational wellness programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 58–68.Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal ofOccupational Health Psychology,13, 69–93.
  • APPROACH # 2 Peer-to-Peer Cognitiondont go it alone and we really are not alone
  • Why?• Many managers take for granted or assume a common understanding of interaction processes relating to everyday work• There are often implicit social norms regarding acceptable conduct and the resulting consequences of good or bad behavior• Failing to surface these assumptions and being “closed” around accountability is a major source of stress for managers
  • What is Peer-to-Peer Cognition? o Sharing insights and tips o Perspective taking o Group problem solving o Reduced cognitive load o Shared emotional intelligence o Policy knowledge o New “synthesized” knowledge o Sense of Support
  • 2-stage cognitive mapping1METHODPART 1: Group process (get managers together)• Ask: “When confronted with a problem worker that is causing stress, what factors lead you to: (A) Respond or (B) Tolerate?”• Record responses/flip-chart• Create a MapPART 2: Feedback and DiscussRESULTS• We have created dozens of maps• Results in greater responsiveness to problems; more willingness to get help (not go it alone)-to use EAP[1] Bennett, J.B., & Lehman, W.E.K., (2002) Supervisor tolerance-responsiveness to substance abuse and workplace prevention training: Use of a cognitive mapping tool. Health Education Research, 17 (1), 27-42.
  • APPROACH # 3 Leverage Stress for "Good"its not all bad when you have the good in mind
  • Book ChapterForthcoming inP. Chen and C.L. Cooper (Eds.),Wellbeing in the Workplace:From Stress to Happiness. Oxfordand New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Research behind Chapter • Meta-analysis of hindrance and challenge stressors: challenge stressors are positively associated with job satisfaction and commitment and negatively related to dysfunctional outcomes such as intention to turnover and withdrawal behavior [1] • Case studies of executives who have been strengthened through stress yielded five core qualities [2] • Related research supporting each of the five[1] Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnoverintentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology , 92 (2), 438-454.[2] e.g., Goolsby, J.L., Mack, D.A., & Quick, J.C. (2010). Winning by staying in bounds: Good outcomes from positive ethics. Organizational Dynamics, 39, 248-257.; Quick, J.C., Nelson, D.L., & Quick, J.D. (1987). Successful executives: How independent? Academy of Management Executive, 1, 139-145.
  • Five Pathways for Leveraging Stress for the Greater Good and Common Well-Being
  • Strength of Character CORE QUALITIES CHALLENGE ORIENTATION Virtue-based qualities and a set of ethics An attitude toward stress as an that lead an individual to remain strong opportunity for growth, something that in the face of stressors can be embraced, build character, and (integrity, love, trust, forgiveness, wisd used to help the organization. om, cooperativeness).© 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; James Campbell Quick; Jonathan D. Quick; use with permission
  • Self-Awareness CORE QUALITIES CHALLENGE ORIENTATION A proactive willingness to self-reflect, Use of evaluation processes in order stay mindful of ones actions and to surface and address issues; impact on others, and subsequently includes a willingness to embrace regulate ones behavior rather than avoid conflict© 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; James Campbell Quick; Jonathan D. Quick; use with permission
  • Socialized Power Motivation CORE QUALITIES CHALLENGE ORIENTATION An altruistic motive to positive influence A mindful orientation to how stressful over-rides a more egoistic, positional stimuli may impact workers and an desire to dominate, especially in decision- empathic response to leverage making contexts; a desire to channel power stressors for the greater good for constructive social ends© 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; James Campbell Quick; Jonathan D. Quick; use with permission
  • Requisite Self Reliance CORE QUALITIES CHALLENGE ORIENTATION Secure sense of self and ones ability to A climate of self-sufficiency and utilize either internal stress management help-seeking and help-giving, or reliance on others; a capacity for stressors are viewed as interdependence RATHER than overly opportunities to build strength in independent or dependent the interpersonal sphere at work© 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; James Campbell Quick; Jonathan D. Quick; use with permission
  • Diverse Professional Support CORE QUALITIES CHALLENGE ORIENTATION Presence of sufficient levels of social A tendency to frame adverse support and access to diverse social events, crises, or stressors as networks that enhances the quality of work factors that can be "taken on" by life and buffers the negative effects of the workplace community, stress on health.© 2011; Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems; James Campbell Quick; Jonathan D. Quick; use with permission
  • APPROACH # 4Support Champions and Ambassadors you can delegate stress; just dont dump it
  • Champions are your scouts and tacticians! Best practice reviews of worksite wellness programs all point to the presence of champions, ambassadors, sparkplugs, advocates who work internally (and sometimes informally) in peer-to-peer encouragement and vitalization of the effortGoetzel, R.Z., Shechter, D., Ozminkowski, R.J., Marmet, P.F., Tabrizi, M.J. (2007). Promising practices in employer health and productivitymanagement efforts: findings from a benchmarking study. Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine, 49:111–30.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2008). Essential elements of effective workplace programs and policies forimproving worker health and wellbeing. Worklife: A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Initiative,Yancey AK. The Meta-Volition Model: Organizational leadership is the key in getting society moving, literally! Prev Med. 2009 Oct;49(4):342-51
  • Who are they? Passion for well-being Insight into social network Institutional memory A hub (not central) in that network A willingness to learn Capacity for systemic knowledge Embrace individual + workplace Washington Post (January 10, 2012) Interview with Tony Yancey: Who is a sparkplug? Someone who can assist in planning and encourage different segments of the office to join in. The best kind of person to recruit? Someone slightly older and not particularly athletic with a lot of institutional memory. If that person is willing, other people will be willing. http://www.toniyancey.com/ITM_WP_011012.html
  • What do they do?  Use decision-support tools in order to:  Assist in (e.g., design, implement) phases of wellness programs  Serve on wellness committees and/or liaison with providers  Work in their sphere of influence (with manager support)  Encourage healthy behaviors and help-seeking (NUDGE)  Work to insure that there are no “silos”  Help everyone to have fun! Team Awareness training has been proven to give work peers the skills to NUDGE a culture of wellness (see NREPP)* WELCOA Interview with Judd Allen “Peer support involves employees helping each other achieve wellness. Peer support mechanism is a very powerful influence on behavior. Most people have a limited skill set and need training to more effectively help each other..”*Sample research: Robyn D. Petree, Kirk M. Broome, Joel B. Bennett , (2012) Exploring and Reducing Stress in Young Restaurant Workers: Results of a RandomizedField Trial. American Journal of Health Promotion: March/April 2012, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 217-224.
  • How do they help manager stress?  May serve as a positive buffer  They facilitate the key elements of systemic approaches (communication, awareness of role stressors, problem solving)  They can help clarify peer-to-peer cognitions that are undermining accountability issues  They help to energize and engage employees  They promote the diverse professional supports and requisite self-reliance helpful to leverage challenge stress BE VERY KIND TO THEM!
  • APPROACH # 5 LiveWell, LeadWellan "inside-out" job when you value what you do
  • Many executives will suffer a cardio- vascular event that is influenced by job stress How managers treat workers has a significant impact on worker health, stress, and well-beinghttp://www.apex.gc.ca/en/publications/archives.aspx#Healthhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2602855/
  • 1. Many studies show supervisors have significant, major, long-term effects on worker health/productivity2. They carry own unique health risks3. They role model health4. They make decisions about key stressors5. Without their support, Wellness ROI 
  • Invest in leadership development and self care at the same time
  • Clinical Trial1 • Web-based preventive-intervention with coaching support • Managers from 7 companies/industries • RESULTS – Reductions in stress – Enhanced diet and exercise – Reductions in waist circumference (female) – Some improvements in leadership (in preparation)[1] Bennett, JB, Broome, K, Gilmore, P, and Pilley, A. (2011). A Web-Based Approach to Address Cardiovascular Risksin Managers: Results of a Randomized Trial. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 53(8), 911-918.http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2011/08000/A_Web_Based_Approach_to_Address_Cardiovascular.13.aspx
  • Review || which of these…? • Is Easiest to implement • Gets you thinking/innovating • Fits most with your current culture • Most likely to have an impact 1 2 3 4 5Use Systemic Use Peer Leverage Stress Support LiveWell & Programs Cognition As Leadership Champions LeadWell
  • Upcoming ConferencesTeam Resilience: Evidence for Full Spectrum CoachingSocial Diffusion of Stress Reduction at (with Dr. Michael Arloski)Work (RESEARCH REPORT) (PRECONFERENCE WORKSHOP)Thursday, April 12 Wednesday, April 25 1 4Use Systemic Support Programs Champions
  • Training Opportunities1. INFORMATIONAL WEBINAR-MARCH 28 (12 CST): OWLS WELLNESS Champion Development tool WEBINAR SIGN UP HERE! https://www1.gotomeeting.com/register/332102776 IntelliPrev: Prevention Coach Training • 10 entry-level and 10 advanced-level CECH (CEU) Support • self-paced with orientation and case study Champions • start date this May (TBD) Contact us at learn@organizationalwellness.com
  • Training Opportunities2. INFORMATIONAL WEBINAR-MARCH 29: OWLS LiveWell/LeadWell program WEBINAR SIGN UP HERE! https://www1.gotomeeting.com/register/671822176 ExecuPrev: Manager Health LiveWell & • For healthy leadership LeadWell • How to sign-up as a single user • How to sign-up as a company • How to use as a coach!Contact us at learn@organizationalwellness.com
  • Click link Click link • Dr. Joel B. Bennett • Organizational Wellness & Learning Systems • 3221 Collinsworth | Suite 220 • Fort Worth, TX, 76107 • owls@organizationalwellness.com • @weinwellness (tweet us); @prevchat