genetically engineered organism is an organism whose genetic material has been altered with the use of genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are usually known as recombinant DNA technology. It uses DNA molecules from different sources and combine them into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it the modified genes.
Egfp: PROTEIN THAT FLUORESCES after exposure to daylight( U.V EXCITATION). Requires just 02 to fluorescence and can be fused with many other proteins and stil fluoresce, making it ideal for monitoring GEM CAREB1: ENCODES ENZYME WITH STRONG ABILITY TO DEGRADE VARIOUS TYPES OF PESTICEDES AND INSECTICIDES. Emits green fluorescence
Broken down: Mineralized
American scientists have discovered a more efficient variant of the key enzyme involved in CO2 sequestration by plants during photosynthesis, the ribulose 1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO).
Both unaltered poplars and the genetically engineered variants produce enzymes that break down trichloroethylene. The modified poplars just generate a lot more of a key enzyme, and thus work far more quickly — breaking down the dangerous molecule into harmless byproducts roughly 100 times faster than normal plants. Trichloroethylene is a heavily used industrial degreaser that's made its way into groundwater because of improper disposal. TCE, the most common groundwater pollutant on Superfund sites, is a probable human carcinogen and causes various health problems when present in sufficiently high levels in water or air.
The transgenic poplars contain an inserted gene that encodes an enzyme capable of breaking down TCE and a variety of other environmental pollutants, including chloroform, benzene, vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride. eated genetically engineered poplar trees in the laboratory that can remove as much as 91 percent of trichloroethylene — the most common groundwater contaminant at U.S. Superfund sites — from liquids. Unaltered plants removed 3 percent. genetically engineered poplars were better at removing chloroform, a hazardous byproduct of disinfecting water; carbon tetrachloride, a toxic solvent; and vinyl chloride, a carcinogenic substance used to make plastics. In addition, in air pollution experiments using 6-inch (15-centimeter) modified poplars in sealed containers, the plants were better at taking up gaseous trichloroethylene and benzene, a pollutant associated with petroleum. "It is the first time that transgenic plants have been shown to remove airborne pollutants, providing a new approach to someday reduce the large threat posed by air pollution," Doty said.
Poplars use an enzyme called cytochrome P450 to break down contaminants. Trichloroethylene is turned into a harmless salt, water and carbon dioxideAfter Dr Doty's team inserted the gene into the tree from a rabbit they also produced P450, but at a much faster rate Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6ZnNXpy Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6ZbZQta There are concerns that mutant plants could spread, entering the food supply and threatening human health Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Mutants-or-saviors-Rabbit-genes-create-trees-1252614.php#ixzz1l6YcYewr
Eutrophication is a process in which bodies of water will receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive growth of algae. The two most common nutrients that initiate eutrophication are N2 and P3, two limiting nutrients in the growth of algae. These two nutrients are usually introduced to the body of water via fertilizer run-off. (mostly cost by human activities) The uncontrolled growth of algae depletes O2 due to respiration. The algae will cover the surface of the water, reduce the amount of light that can enter into the photic zone, decreasing photosynthesis in aquatic autotrophs. The decreased level of dissolved oxygen can result in the death of any number of larger communities. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_eutrophication#ixzz1l7P5WMt0
Farm animals, like humans, are healthiest when they eat certain foods. Pigs can digest grass, corn, cereal grains, soy and other plants. Pigs are often fed with cereal grains as rich in protein can make the pig fatter Phosporus is a nutrient that will help the pig to grow however the pigs are not able to digest the Phytate phosphorous in cereal grain. Since it is not digestable, it is excreted out in the manure of pigs. Pigs’ manure that contains phosphorus is used as fertilisers. When there is rain, some of the manure can be washed to the rivers, promoting algal bloom leading to eutrophication.
The Enviropig was developed by the introduction of a transgene construct composed of the promoter segment of the murine parotid secretory protein gene and the E. coli phytase gene. This construct was introduced into a fertilized embryo by pronuclear microinjection, and this embryo along with other embryos was surgically implanted into the reproductive tract of an estrous synchronized sow. After a 114 day gestation period, the sow farrowed and piglets born were checked for the presence of the transgene and for phytase enzyme activity in the saliva. Through breeding, this line of pigs is in the 7th generation, and the phytase trait is stably transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. An editorial entitled "Genetically engineered meat close to your table" was published with online video and audio explaining the digestive capability of the Enviropig.
Because phosphorus is the major nutrient enabling algal growth that is the leading cause of fish kills resulting from anoxic conditions, and reduced water quality, the low phosphorus manure from Enviropigs has a reduced environmental impact in areas where soil phosphorus exceeds desirable levels. Therefore the enviropig biotechnology has two beneficial attributes, it reduces feed cost and reduces the potential of water pollution. Furthermore, the technology is simple, if you know how to raise pigs, you know how to raise Enviropigs! save farmers money, eliminate the need to supplement the pigs' diet with digestible phosphorus So, what happens to the phosphorus that no longer ends up in pig poop? It ends up in pig meat, of course—and if you eat that meat, it ends up in you. While phosphorous is a necessary nutrient, it is a poison when taken in excess. The classic condition caused by excess phosphorous is phossy jaw, the destruction of the jaw bone, which is a symptom of a deranged metabolism and systemic osteoporosis. So, all that excess phosphorous ends up in people instead of pig poop. Of course, excess phosphorus is only the predictable health risk. As always with genetic engineering, the full range of effects is unknown. GM foods have already been documented to cause harm in animals, including
Health Risks So, what happens to the phosphorus that no longer ends up in pig poop? It ends up in pig meat, of course—and if you eat that meat, it ends up in you. While phosphorous is a necessary nutrient, it is a poison when taken in excess. The classic condition caused by excess phosphorous is phossy jaw, the destruction of the jaw bone, which is a symptom of a deranged metabolism and systemic osteoporosis. So, all that excess phosphorous ends up in people instead of pig poop. Of course, excess phosphorus is only the predictable health risk. As always with genetic engineering, the full range of effects is unknown. GM foods have already been documented to cause harm in animals, including Regulation of Enviropig If any safety testing has been done on Enviropig meat, we are not informed. If it has been done, it's been classified as confidential business information. The basis under which Health Canada approves GM products is not provided to the public. Therefore, we have absolutely no information on the effects of ingesting such meat—or even of the environmental effects. All we have is the hype.
The University of Guelph (UofG) already holds patents for Enviropig in the US and China. China is a massive pork user and supplier, and UofG is actively pursuing business relationships there to gain regulatory approval. Although the UofG applied for the FDA's approval of Enviropig in 2007, a search of the FDA site turns up virtually no information, other than references in a couple of talks. Is the FDA hiding Enviropig, hoping to slip it in behind genetically engineered salmon? In the meantime, HealthCanada has recently approved Enviropig for limited production. It is not yet in production for the food supply, but it appears to be merely a matter of time before it is. Mistakes Put Enviropig in Animal Feed Animal feed has been contaminated by Enviropig. In 2002, eleven piglets were sent to a rendering plant and became part of 675 tons of poultry feed, which ended up being fed to egg-laying chickens, turkeys, and broiler chickens. According to The Globe and Mail, the UofG's Vice President of Research effectively said, "Oops!" Things you don’t expect to happen can happen. This isn't the only occasion that GM pigs have contaminated the food supply. In 2004, GM pigs designed for Big Pharma by TGN Biotech became chicken feed by carelessness.
2) Hydrocarbons, Heavy Metal, Organotoxins. (which include pesticides such as DDT)
1) As specific plants or micro-organism
2. Usually thru enzymes at the roots
Cloned from Staphylococcus aureus
REMEMBER TO SAY ABOUT THE CONCERNS! THANKYOU ASHRAFFFF!!
The use of genetic engineered
organisms for pollution
Done by: Benjamin Wee
o The use of genetically modified
organisms to reduce :
• Air pollution
• Water pollution
• Soil pollution
o An organism whose genetic material has been
altered using genetic engineering techniques.
o Techniques Recombinant DNA technology : use
DNA molecules from different sources, which combines
into one molecule to create a new set of genes
o The DNA is then transferred into an
organism, giving it the modified genes
What is genetically
MICROBES AS POLLUTION
Microbes in the environment can be harnessed
via genetic engineering to combat pollution,
helping to preserve the environment
In regards to using microbes as a
air pollution control, they are
almost never released directly to
an polluted environment.
Instead, they can be applied to
systems engineered to combat
matter or biological
materials that cause
harm/discomfort to living
Also causes damage to
natural and man-made
environments and also to
the atmosphere itself.
Case Study: Genetically
engineered microbes in bio-
E, coli, a bacterium that causes food
With Genetic Engineering, a strain of
E.Coli BL21 can be implemented in bio-
filters to extract toxic pesticides,
parathion and methyl parathion from air.
Genes of to create fusion protein of
enhanced green fluorescent
protein(EGFP) and carboxylesterase B1
Cloned into Pet-28b vector , induced in
E.Coli BL21, with ability to degrade
environmental pesticides and easily
detected via fluorescence
spectrophotmetry, or ever by naked eye
Pesticides in Air past through bio-filter
with G.E E.Coli strain
Pesticides, including Parathion and
M.Parathion broken down to p-
nitrophenol as well as NO3 and SO2-
NO3 and SO2-4 by-products further
broken down by other naturally
occurring microbes present in
Average removal efficiency of 95.2% and
98.6% removal for parathion and
Optimized system= 100% predicted
Combating Air Pollution:
• If goal is to reduce air pollutants before
emission to the atmosphere, waste gas
purification system which utilize engineered
microbes can be used.
• Prime examples of such systems are
Bioscrubbers, Biofilters and Bio-trickling
A more natural means..?
• However, if these systems are not appropriate
to use in certain environments,
Rural Areas E.G Farms
Congested City Areas
Able to turn to less conventional methods, like
using engineered plants and even animals!
Less Flatulent Cows
Cows produce eye-brow raising amounts of methane – a result
of their digestion process, all produced by a bacterium strain .
Scientists have altered this strain to be more eco-friendly,
allowing for a more less flatulent breed of cows!
Methane Reduction: 25% per cow! Goes to
about ½ million cars being taken out with 12%
reduction per farmer Bob!
Carbon Reducing Plants
o Humans add about 9 gigatons of
CO2 to atmosphere.
o Usage of Genetic Engineered on
plants & trees that already have
innate carbon-reducing qualities,
amplifying their carbon reducing
o Able to transfer and store large
amounts of carbon into
underground root systems!
• Can be done via
RuBisCo enzymes that
have increased CO2
conversion ability into
• Up to 5-fold
Modified poplar plants break down trichloroethylene 100
times faster than unmodified poplar plants.
o Absorb groundwater pollutants through their roots
o Break down pollutants into harmless byproducts
that are incorporated into their roots, stems and
leaves or released into the air.
o Remove as much as 91 percent of trichloroethylene
o Remove chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and vinyl
o Remove airborne pollutants(trichloroethylene and
stick rabbit gene into poplar trees
rabbit gene also produced cytochrome P450 but
at a faster rate
Allows the poplars to break down the
o Gene might escape and incorporate into natural
Do you know that pigs can
also contribute to
• Phytate phosphorous in cereal grain is excreted
out in the pigs’ manure as the pigs cannot digest it
• Manure used as fertilisers
• Phosporus is the limiting nutrient of algal growth
• Uncontrolled growth of algal will cause
How are they different from
have a gene that allows them to
make phytase in the salivary gland
and secrete it into its saliva
Phytase breaks down phytate
phosphorus in the eaten food
Release of phosphate pig’s
Manure contains 30 to 60% less
How are they created?
Enviropigs(transgenic)= pig genes + E. coli genes + mouse
• Developed by introducing a transgene construct
composing of promoter segment of the mouse parotid
secretory protein gene and the E. coli phytase gene.
•Construct introduced into a fertilized embryo by
• The embryo along with other embryos was surgically
implanted into reproductive tract of a sow.
• After a 114 day gestation period, piglets were born &
checked for the presence of the transgene and for
phytase enzyme activity in the saliva.
reduce soil phosphorus (Reduce
Save farmers’ money $$
Enviropig Placed in Animal Feed
Regulation of Enviropig
“Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused
by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made)
chemicals or other alteration in the natural
soil environment.” – Wikipedia
Hydrocarbons, Heavy Metal, Organotoxins.
Contamination will or cause harm all within a
• Biotechnology alongside Genetic
Engineering is the sustainable solution
• GMOs are a sustainable solution thru
bioremediation of soil
• Organisms include
–Transgenic Plants (phytoremediation)
• Phytoextraction > removal of
contaminants thru accumulation
and storage in plants.
• Phytodegradation > absorption
and breaking down of organic
compounds by plant
• Phytostabilisation > stabilization
or reduction of toxic molecules
to less toxic substances
• Phytovolatilization > where
plant dissipate pollutants into
• No natural plant can degrade and accumulate
• Genetically modified Mouse-ear cress flower
(arabidopsis thaliana) & Yellow poplar plant
• The genes producing enzymes Mer A & Mer B were
• Mer A mechanism : reduces organic Hg to ionic Hg
• Mer B mechanism : Volatilise elemental Hg
• MerA producing gene implemented to yellow poplar
• More effective than the natural hyper accumulator,
Tabacco (as the control)
• Utilizes both MerA & MerB
• Gives this plant more tolerances
compared to another plant with
only one (either MerA or B)
• Detoxifying mechanism : Extracted
>> Stabilised >> Volitilised
• 40X more tolerance than Wild
• 10X more effective than MerB
producing plantsArabidopsis thaliana
• Another species of Arabidopsis family
is able to phytoaccumulate Arsenic.
• Insertion of Ecoli genes arsC and ECS
• Gave variant ability to accumulate, but
still wasn’t effective
• Sequestration mainly in roots, limited in
• Silencing of the ACR2 Gene
• 16X increases in arsenic accumulation
than regular wild variant.
• A promising & sustainable solution to
pollution along the Ganga
Detection of Landmines
• Transgenic tobacco plant
field tested to detect
• Dubbed “RedDetect”
• If there is a reduced form
of TNT (DNT), reductase
• Unspecified gene will
prompt production of
anthocyanin. Induce red
• GMOs can be a greater benefit in pollution
• Improves pre-existing methods of remediation &
abatement of pollutants
• Heightens techniques or gives new sustainable
• Preserve the eco-system as well as cohabitating
environmental biotechnology, by alan scragg