Ebt proj


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  •  genetically engineered organism  is an organism whose genetic material has been altered with the use of genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are usually known as recombinant DNA technology. It uses DNA molecules from different sources and combine them into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it the modified genes. 
  • Egfp: PROTEIN THAT FLUORESCES after exposure to daylight( U.V EXCITATION). Requires just 02 to fluorescence and can be fused with many other proteins and stil fluoresce, making it ideal for monitoring GEM
    Emits green fluorescence

    Broken down: Mineralized
  • American scientists have discovered a more efficient variant of the
    key enzyme involved in CO2 sequestration by plants during photosynthesis, the ribulose 1,5-
    bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO).
  • Both unaltered poplars and the genetically engineered variants produce enzymes that break down trichloroethylene. The modified poplars just generate a lot more of a key enzyme, and thus work far more quickly — breaking down the dangerous molecule into harmless byproducts roughly 100 times faster than normal plants.
    Trichloroethylene is a heavily used industrial degreaser that's made its way into groundwater because of improper disposal. 
    TCE, the most common groundwater pollutant on Superfund sites, is a probable human carcinogen and causes various health problems when present in sufficiently high levels in water or air.
  • The transgenic poplars contain an inserted gene that encodes an enzyme capable of breaking down TCE and a variety of other environmental pollutants, including chloroform, benzene, vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride. 
    eated genetically engineered poplar trees in the laboratory that can remove as much as 91 percent of trichloroethylene — the most common groundwater contaminant at U.S. Superfund sites — from liquids. Unaltered plants removed 3 percent.
    genetically engineered poplars were better at removing chloroform, a hazardous byproduct of disinfecting water; carbon tetrachloride, a toxic solvent; and vinyl chloride, a carcinogenic substance used to make plastics. In addition, in air pollution experiments using 6-inch (15-centimeter) modified poplars in sealed containers, the plants were better at taking up gaseous trichloroethylene and benzene, a pollutant associated with petroleum.
    "It is the first time that transgenic plants have been shown to remove airborne pollutants, providing a new approach to someday reduce the large threat posed by air pollution," Doty said.
  • Poplars use an enzyme called cytochrome P450 to break down contaminants. Trichloroethylene is turned into a harmless salt, water and carbon dioxide After Dr Doty's team inserted the gene into the tree from a rabbit they also produced P450, but at a much faster rate
    Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6ZnNXpy
    Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6ZbZQta
    There are concerns that mutant plants could spread, entering the food supply and threatening human health Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6YcYewr
  • Eutrophication is a process in which bodies of water will receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive growth of algae.
    The two most common nutrients that initiate eutrophication are N2 and P3, two limiting nutrients in the growth of algae.
    These two nutrients are usually introduced to the body of water via fertilizer run-off. (mostly cost by human activities) The uncontrolled growth of algae depletes O2 due to respiration. The algae will cover the surface of the water, reduce the amount of light that can enter into the photic zone, decreasing photosynthesis in aquatic autotrophs. The decreased level of dissolved oxygen can result in the death of any number of larger communities.  Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_eutrophication#ixzz1l7P5WMt0
  • Farm animals, like humans, are healthiest when they eat certain foods. 
    Pigs can digest grass, corn, cereal grains, soy and other plants.
    Pigs are often fed with cereal grains as rich in protein can make the pig fatter
    Phosporus is a nutrient that will help the pig to grow however the pigs are not able to digest the Phytate phosphorous in cereal grain. Since it is not digestable, it is excreted out in the manure of pigs. Pigs’ manure that contains phosphorus is used as fertilisers. When there is rain, some of the manure can be washed to the rivers, promoting algal bloom leading to eutrophication.
  • The Enviropig was developed by the introduction of a transgene construct composed of the promoter segment of the murine parotid secretory protein gene and the E. coli phytase gene.[2] This construct was introduced into a fertilized embryo by pronuclear microinjection, and this embryo along with other embryos was surgically implanted into the reproductive tract of an estrous synchronized sow. After a 114 day gestation period, the sow farrowed and piglets born were checked for the presence of the transgene and for phytase enzyme activity in the saliva. Through breeding, this line of pigs is in the 7th generation, and the phytase trait is stably transmitted in a Mendelian fashion.
    An editorial entitled "Genetically engineered meat close to your table" was published with online video and audio explaining the digestive capability of the Enviropig.[3]
  • Because phosphorus is the major nutrient enabling algal growth that is the leading cause of fish kills resulting from anoxic conditions, and reduced water quality, the low phosphorus manure from Enviropigs has a reduced environmental impact in areas where soil phosphorus exceeds desirable levels. Therefore the enviropig biotechnology has two beneficial attributes, it reduces feed cost and reduces the potential of water pollution. Furthermore, the technology is simple, if you know how to raise pigs, you know how to raise Enviropigs!
    save farmers money, eliminate the need to supplement the pigs' diet with digestible phosphorus
    So, what happens to the phosphorus that no longer ends up in pig poop? It ends up in pig meat, of course—and if you eat that meat, it ends up in you. While phosphorous is a necessary nutrient, it is a poison when taken in excess. The classic condition caused by excess phosphorous is phossy jaw, the destruction of the jaw bone, which is a symptom of a deranged metabolism and systemic osteoporosis.
    So, all that excess phosphorous ends up in people instead of pig poop.
    Of course, excess phosphorus is only the predictable health risk. As always with genetic engineering, the full range of effects is unknown. GM foods have already been documented to cause harm in animals, including

    Health Risks
    So, what happens to the phosphorus that no longer ends up in pig poop? It ends up in pig meat, of course—and if you eat that meat, it ends up in you. While phosphorous is a necessary nutrient, it is a poison when taken in excess. The classic condition caused by excess phosphorous is phossy jaw, the destruction of the jaw bone, which is a symptom of a deranged metabolism and systemic osteoporosis.
    So, all that excess phosphorous ends up in people instead of pig poop.
    Of course, excess phosphorus is only the predictable health risk. As always with genetic engineering, the full range of effects is unknown. GM foods have already been documented to cause harm in animals, including
    Regulation of Enviropig
    If any safety testing has been done on Enviropig meat, we are not informed. If it has been done, it's been classified as confidential business information. The basis under which Health Canada approves GM products is not provided to the public. Therefore, we have absolutely no information on the effects of ingesting such meat—or even of the environmental effects. All we have is the hype.
    The University of Guelph (UofG) already holds patents for Enviropig in the US and China. China is a massive pork user and supplier, and UofG is actively pursuing business relationships there to gain regulatory approval.
    Although the UofG applied for the FDA's approval of Enviropig in 2007, a search of the FDA site turns up virtually no information, other than references in a couple of talks. Is the FDA hiding Enviropig, hoping to slip it in behind genetically engineered salmon?
    In the meantime, HealthCanada has recently approved Enviropig for limited production. It is not yet in production for the food supply, but it appears to be merely a matter of time before it is.
    Mistakes Put Enviropig in Animal Feed
    Animal feed has been contaminated by Enviropig. In 2002, eleven piglets were sent to a rendering plant and became part of 675 tons of poultry feed, which ended up being fed to egg-laying chickens, turkeys, and broiler chickens. According to The Globe and Mail, the UofG's Vice President of Research effectively said, "Oops!"
    Things you don’t expect to happen can happen.
    This isn't the only occasion that GM pigs have contaminated the food supply. In 2004, GM pigs designed for Big Pharma by TGN Biotech became chicken feed by carelessness.

  • 2) Hydrocarbons, Heavy Metal, Organotoxins. (which include pesticides such as DDT)

  • 1) As specific plants or micro-organism
  • 2. Usually thru enzymes at the roots
  • Cloned from Staphylococcus aureus
  • Ebt proj

    1. 1. The use of genetic engineered organisms for pollution abatement Done by: Benjamin Wee Ashraff Joey
    2. 2. o Introduction o The use of genetically modified organisms to reduce : • Air pollution • Water pollution • Soil pollution o Conclusion o Credits
    3. 3. o An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. o Techniques Recombinant DNA technology : use DNA molecules from different sources, which combines into one molecule to create a new set of genes o The DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it the modified genes What is genetically engineered organism? 
    4. 4. MICROBES AS POLLUTION CLEANERS Microbes in the environment can be harnessed via genetic engineering to combat pollution, helping to preserve the environment In regards to using microbes as a air pollution control, they are almost never released directly to an polluted environment. Instead, they can be applied to systems engineered to combat air pollution.
    5. 5. AIR POLLUTION Introduction of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm/discomfort to living organisms . Also causes damage to natural and man-made environments and also to the atmosphere itself.
    6. 6. Case Study: Genetically engineered microbes in bio- filters E, coli, a bacterium that causes food poisoning. With Genetic Engineering, a strain of E.Coli BL21 can be implemented in bio- filters to extract toxic pesticides, parathion and methyl parathion from air. BUT HOW? Genes of to create fusion protein of enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) and carboxylesterase B1 (CarE B1), Cloned into Pet-28b vector , induced in E.Coli BL21, with ability to degrade environmental pesticides and easily detected via fluorescence spectrophotmetry, or ever by naked eye in daylight Pesticides in Air past through bio-filter with G.E E.Coli strain Pesticides, including Parathion and M.Parathion broken down to p- nitrophenol as well as NO3 and SO2- 4 by-products. NO3 and SO2-4 by-products further broken down by other naturally occurring microbes present in Biofilters. Average removal efficiency of 95.2% and 98.6% removal for parathion and M.Parathion UNOPTIMIZED Optimized system= 100% predicted removal rate
    7. 7. Combating Air Pollution: Source Reduction • If goal is to reduce air pollutants before emission to the atmosphere, waste gas purification system which utilize engineered microbes can be used. • Prime examples of such systems are Bioscrubbers, Biofilters and Bio-trickling Filters.
    8. 8. A more natural means..? • However, if these systems are not appropriate to use in certain environments,  Rural Areas E.G Farms  Congested City Areas  Able to turn to less conventional methods, like using engineered plants and even animals!
    9. 9. Less Flatulent Cows Cows produce eye-brow raising amounts of methane – a result of their digestion process, all produced by a bacterium strain . Scientists have altered this strain to be more eco-friendly, allowing for a more less flatulent breed of cows! Methane Reduction: 25% per cow! Goes to about ½ million cars being taken out with 12% reduction per farmer Bob!
    10. 10. Carbon Reducing Plants o Humans add about 9 gigatons of CO2 to atmosphere. o Usage of Genetic Engineered on plants & trees that already have innate carbon-reducing qualities, amplifying their carbon reducing abilities. o Able to transfer and store large amounts of carbon into underground root systems! • Can be done via introducing mutated RuBisCo enzymes that have increased CO2 conversion ability into plant parts. • Up to 5-fold improvement!
    11. 11. Modified poplar plants break down trichloroethylene 100 times faster than unmodified poplar plants.
    12. 12. o Absorb groundwater pollutants through their roots o Break down pollutants into harmless byproducts that are incorporated into their roots, stems and leaves or released into the air. o Remove as much as 91 percent of trichloroethylene o Remove chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and vinyl chloride o Remove airborne pollutants(trichloroethylene and benzene)
    13. 13.  stick rabbit gene into poplar trees  rabbit gene also produced cytochrome P450 but at a faster rate  Allows the poplars to break down the contaminants faster o Gene might escape and incorporate into natural tree populations
    14. 14. Do you know that pigs can also contribute to Eutrophication? • Phytate phosphorous in cereal grain is excreted out in the pigs’ manure as the pigs cannot digest it • Manure used as fertilisers • Phosporus is the limiting nutrient of algal growth • Uncontrolled growth of algal will cause Eutrophication
    15. 15. How are they different from other pigs?  have a gene that allows them to make phytase in the salivary gland and secrete it into its saliva  Phytase breaks down phytate phosphorus in the eaten food  Release of phosphate  pig’s stomach  bloodstream  nutrients. Manure contains 30 to 60% less phosphorous
    16. 16. How are they created? Enviropigs(transgenic)= pig genes + E. coli genes + mouse DNA • Developed by introducing a transgene construct composing of promoter segment of the mouse parotid secretory protein gene and the E. coli phytase gene. •Construct introduced into a fertilized embryo by pronuclear microinjection • The embryo along with other embryos was surgically implanted into reproductive tract of a sow. • After a 114 day gestation period, piglets were born & checked for the presence of the transgene and for phytase enzyme activity in the saliva.
    17. 17.  reduce soil phosphorus (Reduce Eutrophication happening)  Save farmers’ money $$  Health risks  Enviropig Placed in Animal Feed Regulation of Enviropig
    18. 18. Soil Pollution “Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.” – Wikipedia Hydrocarbons, Heavy Metal, Organotoxins. Contamination will or cause harm all within a biota
    19. 19. The remedy • Biotechnology alongside Genetic Engineering is the sustainable solution • GMOs are a sustainable solution thru bioremediation of soil • Organisms include –Transgenic Plants (phytoremediation) –Transgenic Micro-organism
    20. 20. Phytoremediation Phytoremediation Phytoextraction Phytodegredation Phytovolatilisation Phytostabilisation
    21. 21. Phytoremediation • Phytoextraction > removal of contaminants thru accumulation and storage in plants. • Phytodegradation > absorption and breaking down of organic compounds by plant • Phytostabilisation > stabilization or reduction of toxic molecules to less toxic substances • Phytovolatilization > where plant dissipate pollutants into the atmosphere
    22. 22. • No natural plant can degrade and accumulate without dying • Genetically modified Mouse-ear cress flower (arabidopsis thaliana) & Yellow poplar plant • The genes producing enzymes Mer A & Mer B were introduced • Mer A mechanism : reduces organic Hg to ionic Hg • Mer B mechanism : Volatilise elemental Hg
    23. 23. • MerA producing gene implemented to yellow poplar • More effective than the natural hyper accumulator, Tabacco (as the control) Yellow Poplar (Liriododendron tulipfera)
    24. 24. • Utilizes both MerA & MerB • Gives this plant more tolerances compared to another plant with only one (either MerA or B) • Detoxifying mechanism : Extracted >> Stabilised >> Volitilised • 40X more tolerance than Wild Variant • 10X more effective than MerB producing plantsArabidopsis thaliana
    25. 25. • Another species of Arabidopsis family is able to phytoaccumulate Arsenic. • Insertion of Ecoli genes arsC and ECS gene • Gave variant ability to accumulate, but still wasn’t effective • Sequestration mainly in roots, limited in shoot • Silencing of the ACR2 Gene • 16X increases in arsenic accumulation than regular wild variant. • A promising & sustainable solution to pollution along the Ganga Arsenic remediation
    26. 26. Detection of Landmines • Transgenic tobacco plant field tested to detect Landmines • Dubbed “RedDetect” • If there is a reduced form of TNT (DNT), reductase used • Unspecified gene will prompt production of anthocyanin. Induce red pigments
    27. 27. Conclusion • GMOs can be a greater benefit in pollution abatement • Improves pre-existing methods of remediation & abatement of pollutants • Heightens techniques or gives new sustainable treatment options • Preserve the eco-system as well as cohabitating humanity.
    28. 28. http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/photos/12-bizarre-examples-of-genetic- engineering/enviropig http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/photos/12-bizarre-examples-of-genetic- engineering/pollution-fighting http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/oct/16/gmcrops http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enviropig http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2590779/ http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/2151/genetically-modified-plants-detect- landmines?page=0%2C1 http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Plants_That_Can_Eat_Arsenic.html http://www.eplantscience.com/botanical_biotechnology_biology_chemistry/biotechnology/genes_ genetic_engineering/genetic_engineering_for_human_welfare/biotech_abatement_of_pollution.p hp environmental biotechnology, by alan scragg http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110414104211.htm http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/11na1.pdf http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1194896/Cows-bred-burp-reduce-potent- greenhouse-gases.html http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli-expressing-fusion- protein-green-fluorescent-protein-carboxylesterase-b1-easily-detected-environment-following- degradation-pesticide-residues/# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/max-microbes-realistic/515560