IMPORTANT: GET A READ ON YOUR CLASS EARLY. IF THEY TEND TO FOCUS ON DETAILS, INITIATE MORE PARTICIPATION. IF THEY DON’T WANT TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS INDIVIDUALLY, SPLIT THEM IN GROUPS TO DISCUSS THE QUESTION AND HAVE THEM PRESENT THEIR ANSWERS TO THE CLASS. IF THEY DON’T RESPOND TO THEORY, PRESENT A CASE THAT THEY CAN ANALYZE. FOR EXAMPLE IN THIS PRESENTATION, A SPECIFIC COMPANY AND THEIR MANAGEMENT STYLE AND WHY THEY ARE SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE OF IT. Good Evening, my name is ________. This evening, in our opening session for “Western Management Principles,” I will present to you “What Management Is.” This is an exciting topic for our first session – a favorite subject in a Master’s of Business curriculum. <<Tell a little about yourself and your background>> What’s noticeable about management is, we need to be constantly reminded about how to manage things. We go day-to-day and we forget the common sense theories about communication, understanding people, recognizing differences, learning to adapt, et cetera … Some or maybe most of these things, you know . But it’s easy to become complacent and forget these common management practices. Materials: Enough copies of both the 10-module outline, the module 1 questions for each student, and cards or paper for name cards for the desks. If without dry erase board, Blank flip chart and colored markers. Internet connection, computer, LCD and screen, and foil for management activity.
Now set the class ground rules about punctuality, participation and cell phones!! Be on time!! Please, at least, put your cell phone to vibrate and take your calls outside to not disturb the class discussion. Please participate! We definitely want to create a working dialogue . Two, three minds are better than one. PLEASE share your experiences – It’s how we learn. We all have strengths, and drawing from all these strengths is, in fact, an important managerial skill. The greatest manager, teacher or leader has the ability to bring all the great minds in one place to collaborate towards a mission, a vision, a common goal . Do not think that your experience is so common that everyone should know these things. In fact as individuals, bringing together uniqueness is what allows us to stimulate the mind. If you ask a question that no one can answer, we can work together to find the solution or possibly, one person will have the experience to share with us. Occasionally, we’ll have cases for you to collaborate in class on. For the last bullet point, keep in mind you don’t have to name names. If at any time you have questions, please stop me and ask.
This is the agenda for this evening. First, we will all give brief introductions and then go over the Syllabus. We will go into the definition of management. Next, we will define the types of management and talk about management theories and how each theory has an impact on those you are managing . Basically we will answer the question, “ What are some ways to manage in an organization ?” and of course, that’s really for you to decide . We will segway into motivation – an essential element in understanding management And then, we will get into one of the most important factors about management that distinguishes leaders from managers. Managing yourself. We will follow this with an activity to understand more about ourselves and group interactions. Finally, we will gather conclusions.
(Depending on class size) First of all, we’ll pair up with the person next to you and let’s share some things about your professional background. Tell one thing interesting about yourself. And, tell something we hope to learn through our classes. Ie. I’ve worked in 10 different countries including Ukraine and I hope to learn move about the cultural nuances and Ukrainian work atmospheres. Basically how we can draw upon the strengths of Ukrainians’ work that Americans can learn from.
(Depending on class size you can divide into twos or even individuals as well) First divide your class into groups of 4 or 5 people. Try to mix experience, personalities and ages. Now ask the groups what they believe management is and what a manager does . Give them 10 minutes to discuss it amongst themselves and then have a person from each group report back. Write them down on the board or flip chart. Check repeated items.
Ask specifically about experiences… Ie GOOD a director getting down in the trenches and working with the workers. Actually working in the warehouse and leading by example. Management “intangible” of having that presence of integrity and concern for workers. Always willing to help that you want to good work for him or her. BAD Being not accessible, being afraid to approach the manager. Power distance is far. Organization is centralized.
Definition focuses on efficiency and effectiveness. Examples: Time management. Strategizing to start a business, how to enter a market, evaluate an emerging market, or reinvent your organization through economies of scope . Facilitating a meeting or organizing a conference. Human Resource Management. Directing your organization towards your mission and coordinating events that emphasis goals towards this mission or vision such as bringing your organization to the common goal such as positive cash flow, the vision to help disadvantaged youth, providing quality service, or efficient production of goods. Giving status reports through e-mails, conference calls, meetings. Determining the cash flows or the net present value of companies worth and how you will get there.
A Politician, CEO, an ambassador What’s very interesting, informational roles is becoming prevalent through Information Systems Management. Even though Mintzberg came up with these roles in 1973 it still applies today. To Disseminate is to spread throughout Make new groups (partner with a new person) and have them discuss what different types of management styles there are and what are the ones they use. After 10 minutes, discuss and write them down. Now, what is the difference in authoritarian and participative management. After 10 minutes have them stay in groups.
Ukrainians will ask for details so provide real life examples and specify that this is a baseline for managers. Emphasize that everyone can have a successful management style and in the US, hard skill – Microsoft, GE and soft skill – Salesforce, Cisco (ie John Chambers cried when he had to layoff employees, but Cisco provides packages for around 2-3 years so that laid off employees can transition to other jobs more easily) MBCD - Managers see themselves primarily as employee trainers. MBC - Managers construct systems to allow for the individual input of employees. System of Input. MBI - Emphasizes communication and balance of male/female energy as well as integration of all human aspects (mental, emotional, physical and spiritual), creating an empowered, high-energy, high-productive workforce. Empowering. Emphasize communication, empowerment, high-energy MBWA - Managers walk around the company, getting a 'feel' for people and operations; stopping to talk and to listen. Sometimes known as Management by Walking Around and Listening (MBWAL ). This management style is based on the HP Way developed by entrepreneur Dave Packard , co-founder of Hewlett-Packard. Going to the Cafeteria. MBCE - Individuals and groups within the organization compete against one another to see who can achieve the best results. Microsoft’s Regional Sales. MBE - Managers delegate as much responsibility and activity as possible to those below them, stepping in only when absolutely necessary. Emphasize the fact that management doesn’t need to know. MBO - The organization sets overall objectives, then managers set objectives for each employee. MBM - Managers study charted variables to discern their interrelatedness, probable cause and effect, and available options. A good method of managing change is to rank by through matrices your priorities.
MBIS - Managers depend on data generated within the company to help them increase efficiency and inter-relatedness. Ie collect data on customers searching for an apartment in Ukraine to enhance service. To actually get a group of achievers or individualists together and to work in harmony and actually complete objectives is true leadership. Managing expectations and complacency applies to the organization, people, and yourself. Strategizing applies to the organization. A ideal way to manage expectations is strategizing. We can always have a certain goal in mind, but we must plan or strategize to get there. More details will be presented in the planning session. Managing complacency is a difficult subject. How to manage your organization’s apathy ? A simple method is delegating but I prefer to word it as “empowering.” ie. Delegating responsibilities to mechanics, electricians, et cetera. Trusting them to do their jobs and not belittling them. In your opinion, what style do you think is prevalent in Ukraine?
Country Club Management – these are people who take you out to dinner, ask you how you are doing, no focus on production, more social… Employees like this type of management only because it’s simply being with a bunch of golf buddies. But, there is no achievements. There’s no goals except being mostly social, contradicting the management definition of being an effective organization. Middle of the road management – not to be confused with middle management, although some middle managers can turn out to be this way. They are okay but not exceptional by no means. Where do you think middle management should fall on this chart? In the US, middle management is considered the backbone of the company. Task management – pure efficiency. No concern for people at all. Some might call Jack Welch, former CEO of GE, a task manager with his “10-70-20” rule. Form new groups to discuss delegation: Examples Is it difficult to delegate in Ukraine? Why is it difficult to learn to delegate?
Now, Abraham Maslow relates motivation directly to needs. Food, Water, Shelter. Security of Employment and Health Family, Friendship Respect of others, Self-Respect Actualization What does this have to do with management? Some people will be motivated to do their job, just from these needs… Now, the interesting thing is,
Once you reach the pinnacle of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, you begin to Face your conflicts, solve problems, think creatively.
Additionally, you become objective and ethical. You create strong relationships. What does this remind you of? A Great Manager.
Frederick Hertzberg, another famous management philosopher, says people are motivated by Motivators: Challenge Autonomy – freedom from external authority Intrinsic Interests Creative Opportunities
In Hertzberg’s eyes he clarifies that Pay Fringe Benefits or perks Relationship with co-workers Physical Environment Supervisor-Employee Relations Are Hygiene factors. Necessary but are not enough to sustain motivation.
Hertzberg’s conditions show that, for example, good pay with challenge and autonomy is the best situation, of course! But just a salary and no growth or responsibility can negatively affect motivation.
Moreover, when you have, for example, a great vision or mission in an organization but physical conditions are so bad that you cannot function, it is a condition of low hygiene and high motivation. Of course, low hygiene is a subjective topic so some can live with a low salary and minimal working conditions and not complain. Last of course, is the worst possible organization.
As for management suggestions to enhance motivation, Hertzberg suggest that management combats complacency with job enlargement. He says to empower workers as decision makers is job enrichment. He says to combat complacency and add growth is job rotation. All of these points are key to good management or an organization.
Myers-Brigg derived their research from Carl Jung, a Swiss Psychiatrist who worked with Freud. Please go to the website and take the test. Remember to answer what you would Really do in a situation NOT what you would want to do!! I’ll explain the letters to, basically, give us a better understanding of ourselves. (E) Extraversion or Introversion (I) the focus or direction or orientation of our behaviour - outward or inward ' Attitude ' or orientation (S) Sensing or Intuition (N) how we gather information Function (Jungian 'Irrational' or MB ' Perceiving ') (T) Thinking or Feeling (F) how we decide Function (Jungian 'Rational' or MB ' Judging ') (J) Judging or Perceiving (P) how we react to the world - do prefer to make decisions or keep open to options (and also which middle 'Functions' do we favour) Myers Briggs' added dimension equating to Jung's 'Irrational' and 'Rational‘
SP – entrepreneurs SJ – accountants, engineers NF – coaches, teachers NT – the Bill Gates’ of the world Guess what I am? In life, you need to become comfortable in what your personality is to become an effective “E” For instance, most actors are I’s. The difference between I’s and E”s is that I’s have to think about what they need to say before they say. Hence, a script for an actor is perfect for an “I” Again, what does this have to do with management? It’s all about understanding people. It’s all about knowing what will motivate people… Any of these people can be a leader in an organization. Jack Welch – ESTJ, Bill Gates – INTJ.
This is an exercise to test your management skills and how you interact in groups. You have 10 minutes to build the strongest or tallest tower. Do not give them more direction. Let them figure out what they want to do. Observe who takes initiative. Initiators are sometimes “SP” personalities or simply E-type personalities. The idea is to watch their reactions in groups. Are they serious? Do they rebuild the tower several times? Do they require more direction? Usually, this signifies J-type personalities. Are they very carefree? Typical of P-type personalities. Do they focus on designs or details? Common for S-type personalities. In MBA studies, the development of reading a person’s personality is emphasized as an important skill. Typically, interviews are show to illustrate different CEO personalities and how they are effective. You can also do this video exercise if the resources are available. More management or team building games can be found here: http://www.businessballs.com/teambuildinggames.htm
Some philosophers say the most important aspect of management is really understanding yourself first. Then, you can understand others. People will be motivated by your personality, your style of management, your philosophy on Leadership. Do you have the ability to lead? Just remember, leaders can take all forms. You don’t have to be in the forefront to lead an army. You can be a role player, you can be a role model, you can be a confidant. We will have another session that focuses on Leadership vs. Management, which takes these philosophies to a higher level of thinking… These are only a few of the Management theories than be applied to business.
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Western Management Practices Module 1 What Management Is
Class SuggestionsYou will be expected to share your experiences and ideaswith the class as a whole. We will learn from each other.The only «bad» question is an unasked question.Don’t feel uncomfortable asking questions - it’s how tolearn.We certainly intend to ask you questions.We will frequently ask you to read or work on ahypothetical business situation. These we call «cases». Wewill expect you to share your thoughts and ideas on thecases with the class.We may want you to discuss openly in the class issueswhich you we have experienced at your enterprises and/orclients. If this represents a problem, please, let us know.
AgendaIntroductionsSyllabusDefinition of ManagementManagement Styles and TheoriesMotivationManaging YourselfManagement ActivityConclusions
IntroductionsNameBackgroundSomething interesting about yourselfWhat do you hope to learn from ourclasses?
SyllabusFeb. 24th – guest speaker, CharlotteSiggins, a former city attorney from SanFrancisco. Has provided strategicplanning for several NGOs.March 3rd – guest speaker, Edwin Patout,
What Management IsWhat are some examples of badmanagement?What are some examples of goodmanagement?
What Management IsManagement is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.Management functions: Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating Reporting Budgeting (Gulick & Urwick 1937. Papers on the Science of Administration)
Management Styles and Theories: Authoritative vs. ParticipativeSoft-Skilled Management Managing by Coaching and Development (MBCD) Management by Consensus (MBC) Management by Interaction (MBI) Management by Walking Around (MBWA)Hard-Skilled Management Management by Competitive Edge (MBCE) Management by Exception (MBE) Management by Objectives (MBO)Managing Change Management by Matrices (MBM)
Management Styles and TheoriesManaging Resources Management by Information Systems (MBIS)Managing Leaders – “Real” LeadingManaging Expectations – StrategizingManaging Complacency – Delegating
MotivationMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Actualization Status (Esteem) Love/Belonging Safety Physiological
Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow writes the following of self-actualizing people: They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them. They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions. They are creative. They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus in their lives.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate life. They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and independent of external authority. They judge others without prejudice, in a way that can be termed objective.In short, self-actualization is reaching your fullest potential.
Hertzberg’s Two Factor TheoryMotivation Factors Include (in order of importance): Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth
Hertzberg’s Two Factor TheoryHygiene Factors include (in order of importance): Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary Relationship with peers Relationship with subordinates Personal life Status Security
Hertzberg ConditionsThe combination of hygiene and motivation factors can result in four conditions. High Hygiene / High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints High Hygiene / Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. "The job is a paycheck" situation
Hertzberg ConditionsLow Hygiene / High Motivation:Employees are motivated but have a lot ofcomplaints. A situation where the job isexciting and challenging but salaries andwork conditions are inadequate.Low Hygiene / Low Motivation: Theworst situation. Unmotivated employeeswith lots of complaints.
3 Management SuggestionsHertzberg suggested three ways that Management should rearrange work so that motivator factors can take effect: Job Enlargement - Giving employee a wider range of tasks. Job Enrichment - Giving the employee greater responsibility and scope to make decisions. Job Rotation - Rotating the work in which employees carry out.Job enrichment remains the key to designing work that motivates employees.
Managing YourselfUnderstanding yourself and othersMyers-Brigg Type Indicator – over 50 years ofResearch and nearly 5 million respondentshttp://www.keirsey.com/Ukrainian.htmlE or IS or NT or FJ or P