European contact with africaPresentation Transcript
European Contact With Africa The Portuguese and Dutch ‘Explore’ the African Continent *Notes are for Dana Hall classroom use only. Reproduction of These materials is strictly forbidden. Bibliographic information for Images available upon request.
But First…A Little Background
“ Tug-of-war “ between Islam and Christianity.
-Muslims had at one time expanded up into Spain, but the Spanish eventually pushed the Muslims back into Northern Africa.
(And You Western Civ’ers out there I’m sure remember the Crusades?)
In Europe, there was a high demand for goods from the Far East…but who controls much of the trade in the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean?
Also--Portuguese soldiers fighting Muslims in N. Africa return with stories of a ‘Land of Gold’ well beyond the reach of the Arab Muslims
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
Outflank Islam by circumnavigating Africa
Take control of the gold coast
3) Break the Arab monopoly over the Indian Ocean
PHN organized and financed
many attempts to ‘round’ the
Portuguese had sailed along the NW coast of Africa
Established trade relationships with the coastal Africans they encountered (copper, brass, gold, ivory).
Portuguese had landed at the Gold Coast.
Discovered many powerful kingdoms (Benin and Congo)
The Portuguese even dabbled in the slave trade- selling Benin slaves to the Akan peoples in exchange for gold.
Although the Portuguese were trading along the African coast for gold, ivory and slaves, their main goal was to trade in Asia.
Dense populations and health concerns kept most Europeans from ‘settling’ in Africa.
By the early 1600’s, the Dutch will enter into the picture, wrestling the power of the seas away from the Portuguese, and overtaking their control of trade with Africa.
Portuguese/African Relations: East vs. West
Though the Portuguese established trade relationships with Africans in the West, they conquered East African kingdoms and their peoples, taking control of all p9ort cities along the coast…Why might this be?
By 16 th century, many European sailing ships began making regular voyages around the southern tip of Africa en route to Asia
The Portuguese had considered the Cape of Good Hope only an obstacle to get around
The Dutch, however, mastered the trade winds and established a fueling stop at the Cape.
Early African-European Contact
By mid-17 th century, there were an estimated 50,000 Khoisan pastoralists living near the coastal areas
Early contact with Europeans was well-received, as Khoisan were able to profit from trade.
Europeans’ demand for fresh meat often surpassed what Africans could supply
In 1652, Dutch (Boers) will supplant a colony at Cape of Good Hope to serve as a supply stop.
Khoisan resist settlement but outmatched by Dutch guns
Dutch govt. will encourage settlement of S. Africa in the early 1700’s
Though Dutch originally confined settlement to the coastal region, eventually, they will move into the interior parts of S. Africa. These new settlers, known as trekboers, were allowed to claim huge ‘farms’ for the purposes of raising sheep and cattle
Though Khoisan will continue to resist, they will be no match for Boers superior military prowess and infectious diseases such as small pox.